Intro to Psychology, Week 11 Notes
Temperament: Composed of behavioral styles and characteristic ways of responding in people Easy Temperament: In babies, they don’t cry as much unless they are uncomfortable (hungry or tired)
Difficult Temperament: In babies, they cry about almost everything. They cry to indicate their needs, but they have more needs than the average baby.
SlowtoWarmUp Temperament: These are cautious and reserved. They carefully observe and explore new environments, but once they are comfortable and “warmed up” they behave like easy temperament children.
Attachment: Affectional bond developed between a child and child’s caregiver. Scientists Who Studied Attachment:
Freud: Believed that babies developed attachment based solely on the need to feed. Harry Harlow: Believed that attachment may be based on more than food. In an experiment, Harlow took baby monkeys from their mothers and raised
them with a “mother” made of cloth and a “mother” made from wire. The wire mom held a bottle and the cloth did not. In the end baby monkeys spent more time with the cloth mother. They physical attachment makes the relationship different. We also discuss several other topics like What happens on jan 20th, 2017?
Ainsworth Strange Situation: Test created by Mary Ainsworth to observe child behavior when separated from mothers. How do children treat their mother when she is in the room, and how do they react when she leaves and comes back? Different Kinds of Attachment:
Secure Attachment: Children consider their mother to be the “home base”. These children will go play away from their mother, but will occasionally
revisit her and glance back at her. If the mother leaves, the kids will become upset, but they will become happy again and resume playing when she returns. Insecure/Avoidant Attachment: These children are sullen, lowkey, and calm. They are not outwardly happy or unhappy with mother. They become upset if the
mother leaves and happy when she returns, but they don’t outwardly show it.
Anxious/Ambivalent: These children show anxiety over mother leaving before she even leaves the room. If the mother leaves, they become furious with the
mother for abandoning them. When she comes back the children feel the need to hurt her by kicking or whatnot, but they also want the mother to be close to them.
Erikson’s Socioemotional Theory
Developmental tasks that happen as children develop. Overall there are 8 stages. These four below occur during early childhood. Don't forget about the age old question of What are x-intercepts?
Stage 1Trust vs. Mistrust: Birth1.5 years. Do children learn that people are generally good? Babies’ needs are often met, so they are trusting. Not all or nothing process. Babies should have more trust than mistrust.
Stage 2 Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 1.53 years (toddlers) At this stage children discover how to do things and make decisions on their own. However, it is also at this stage that kids may be told that they are not old enough to do things on their own (“you’re not old enough to eat that by yourself” or whatnot). It is at this stage kids learn independence or dependence.
Stage 3 Initiative Vs. Guilt: Preschool age, 35 years. Kids are actively seeking out new activities. At this age kids must also learn the concept of guilt. We also discuss several other topics like When is the the kkk of the 1920s reborn?
If you want to learn more check out What are primary strcutures?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the minus sign tells us?
Stage 4Industry vs. Inferiority: Children become more aware of themselves. They become aware of their grades, start becoming aware of what others may think of them, or worry that other kids are better than them. These children are usually of elementary school age.
Kohlberg Moral Development, 3 Stages We also discuss several other topics like What factors influence public opinion?
Stage 1, Preconventional: Morality is judged based on rewards and punishments for behavior. Stage 2, Conventional: Morality means acting as good members of society, based on the question “What will others think of me?”
Stage 3, Postconventional: Morality can transcend the law, such as in scenarios of stealing money in order to save someone’s life by paying for the medical care they need.