Comm 162 Final Study Guide
Comm 162 Final Study Guide Comm162
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Evans on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Comm162 at Stanford University taught by Shanto Iyengar in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Campaigns, Voting, Media in Communication Studies at Stanford University.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Comm162 Final Study Guide 3142016 Key themes Candidate Press Strategy CONCEPTS Press Strategy Free exposure through media coverage Paid Strategy Paying for advertisements Issue Ownership Candidates focus on issues that they have an advantage in Primacy effect Early messages have greater impact than later messages Targeting focusing advertising efforts on who it will matter to most 0 Downs s median voter theory and convergence hypothesis In a two party system both parties will converge because everyone will pander to the median voters clustered in the middle But obviously this has not happenedD READINGS Simendinger amp HueyBurns Digital Strategies Fuel 2016 Campaign Launch Decisions Digital Strategies are the engine rooms of political campaigns Ansolabehere et al Candidate positioning in House elections Congressional candidates have primarily espoused the ideology associated with the national party with little accommodation of local ideologies In districtby district competitions there is more pressure on candidates to fit in with their constituents Hall What happens when extremists win primaries Nomination of an extremist in a primary election the party s general election vote share decreases as does the probability that the party will win that seat Petrocik Issue ownership in presidential elections Democrats have an advantage with social welfare and intergroup relationship issues Republicans have an advantage with issues related to taxes spending and the size of government Performance issues such as the conduct of government officials the state of the economy or the country s status and security among other nations are not automatically owned by a single party but can provide an advantage to a candidate when events official behavior and policy successes and failures allow the candidate to claim credit for good times or blame the opposition for bad times Ansolabehere and Iyengar Riding the wave and claiming ownership over issues Candidates gain the most from advertising on issues over which they can claim quotownershipquot There is no evidence that synchronization between advertising and news coverage affects voters Horowitz End of an era Clinton media strategy may be due for an overhaul Auletta The Hillary show Hillary has a famously defensive relationship with the press but she may need to change this strategy to win the presidential election Advertising Strategy CONCEPTS Biographical ads ads that tell the story of a candidate s life they usually emphasize hardship and deemphasize wealth Image vs Issue ads Image ads focus on competence integrity or the average guyquot appeal These ads are not substantive and are meant to develop likability Issue ads focus on performance or policy points Performance Voting Voters evaluate candidates based on their performance Peace and prosperity are indicators of performance but the 1 key indicator is unemployment Gender ownership An extension of issue ownership women might be better on healthcare and education because they are seen as caretakers nurturers But women would be seen as soft on crime and national security Wedge appeals Involves advertising based on values rather than issues Wedge appeals are meant to target certain groups of people like using race to persuade voters decision Negative advertising Attack ads against the opposing candidate are increasingly common READINGS Messing et al Bias in the Flesh Skin Complexion and Stereotype Consistency in Political Campaigns Darkerskinned images were more frequent in negative ads especially those linking Obama to crime which aired more frequently as Election Day approached Issenberg Death of the hunch Obama campaign s quotexperimentinformed programsquot known as EIP are designed to track the impact of campaign messages as voters process them in the real world This is a cool new use of technology and controlled experiment techniques to evaluate hundreds of variables Diamond Obama lines go straight into GOP attack ads Lines from Obama s speeches are used against Democrats by Republicans Simon Duck or Punch Dialogue in a California Gubernatorial Election Clear dialogue does not win This election exemplifies a clash between two different approaches to campaigning It pitted Brown s more traditional campaign style against Wilson s more contemporary approach Brown was dedicated to creating dialogue while the Wilson candidacy was dedicated by its own admission to shaping an agenda favorable to Pete Wilson s electoral returns Geer Fanning the Flames Changes in the behavior of the news media have helped to fuel the rise in attack politics Because journalists have become more adversarial negative ads get more coverage Effects of Political Campaigg CONCEPTS The Reinforcement Effect Exposure to campaigns strengthens people s prevailing political loyalties 9 the data is really strong on this Dial Studies Used to measure people s reactions to ads People tend to make their decision within six seconds Convention Bumps When support shoots up after the RNC and DNC conventions This happens in both parties Name Recognition Campaigns are really good at increasing people s awareness of the names of people running for president Trait Opinion The development of a candidate s image Policy Placements This is the highest level of learning that campaigns seek to achieve They are not very good at this though VEP vs VAP Voting Eligible Population vs Voting Age Population The difference is some people are of age to vote but not eligible like people in jail Using the VEP vs VAP to determine voter turnout can skew results Voter ID laws Laws that require voters to show ID discourage poor voters READINGS Abramowitz Forecasting the 2008 Presidential Election with the Timefor Change Model There is no disconnect between the political elite and the public The deep partisan divide in Washington re ects a very real and very deep partisan divide within the American electorate LewisBeck and Tien Obama fortune rises in Iuly Nowcast Prediction error makes it impossible to tell who will win the election Silver Models Models Everywhere There are a lot of different models to predict who will win an election The permanent campaign CONCEPTS Revolving door There is an easy transition between being in a candidate s campaign staff and being in the White House Staff because the President just appoints these positions Kitchen Cabinet The role of the Cabinet positions has become diminished so the president relies more on the Kitchen Cabinetquot or the people close to the president who advise him or her Press Secretary In charge of holding daily press meetings But this position comes with contradictory expectations The White House expects the Press Secretary to exert the maximum in uence over the media but journalists expect the Press Secretary to be an honest broker Communications Director Usually pulled from someone who worked on the campaign They come up with the bigpicture strategy for what the White House will present to the press Two Presidents Theory On domestic policy the president and congress are competing But on issues of foreign policy and especially defense everyone defaults to the president Press Conferences The number of presidential press conferences is declining because they create too much opportunity for criticism Instead there is a more decentralized press strategy The President travels and capitalizes on local coverage Fire Extinguishing Strategies Ways to manage criticism or media crisis For example the President might appear for a one on one interview with a prominent journalist Committee Hearings These are ways for Congress to get publicity Committees schedule public hearings where people sometimes celebrities come and testify to put focus on major issues Rally Phenomenon People rally around the agquot during times of crisis They become more patriotic and put their trust in the administration Bargaining Cutting deals between democrats and republicans Threatening Threatening your opponents if they don t go along with your policy This is more common now Posturing White House takes a position and threatens to engage in high profile media campaigns aimed at opponents READINGS The Atlantic Admit It Political Scientists Politics Really Is More Broken Than Ever Polsby Consequences of Party Reform Ch3 Consequences for Governing The relations between President and people are still powerfully mediated so it seems although by somewhat different processes and agencies than before Presidents likewise still need interest groups and must build coalitions among them to govern successfully This is not to suggest hower that the processes of intermediation have escaped the consequences of political reform
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