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Bio 361 Final Study Guide

by: Andi Sprague

Bio 361 Final Study Guide BIO 361-01

Andi Sprague
Cal Poly

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About this Document

Study guide for final exam, including information to aid in solving problem sets, and main diagrams and summaries.
Principles of Physiology
Liwanag, Heather Elizabeth
Study Guide
Principles of Physiology Bio 361
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andi Sprague on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 361-01 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Liwanag, Heather Elizabeth in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Principles of Physiology in Biology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
Bio 361 Final Study Guide: Osmoregulation: Summaries: -Nitrogen excretion gets rid of the end product (ammonia) of protein metabolism. -An osmoconformer maintains internal osmolality within a narrow range. -Animals that are hypoosmotic to their environment have lower solute concentrations compared to their surroundings. -Marine elasmobranchs have salt concentrations that are the same as, or slightly above, the seawater. -Marine amphibian kidneys do not reabsorb urea, whereas marine elasmobranchs reabsorb urea in their kidneys. Marine amphibians reduce urine volume instead to keep urea in body fluids. Elasmobranchs reabsorb urea to retain it in their blood. -Terrestrial reptiles cannot produce urine that is more concentrated than their plasma. -When there is alcohol in the blood, ADH levels are low. -The length of the loop of Henle determines the strength of the medullary gradient in the kidneys. -There are baroreceptors in the juxtaglomerular apparatus that help regulate blood pressure. -If the kidney excretes a substance, that substance ends up in the urine. -In terms of the relative amount of water required for excretion of nitrogenous waste products, ammonium requires more water than urea, which in turn requires more water than uric acid. -Choline cells in marine teleosts secrete salt by active transport; they are located in the gills. -The excretory organs include the liver, the colon, and the kidneys. -The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. -The macula densa in the distal tubule monitors filtrate osmolarity. -Regulation of blood pH by the kidneys is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. -The kidney produces the hormone erythropoientin, which is involved in regulation of red blood cell synthesis. -Reabsorption by the kidney involves the movement of substances from the blood to the filtrate. -The ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine is mediated by the hormone ADH and limited by the strength of the medullary gradient. Nephron within a kidney: Reabsorption or secretion Blood pressure regulation Osmoregulation in Teleosts: Osmoregulation in Mammals Thermoregulation: Terms: Poikilotherm- Temperature conformer Homeotherm- Temperature regulator Endotherm – Body temperature derived from metabolism Ectotherm- Body temperature derived from environment Allen’s Rule – Animals in colder climates have smaller extremedies Bergmann’s Rule- Animals in colder climates are larger Convection- Heat transfer between body and fluid (i.e. Wind chill) Conduction- Heat transfer between body and solid Raditation- Heat given off as light Evaporation- Both heat and water are lost. Summaries: -An ectotherm’s core body temperature is adapted to its environment. -Camels rely primarily on heat storage to maintain their body temperature while living in the heat of the desert. -Dolphins and whales utilize countercurrent exchange in their fins by surrounding cool veins with warm arteries. -Balanced heat equation: Heat production= Convection + Conduction + Radiation + Evaporation – Storage -The range of environmental temperatures in which an endotherm does not have to change its metabolic rate to maintain its core body temperature is called the thermos neutral zone. Thermoregulation in endotherms vs ectotherms: FINAL: -Use final study guide to aid in Problem sets 7 and 8 -Previous study guides for midterm 1 and midterm 2 attached – as final is CUMMULATIVE!! -Review all labs -Review problem sets 1-6 -Study all previous exam and quiz questions -Review notes from the entire quarter: Week by week lecture notes available at Study Soup ***Bring a calculator*** *Bring a pen GOOD LUCK STUDYING!!


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