Visions of the Universe
Visions of the Universe ISP 205
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Ms. Adrian Buckridge
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ms. Mckenzie Labadie on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISP 205 at Michigan State University taught by Jack Baldwin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/207720/isp-205-michigan-state-university in Integrative Studies Physical at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Study Guide for ISP205 Final Part B This study guide consists of6 of the most important viewgraphs from the lectures during the last two weeks of the course Some questions are asked on each viewgraph in blue italics You should know the answers lfyou don t I have given some short and cryptic answers on the final page of this Study Guide to help you get started towards figuring out more complete answers Just knowing what is in this study guide is NOT enough to get you a high grade in this course You are responsible for knowing about all of the topics l have talked about in class You should also review the lecture notes which are available on the web page reached by clicking the Syllabus tab on Angel and the previous midterms In addition after homework assignments 7 and 8 have been turned in I will place answer sheets in the homework folder on Angel Use the textbook to help explain the things that you don t understand as you look through all of this material Remember that specific references to the textbook are given in square brackets on the PowerPoint slides MY OFFICE HOURS including during finals week Mo 34 Tu 230330 Fri 45 in room 3270 BPS FINAL EXAM 810PM THURSDAY May 3 in Natural Resources 158 COURSE GRADES available on Angel by the Wednesday after the final I ll send all of you an e mail when they are ready Professor Baldwin The Principle of Equivalence General Relativity 1 A thought experiment falling elevators V Gravity 3 warping of spacetime 5 r g by the presence of matter 39 Q GTaVity actcleltl efiiISn Falling due No gravity does the ure below no gravity to gravity illustrate about the way Can t tell difference between gravity amp acceleration 193971 es gra Vity D 093 it or between freefall amp no gravity describe What We CUd see So any experiment should give same answer in either case In our aCtua 3D umverse or is it usin some sim ler Which of the folowmg are proofs that GR 9 analogy is a better description of nature than 39 Newton s laws Precession of major axis of Mercury s orbit Bending of path of starlight in Sun s gravitational eld Gravitational redshift of absorption lines from a White dwarf star Time dilation of clocks used in GPS satellites All of the above But What are these effects 97gt FIDO What do these ZD surfaces have to do with the 3D universe 9 I quot r 39 Ifwe were riding on 39 different raisins in the loaf r s of bread would we POSITIVE CURVATURE NEGATIVE cummTunE measure different things ZERO CUR39IIMTURE How did Hubble measure the The g What is expanding in the 7 dIstances used In hIs plot expand g un Verse39 How are the velocities measured Unlverse C What is the Hubble constant Ho Erma quot I Vquot o 396 V C A 33332 fr 7 73 I 1 I 30000 39 39 I 1 r O 1 It quot X 0 B a I 20000 39 Fa B I Ii I A a B I quot 39 Ioooo I I e Velocity gt I I I I I H Thour later Distance gt Which Universe Do We Live in Distance light travel time lookback time At I What does the Scale factor Rt measure What we can measure for supernovae Redshift Distance Age of Universe Scale of universe H What two quantities compete with each other in curves 13 men The shape of curve 4 indicates the presence of What additional quantity 736 11z 1 i 37 billion years39 Time The History of the Universe What are the various events I shown on this gure ABackgr un d Quark Soup I First Galaxies 1 OJ 3 OJ 2 C I q 0 OJ 5 I b 0 11339 Sec 1 Setond BOO CID Years 1 Billion Years 13 7 Billion Years Time Planck Formation I Galaxy NOW me Of H He Ll Formatlon What underlying phenomenon In at39on DeCOUPImQ 0f is driving all ofthe events CMB shown on the gure High density Low density Freezing out the forces Note that Dark Energy does not appear on this plot It is something different again Do scientists know what it is 1 See Fig 174173 Weak nuclear for 5 x10 5 now I a LIVE it 6173 I E J 15 ED 3K Theory of Everything Grand Uni ed Theory What does the term inflation refer to What in ated By a little or by a lot What are the 4 fundamental forces of today Did they always exist If not what caused the situation to change What is the Universe Made Of 25llll39llllllllll Illllllll accelerating i p 6 What causes curve 4 to swing upwards on the right half of the plot 1 20 E Supernovae Accelerating Universe 15 Q g 10 m Expanding Forever lt6 