Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide psyc3250
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psyc3250 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Jung in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see psychology of early childhood in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Exam 2 Study Guide 03/13/2016 ▯ Creative development through the curriculum Creativity is more likely when person is creative, flexible and interested in investigation and exploration o Divergent thinking: brainstorming o Convergent thinking: narrowing ideas o Fluency: ability to generate many relevant ideas on a given topic in a limited time o Flexibility: the capacity to adapt readily to change in a positive, productive manner o Sensitivity: receptivity to external and internal stimuli ▯ Gardner- multiple intelligences o Linguistic o Mathematical o Musical o Kinesthetic o Visual-spatial o Naturalistic o Interpersonal o Intrapersonal o Existential o Spiritual ▯ ▯ A creative environment promotes new perceptions of and responses to the world Provide variety of materials and encourage imaginative use Help child develop awareness of patterns and relationship between what they create and previous knowledge ▯ ▯ For young children process is more important than results Encourage problem solving and various solutions Teacher= facilitator not problem solver Remark on process or creations rather than outcome Allow ample time blocks- term time in each activity Open ended materials- displayed orderly (shows possible combinations and conveys respect for materials) Safe storage place (shows their creativity is valued) ▯ ART Non- verbal expression o Theories of art development Psychoanalytic: art emerges from emotions and reflect feeling Finger-painting, clay, tempara o Perceptual: draw what you see o Cognitive: draw what you know- stages of development o Piaget: scribbling (2-4), pre-schematic (4-7) schematic (7-) o Developmental theory- advocate that children’s art develops naturally through universal stages Kellogg o Basic scribbles Placement patterns- 17 ways design is placed of paper Diagrams- 6 recognizable shapes (rectangle oval triangle cross x line) Combines- 2 simple diagrams Aggregates- 3+ diagrams Pictorialism- drawing recognizable objects ▯ MUSIC 2 years olds begin to gain control over their singing voices o Music should be included in early childhood curriculum to promote enjoyment o Can be used to support/ learn about different cultures o Focus listening- tempo, pitch, mood o Improves spatial-temporal reasoning, memory, math, phonological awareness, reading development For school age children products become more important than process ▯ ▯ Factors that decrease creativity Stereotyping Adult=right; child= wrong Always told or shown “how to” Replicating models Coloring books New technological toys Tv Technology Lack free play ▯ ▯ Chapter 10: Physical Development Traditionally physical development was seen from Maturation theory o Maturation, stages. Gessel o Growth charts 6 months= 18lbs 26inches Recently seen from a perceptual motor o Motor behaviors lead to cognitive abilities o Piaget On chest with head up sitting and supporting self standing holding onto something creeping/crawling walking when led standing/ walking alone Manual control development o Voluntary hand and arm movement o Reach for and grasp nearby object o Pincer grasp o Taking off own clothing, placing object inside each other, moving spoon to mouth, and scribbling Gross motor: skills involved in control of large muscles in legs, arms, back and shoulders needed for tasks like running, jumping etc. Fine motor: skills involved in using small muscles of fingers and hands o Growth is Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal Sensory-perceptual development: giving meaning to info gained by senses o Ballistic skills: throwing Motor cortex involved with voluntary movements Cerebellum controls movements of the arms and legs and helps with balance ▯ ▯ Early age infants reflexively grasp and hold objects but cannot let go at will o At about 9 months master pincer grasp o Grasp development Palmar tripod ▯ Include ALL senses in curriculum o Puzzles Legos—encourage hand-eye coordination o Explore new tastes through food o Make sure anything that may go into children’s mouth is safe (they will put anything into their mouth) o Tactile experiences and opportunity to verbally discrimination ▯ All movement experiences add to children understanding of what their bodies can do o Build confidence o Increases control of body ▯ Perceptual info= multisensory o Sensory integration: translation of sensory info in to intelligent behavior o Physical Fitness Children must have opportunities to move freely, use large muscles and engage in vigorous movement o Teachers often neglect gross motor development o Curriculum should include play, games, and sports ▯ Blocks o Very important o Versatile o Support all domains of development o By 3 =: children begin putting blocks together in more deliberate constructions o By6: representational—begin naming their creations Manipulative: increase fine motor skills o Puzzles o Bingo o Dominoes o Candy land o Construction toys o Legos o Lincoln logs ▯ Sensory activities are very important o Sand and water play Provide a variety of pleasurable sensory experiences o Colorful interesting object, pleasant sounds (music) variety of textures and tactile experiences (fingerprints) Object identification o Touch o Hearing o Smell o Taste Children can use sensory info to discriminate as they match, seriate or classify o Integration of info can be promoted through Cross-modal inter-sensory activity Nutrition education and cooking experiences should be included in curriculum o Cooking= multisensory o Health should be actively taught as part of curriculum o Explain allergies especially any found within the class ▯ ▯ Chapter 11: cognitive development ▯ Constructing different types of knowledge o Social Humans create (cultural) o Physical Properties of object (affordance) o Logic-mathematical Relation children form Logical fallacy ▯ Piaget (stage theory) o Active learning, construction of knowledge o Sensorimotor period (0-2) Dependent on senses 6 sub-stages o Preoperational (2-7) Symbolic representation Stresses reflective abstraction o Concrete operational (7-11) Conservation Behaviorism o Skinner o Programmed and direct instruction Information processing o Process used to transform info and relate it to other info o Enters through sensory