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by: Bailey Souaid


Marketplace > University of Miami > Sociology > SOC 101 > Soc 101EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
Bailey Souaid

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Soc 101 w Samson CHAPTER 7-9 Study guide
Intro to Sociology
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Souaid on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101 at University of Miami taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
Chap 7  A student with highly educated parents who pass their value of education on to her is an example of that student acquiring what Bourdieu called cultural capital. Cultural capital refers to people’s tastes, habits, and expectations that are relevant to class  standing and are often passed down in families. Weber would argue that a person who belongs to an exclusive country club would belong to a  higher social class due to that membership’s prestige.  The prestige of the membership helps enhance that person’s class standing. When a woman marries a man who is similar to her in education level and social class  background, she is practicing homogamy.  Homogamy refers to the "birds of a feather flock together" phenomenon. It is not solely about  marriage or romantic relationships. A person from a lower socioeconomic status who is unaware of a job opening that is only posted  on the internet is an example of the impact of the digital divide on social mobility. The digital divide refers to the idea that as technology becomes more important, those who have  greater access to and familiarity with it will enjoy ever greater advantages. The stratification system in India that is based on hereditary and allows little to no opportunity  for movement between strata is caste system. A man who has his PhD in sociology, yet continues to work as a cabdriver, is an example of  status inconsistency. In this case, the man’s education does not match his occupational status or income. The term that sociologists use to measure an individual’s place within a social class system is  called socioeconomic status. Which of the following is true concerning slavery? Slavery is the most extreme system of social stratification. Although slavery still exists in some places, it is illegal everywhere. The United States, where social mobility is possible, is perceived to be an open system.  According to popular views of the United States, anyone who works hard can attain high levels  of success. Which of the following is true concerning socioeconomic status and life chances? People from lower classes are more likely to be the victims of violent crime. Which of the following is one of the basic principles of social stratification? It is maintained through beliefs that are widely shared by members of society. During the Great Depression, large numbers of people dropped down in social class standing.  This is an example of structural mobility. In this case, the movement took place in a single generational grouping, so it is intragenerational. Children who are able to attain more education and a better­paying job than their parents are  experiencing intergenerational mobility. Intergenerational mobility is movement that happens between generations, as when children do  better or worse than their parents. If movement happens within only one generation, as in when  one person starts a career with high standing but is fired and can only obtain low­paying work, it  would be intragenerational mobility. In 2009, the Census Bureau defined the poverty line as $17,100 for a family of three. The American Dream legitimizes social stratification by reinforcing the idea that everyone has  the same chance to succeed and success or failure is completely determined by the  individual person. The first three answer choices emphasize structural or social factors, while the fourth choice is a  purely individualistic explanation. A single mother living on the streets with her two young children who does not have the means  to provide adequate food and shelter for her family is experiencing absolute deprivation. Because her basic needs are not met, she is experiencing absolute, not relative, deprivation. The geographic isolation of the poor from other parts of the city is called residential  segregation. The movement of individuals or groups within the hierarchal system of social classes is called  social mobility.  The "Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three­City Study" research has found moving from  welfare to work is only mildly positive for families. Income rose only slightly for families that moved off welfare. A system in which rewards are distributed based on achievements is a meritocracy. A woman who works on an assembly line on the floor of a factory has a blue­collar job. Most jobs involving physical labor are considered blue­collar. The division of a society into groups arranged in a social hierarchy is called social stratification. The tendency of social classes to remain relatively stable as social class status is passed down  from one generation to the next is called social reproduction.  Which theorist was concerned about the new kind of social inequality that was emerging  between the owners and the workers? Karl Marx The belief that entrenched attitudes can develop among poor communities and lead the poor to  accept their fate is called the culture of poverty thesis. Chap 8  Why does the text argue that African American women may be particularly sensitive to the  interracial relationships of African American men? Because of the relatively limited number of eligible African American men due to their higher  rates of incarceration and early death. A socially defined category, based on real or perceived biological differences between groups of  people, is called race. The deliberate and systematic extermination of the Tutsis in Rwanda by the Hutus is an example  of genocide. Genocide refers to the deliberate extermination of a group. In the early nineteenth century, the U.S. government forced Native Americans to move onto  reservations. This is an example of population transfer.    According to the textbook, which of the following is true concerning minority groups? The members of a minority group are systematically denied the same access to power and  resources available to the dominant group. The economic and political domination and subjugation of a minority group by the controlling  group within a nation is called internal colonialism.  The unequal treatment of individuals because of their social group is called discrimination. Life chances= Weber  The celebration of St. Patrick’s Day, including eating traditional Irish foods, would be an  example of symbolic ethnicity. In this case, ethnicity is deployed only in a particular context; it is not generally relevant to daily  life. The elements of our identity that are generated through others’ perceptions of our physical traits  are called embodied identity.   The Amish would be considered an ethnic group.  