Q 05 clnsnd Cosmic Background Fluctuations Collapses 00 gt 39 back 05 10 15 20 25 Matter density 9 Both axes expressed as fraction of How do we know that Dark Energy eXIsts 73 Dark Energy 23 Dark Matter HOW do We kan that 4 Normal Matter Dark Matter eXIsts What is the Cosmic Microwave Background Why is it so important 2 reasons We infer these are there but we don r know what they are using E 1nc2 T his is the only part we see Study Guide for Midterm 3 Exam procedures Sit in assigned row as for previous midterms As before a seating chart will be displayed on the screen when you enter the room A personbyperson list of row assignments will be posted on the wall by the door PhotoID required Closed book closed notes No calculators cellphones etc Review Sessions Same times and places as for previous midterms go to either one 6PM on Monday April 6 in Giltner 146 8PM on Tuesday April 7 in BPS 1410 What to Know You should know about alof the things I have discussed in class This study guide just gives some of the high points Study your lecture notes first then use your textbook to help you understand your notes Contrary to what it used to say in the reading schedule we will not get to Our Galaxy the Milky Way 141 142 143 until after the midterm There will some questions similar to those on the homework assignments Some general ideas that you should understand What is the energy source of the Sun Of other stars How do we know what goes on inside of the Sun and other stars In what ways do stars change during their lifetimes What simple fact means that they mustevolve ie change their interior structure You should know what the HR diagram shows and why it is such an important tool in astronomy How do you nd the age of a star cluster What is the basic principle What are the three possible end states of a star s life What determines which end state befalls a particular star The basic ideas of General Relativity and the tests that show that General Relativity describes gravity better than does Newton s Law of Gravity The overall structure of our Galaxy and why it was hard to gure it out Some specific numbers to know Age of the Sun age of solar system 45 billion yrs Predicted lifetime of Sun s core Hburning phase 1011 billion years depends on exactly what you specify as the endpoint 0 Low density and pressure 104 01 X Earth s surface values But hot 5 8000 K 0 Granules in photosphere Tops of convection currents l mw no u nnn M Lnn L Transparent gas layer reaches 20003000 km above photo sphere T 500010000 K 0 Photosphere point we can no longer see through chromosphere Corona T gt 10000000 K 0 Very low density 103910 bar 0 Heated by magnetic energy 0 Several X diameter of photosphere Magnetic Fields Control Much of Sun s Surface Activity Force Motion of a charged particle around a magnetic B mag eld field line velocity r Magnetic 7 p QWQQ QQJQQQSEQJ Q QSquot quot B eld H Electron lines of I r 9 force g Sunspots 3 Cooler regions where lines of force enterleave surface Solar Wind 0 Charged particles with greater than escape velocity escaping through holes in magnetic eld Prominences 0 Charged particles following magnetic lines of force Flares 0 Magnetic field lines short out Huge burst of charged particles 1122 yr Solar cycle 0 Due to winding up of Sun s magnetic eld The Sun s magnetic field What Powers the Sun 0 Need to provide 4x1026 watts lt 2x1033 grams mass of Sun E mc2 gt 45 billion years age of Earth What does this mean 0 Nuclear lSlOl l reactions 4 X 1H 4He neutrinos energy Hydrogen 1H Helium 4He 10quotquot m gt 2 Protons 2 Neulmns Computer simulations of stars We can measure Computer models assuming Luminosity Made of gas Mass Neither contracting nor expanding Size Neither heating up nor cooling down Chemical composition Specify method of energy transfer 1 Internal structure Which nuclear reactions generate energy at what points Lifetimes The interior of the Sun Here s What we observe about stars The MassLuminosity Relation Hot The HR Diagram mom 0 Higher Luminosity Temperature Diameter quotstars 39 s k lt 23 39 39 17 Luminosuy LSM E 10 E E 1 10392 Main sequence is Whitediilarls 39 amass sequence Spedlalclass o 39 a I A I F G I K Su acelempevalurem 25000 10000 6000 3000 Color index 4 a o o o s 1 4 MAIN SEQUENCE Stars convert H into He in their cores Stars go through series of nuclear reactions Temp Predicted paths of stars on HR diagram mmn X LZUXIQV I5 50m mm Lifetime amount offuelrate of consumption 0 Massive stars have very short lifetimes 0 Old stars last a very long time Star clusters are snapshots of stellar evolution wwe M41 11 All stars in a given r mm 103 yrs old quot 1 39 cluster formed at same time 1 But with a wide range in 47 Tucanae masses 010 yrs old Main sequence turnoff Luminosity