register STLT Memory strategies o Rehearsal o Organization o Elaboration o Meta-memory- ability to think about ones memory Separate older kids from younger kids *Tools of the mind o Book o Based on Vygotsky o Promotes self regulation o Emphasizes the importance of play ▯ Cognitive tasks Classification: sort by commonalities Can distinguish between all and some o Seriation: place into sequence or order o Number concepts: more/less one-one correspondence o Temporal concepts: awareness of time as a continuum, sequencing o Spatial concepts: relate to object/ people as they occupy/ move through space (mapping) ▯ Foundation of math Grounded in concrete experience Recognizing number order 1-1 correspondence and knowing to count Understanding patterns and relationships Recognize shapes and their differences Spatial patterns Number operations Problem solving Asking questions Developing skills o Rote counting o Rational counting o 1-1 o Cardinality Subsidizing – just knowing o Perceptual and conceptual ▯ Science Natural endeavor for children Constantly exploring and asking questions Science should in incorporated into many classroom activities Bio- body parts, how/why bodies move like they do, senses, growth and change, comparing uniqueness, care for body, class pets, observe animal, field trips, study plants, needs of plant (light, water) growth cycle, connections to plants we eat Physical- o Physics: movement. o Chemistry: combine substances, cooking activities Meteorology: weather o Protecting the world- environmental education ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 12: Language Development Language: communicating by listening and speaking Literacy: communicating by print ▯ ▯ Theoretical View Behaviorist: learn language through positive reinforcement—Skinner Innatist: inborn factors are most important components— o Chomsky Start life with innate deep structure (understanding of underlying rules/ universal meanings across languages and develop surface structure (rules of your particular lang) Interactionist: Develops through a combination of inborn factors and environmental influences o Cognitive (piaget) v. social interaction (Vygotsky) ▯ Language development= cooing babbling words (2 years) Vocab increases rapidly Semantic- do they understand the words? Overextension Not until 3 year do kids begin to understand preposition start with “in” ▯ Language Rules Morphology: word rules Syntax: combination Pragmatics: social connotation **In programs that serve children whose first language isn’t English, acquisition of English proficiency is essential BUT also support developing and maintaining home language ▯ ▯ Spontaneous language: conversation, playing with language- rhyme, jokes, ▯ ▯ Language activities: interactive book reading, poetry, storytelling, reenactment, puppets ▯ ▯ Writing- ▯ Mock writing (about 3 years) invented spelling (early elementary) ▯ Reading- Environment print (road signs, logos) Literacy is best promoted when o High quality oral and print language are available o Child can observe others using literacy skills o Children are encouraged to experiment with all forms of language o Children are supported, modeled for, and there in mediation from more knowledgeable other (Zone of Proximal Development) ▯ Comprehension Vocab building Prediction Retelling ▯ Phonological awareness Rhyming Alliteration Segmentation ▯ Alphabet knowledge ▯ Print knowledge Direction Parts of a book ▯ Chapter 13: Social Development ▯ ▯ Theoretical views of socialization Constructivist o Use social cognition, active construction Behaviorist o Social learning, observation, modeling Vygotskyan o Scaffolding o Through language ▯ Emotional intelligence Involves language o Perceiving o Reasoning with o Understanding o Managing ▯ Peer interaction is an essential ingredient in childhood socialization ▯ Distinct separation based on gender is evident before children reach 3 Before 2 children identify themselves along gender lines ▯ Children should be taught about different cultures- value all Window and mirror—realistic portrayal of all “types” of people ▯ Transition from infancy preschool is important for laying moral foundation Differentiate between universal interpersonal moral rules and culturally specific conventional moral rules ▯ ▯ Piaget- young children focus on outcome NOT intention Kohlberg- 3 levels o Preconventional: personal preference; avoid punishment o Conventional: group approval o Post-conventional: independent moral principal William Damon o Relation to authenticity and FAIRNESS o Imaginary games- promote social traits that cooperation o Most children engage in pretend play naturally Use games to promotes cooperation ▯ Parten’s stages of play Solitary play Onlooker play Parallel play Associative play Cooperative play (goal orientated) ▯ ▯ Development of social competence Peer interactions o Mixed aged grouping o Friendship Non sexist teaching Non racist teaching ▯ Chapter 15: Guiding Social Behavior ▯ Prosocial behavior is most likely to appear in children who live in a nurturing environment and are modeled understanding/ caring responsibility and expected and inductive reasoning is used o Inductive reasoning= when adult uses logic/ reasoning to help child see consequences of a behavior o Internal control is critical- child does what is right because it is right and not because they fear punishment ▯ Philosophies of guidance: Dreikur’s: o 4 underlying goals of misbehavior: attention, power, revenge, and inadequacy. Instead of rewards/ punishment parents/ teachers should use encouragement and logical consequences Gordon o Focused on mutual respect and acceptance o Who “owns” the problem Behavior management o Based on the notion that children’s behavior can be changed by changing the environment Positive reinforcement Ignoring, time out ▯ Techniques of guidance Reinforcement Effective praise (process) Attention (unconditional “special time”) Ignoring (only works if attention from teacher WAS reinforcing) Time out (only for reoccurring behavior) Prevention (steps in when see a potential issue) Redirection Discussion o Be sure children understand Rules Children may misbehave if they don’t feel well Children may have undetected sensory deficit ▯ Temperament Changes in home life (divorce remarriage, siblings, pet, business) Aggression should never be tolerated or ignored Shyness is of great concern to teachers- miss out on opportunity ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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