The Amish are considered to have a shared cultural tradition and background. Which of the following is true concerning functionalist theory and the study of race in the United States? Functionalism explains how prejudice and discrimination develop by focusing on group  cohesion. Since functionalists tend to look for positive functions served by any practice, they suggest that  the idea of race can help bolster group cohesion among those considered to be in a particular  race. A college professor who assigns a student a lower grade than she earned simply because of that  student’s race is guilty of individual discrimination.  The discrimination is individual, rather than institutional, because the professor is making the  decision on her own, not following a rule or policy. Light­skinned African Americans who attempt to live as white in order to avoid the  consequences of being black in a racist society are practicing racial passing. Passing refers to blending in as a member of the dominant or privileged social group. An ethnic identity that can be either displayed or concealed depending on its usefulness in a  given situation is called situational ethnicity. According to the text, what country is described as an example of successful multiculturalism? Canada  Which of the following is true concerning conflict theory and the study of race in the United  States? Conflict theory explains how prejudice and discrimination develop by focusing on the  differences in power and economic resources of ethnic groups.   A country club that does not allow any African American members is guilty of institutional  discrimination.  In this case, the discrimination is the policy of an institution and is not just about an individual  member of the club behaving in a discriminatory way. The formal and legal separation of groups by race or ethnicity is called segregation. Which of the following is true concerning race and ethnicity? The meanings attached to race and ethnicity are created, maintained, and modified over time  through social processes.   What is the key distinction between symbolic ethnicity and situational ethnicity? Situational ethnicity involves a cost­benefit analysis that symbolic ethnicity does not. The pattern of intergroup relations that encourages racial and ethnic variation within a society is  called pluralism.  Which of the following groups has the shortest life expectancy? African­American men What process is the central idea behind America’s "melting pot"? Assimilation  In assimilation, a minority group is absorbed into the dominant group. A socially defined category based on common language, religion, nationality, history, or another  cultural factors is called ethnicity. Which of the following is true of affirmative action and college admissions? The Supreme Court has ruled that quota systems cannot be used in college admissions. Chap 9  Which theoretical perspective generally believes that there are still social roles better suited to  one gender than the other? Functionalism  The fact that men who hook up with several different women are praised with the primarily  positive label of "player," while females who hook up with several different men are chastised  with the negative label of "slut," is an example of a double standard.  While the behavior is the same, different standards are applied to men and women. Women earn about 77 percent of what men do. The economic pattern that women are more likely than men to live in poverty is called the  feminization of poverty.  When a woman who works a full time job must also prepare the meals for the family and care for the children at night; she is experiencing what sociologists call the second shift.  The second shift refers to the work of taking care of a home and family, which usually falls more on women than on men and is usually unpaid. The theory about gender identity and sexuality that emphasizes the importance of difference and  rejects as restrictive the idea of innate sexual identity is called queer theory.  According to the textbook, most mainstream sociologists use a constructionist approach to  gender. Most sociologists argue that gender roles vary across societies and over time. Newborn baby girls being given pink sleepers is an example of gender role socialization.  Gender role socialization begins almost immediately after birth. According to Talcott Parsons, the position of the family member who provides emotional support and nurturing is called the expressive role.  To Parsons, women were better suited to the expressive role. Which of the following is true concerning sex and gender, according to the textbook? Gender and sexuality may be based in physiology, but their meanings are constructed in social  settings. According to the textbook, what is feminism? The belief in the social, political, and economic equality of the sexes, and the social movements  organized around that belief.  Which theoretical perspective emphasizes how gender is socially constructed and maintained in  our everyday lives? Symbolic interactionism What was the cause most identified with the first wave of the women’s movement? The right for women to vote.  The term describing an individual whose sense of gender identity is at odds with her or his  physical sex but who has not necessarily sought sex­reassignment surgery is transgendered.  Transsexual, is more frequently used to describe those who have had sex­reassignment surgery. The inclination to be heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual is called sexual orientation.  Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, or queer (LGBTQ) youth are four times more likely than  heterosexual youth to have attempted suicide.  Which theoretical perspective believes that men have historically had access to most of society’s  material resources and privileges and sought to maintain their dominant status? Conflict Theory  Which of the following is a sign of gender role socialization that occurs in schools? When they do perform well, girls are typically credited for hard work rather than intellectual  ability. The men’s rights movement argues that men are actually discriminated against and even  oppressed in both the legal arena and in everyday life because of feminism. According to the textbook, why is the term "homophobia" problematic? It implies that the problems faced by gays and lesbians are the result of a few maladjusted  individuals rather than the product of deeply institutionalized cultural values and norms. An essentialist sociologist would believe gender roles have a genetic or biological origin and  therefore cannot be changed. Answer choice C reflects the view that gender is essentially determined by biology. An individual who has an abnormal chromosomal makeup and mixed or indeterminate male and  female sex characteristics is called intersexed. Which of the following is one of the successful reforms achieved by the second wave of the  women’s movement? Legislation against sexual harassment and marital rape In Native American cultures, which of the following would be an example of a berdache? A male who dressed as a woman and took on tasks such as cooking and cleaning Berdaches are those who, in Native American societies, do not fit neatly into a man/woman  category with the standard masculine/feminine alignments of our society. Which of the following is true concerning family and gender role socialization? Gender often plays a role in the chores or privileges girls and boys are given. 


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