Lsun stars just finishing main sequence evolution mum mm mm sum m Surface temperatur T 5000 3000 To see how it all works look at httpWwwrnhhe 39 quotI Timur html r 1 http WWWparnsueducoursesispZOSsec lhrrnpg Stellar Evolution Here Evolution through Mass IOSS nuclear burning 39 Minitial gt 2MO Nuclear burning all gt the way to iron Mini allt 2M0 Nuclear burning Planetary shuts off after He nebulae burning Supernovae There Final state M nal gt 3M0 Black hole 14 lt Mfinal lt 3MltD Neutron star M nal lt 14MO White dwarf Planets around other stars 0 Star formation disks around stars 0 Planets form in these disks Over 250 known Usually detected through their effect on motion of the parent star Earth mass planet in habitable zone would be the real prize Why Lowest mass planet so far 3 Earth masses found by gravitational lensing What is grav lensing Kepler satellite launched few weeks ago will nd Earthmass planets with transit method 0 Planet periodically blocks light from star General Relativity Gravity curvature in space Photons planets etc follow shortest paths through curved space Analogy 2D bug on surface that curves into an extra 3rd dimension Einstein s starting point Equivalence Principle Can t tell difference between gravity amp acceleration or between freefall amp no gravity So any experiment should give same answer in either case Many proofs that General Relativity is the better description Curved path of starlight as it passes through Sun s gravitational field Precession gradual change in direction of major axis of orbit Mercury Time slows down in strong grav field even GPS systems are affected Black Holes Gravity so strong that escape velocity exceeds speed of light So light falls back Schwarzschild radius or event horizon radius around mass concentration within which light can no longer escape to outside Study Guide for ISP205 Final Review Session PRINT OUT AND BRING THIS STUDY GUIDE ASK QUESTIONS 6 PM Friday May 1 in Natural Sciences room 326 The nal will be 23 overthe material since midterm 3 to the same level of detail asthe midterms The other 13 will be over the material covered on the midterms mostly aimed at major concepts but you should know some obvious key factoids about planets such as their order out from the Sun their relative sizes the surface and atmospheric conditions on Mars and Venus This study guide includes several ofthe most important slides from the lectures since Midterm 3 Some questions are asked on each slide in blue italics You should know the answers If you don t I have given some short and cryptic answers on the nal page ofthis Study Guide to help you get started towards guring out more complete answers IMPORTANT Just knowing what is in this study guide is NOT enough to get you a high grade in this course You are responsible for knowing about all of the topics I have talked about in class You should also review the following material that is available on the course web site wwwpamsueducoursesisp205sec1 or on Angel the study guides for the three midterms the homework problems and answers I asked you the homework questions so that you would learn the answers andor how to solve the problems Hint hint the lecture notes since Midterm 1 Use the textbook to help explain the things that you don t understand as you review all of the above Remember that speci c references to the textbook are given in square brackets on the PowerPoint slides Also remember that there is a reading schedule that is part of the Course Syllabus which can be viewed from the Angel Lessons tab PROF BALDWIN S OFFICE HOURS including during nals week Mo 12301 30 Tu 10001 1 00 Fr 300400 in room 3270 BPS FINAL EXAM 35 PM WEDNESDAY May 6 in Anthony Hall room 1281 COURSE GRADES available on Angel by Wednesday May 13 I ll send everybody an email when they are ready The Milky Way Gas large fraction of stars in thin disk NIOOO LY thick Spiral structure globular V clusters Spherical halo 39 l 50 globular clusters Spherical distribution of stars I Nuclear bulge spiral arms 1000 lightyears 39 28000 lightyears I Globlar cluster 39 g39gbu39a39 C US E39S 4 Y in the galaxy s halo 100000 I39gmiyears What are the orbits like for stars and gas in the three different components Whatis the Hubble type of our Galaxy What are 85 galaxies What are ED and E6 galaxies I 2 TheAndromeda galaxyquot The Galaxy Originally all gas NOW 10 stars similar to our sun Stars are born evolve then die Material processed through stars 39 Galactic ecology A gas This is source of all chemical elements except Hydrogen H Helium He made in big bangquot Lithium Li How does this lead to the gradual buildup of the chemical elements heavier than Helium Where does star formation occur within our own Galaxy and other similar spirals The Cosmic Distance Ladder Parallax 300 pc 1000 LY Calibrate main sequence tting M3 1 Calibrate luminosities of Pulsating Variables Map rest of Milky Way 2500000 LY 2 and out to M31 L 47quot X F Measure luminosities of Blightest Stars 10000 LO 1001000 LY Brightest globular clusters 100000 LO Brightest H H regions 1007000 LO Etc can now measure distances to more distant galaxies Milky Way Also Hubble s law v Hod How do we measure v to plug it into Hubble s law How is H0 related to the age of the universe Why is it called a ladder What constitutes the rst rung What method was used to rst calibrate the position of the center of our Galaxy and then the distance to M31 Which distance determination method works out to the largest distances How is that method calibrated 3 DARK MATTER We expected falling Keplerian cuwe out beyond outermost luminous matter 0mm speed gt Dutunco hm mm gt Rotation wer or planwliku Marian large amounts of additional dark matter in outer parts of spiral galaxies Structures form due to gravitational attraction of dark matter massive particles moving slowly Faster orbital motions found in outer parts of galaxies Simulations cold dark matter BottomUp structure formation obs en39ed l l wlnmy unis expected Mat 2L7 J L 3 r1 mam rum ur Galaxy Observed a 9 expected ORBITAL VELOClTY 5 8 39 o 3 l5 can some 000 DISTANCE FROM CENTER 45030 50 Gravitational Lens in Galaxy Cluster AbellZZB Foreground cluster distorts images of numerous background galaxies Use to determine total mass of foreground cluster Shows that 85 of mass is Dark Matter Fig 1610 Learning the Properties of Dark Matter Tiny uctuations in Cosmic Microwave Background Supercomputer simulations of growth of Cosmic Web Today39s giant I bubbles of quot matter Why was it so hard to discover Dark Matter What does it mean when we call it dark What does it NOT do that other matter does do How do we know that the Dark Matter is there 2 basic methods What were the three general candidates for explaining Dark Matter one was ruled out by a gravitational lensing test What is meant by hot and col in terms of Dark Matter How do we now know that it is predominantly Cold Dark Matter And What does this plot show What are the measured structures like on different size scales What do these ZD surfaces have to do with the 3D universe 9 I quot r 39 Ifwe were riding on 39 different raisins in the loaf r s of bread would we POSITIVE CURVATURE NEGATIVE cummTunE measure different things ZERO CUR39IIMTURE How did Hubble measure the The g What is expanding in the 7 dIstances used In hIs plot expand g un Verse39 How are the velocities measured Unlverse C What is the Hubble constant Ho Erma quot I Vquot o 396 V C A 33332 fr 7 73 I 1 I 30000 39 39 I 1 r O 1 It quot X 0 B a I 20000 39 Fa B I Ii I A a B I quot 39 Ioooo I I e Velocity gt I I I I I H Thour later Distance gt There is The Universe I Fig 1616 I Curve 4 I Distance 9 Lookback time 2 q A A 7 billion yrs 5 g I d 1 h supernova ata E 8 f Curve 1 I 5 E 8 53 H 5 a 0 Ba a E R 39 2 E quot What is 8 this sketch U i i r I r l Showing 14130 1348 74 about the Pas behavior of Age Of timeinibiliions light as it iookback times for bllllon yTS based on apparen travels through an expanding What does the Scale factor Rt measure universe What two quantities compete With each other in curves 12 The shape of curve 4 indicates the presence of What additional quantity 7 The History of the Universe What are the various events I shown on this gure ABackgr un d Quark Soup I First Galaxies 1 OJ 3 OJ 2 C I q 0 OJ 5 I b 0 11339 Sec 1 Setond BOO CID Years 1 Billion Years 13 7 Billion Years Time Planck Formation I Galaxy NOW me Of H He Ll Formatlon What underlying phenomenon In at39on DeCOUPImQ 0f is driving all ofthe events CMB shown on the gure High density Low density Freezing out the forces Note that Dark Energy does not appear on this plot It is something different again Do scientists know what it is 1 I Theory of Everything Grand Uni ed Theory What does the term inflation refer to What 10 s g mm K in ated By a r little or by a lot 2 13 See Fig 173 5 x10 5 3 K now What are the 4 fundamental forces of today Did they always exist If not what caused the situation to change lllljlllltlllllltlll v What causes curve 4 No Bl Bang to swing upwards on the right half of the plot What is the Cosmic Expanding Forever Microwave 39 Background Why is it so important Cosmic Background 7 Fluctuations 39 2 reasons a I Energy depsity 9g 05 15 Matter density 39 l I r We mfer these are there but we don 39t know what How do we know that they are Dark Energy eXIStS 73 Dark Energy using E mcz 23 Dark Matter How do we know that 4 Normal Matter Dark matter eXIStS This is the only part we see
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