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Insects, Global, & Sustain

by: Angelita Tillman

Insects, Global, & Sustain ISB 201

Angelita Tillman
GPA 3.84

Gabriel Ording

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Gabriel Ording
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angelita Tillman on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISB 201 at Michigan State University taught by Gabriel Ording in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/207788/isb-201-michigan-state-university in Biological Sciences at Michigan State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Test 3 Study Guide Climate Change Global Warming 0 Greenhouse effect 0 Natural Process 0 Allows to warm the planet radiationwave lengths converted to heat 0 Becoming thicker which keeps more and more heat from escaping into the stratosphere which leads to cooling 0 Water vapor H20 I Increased rates of evaporation I Cooling Towers 0 Carbon dioxide C02 I Burning of Fossil Fuels 1 I Deforestation I Forest Fires 0 CFCs at the poles caused by wind currents polluting more there 0 Methane CH4 I Livestock I Rice Paddies I Melting Permafrost o Nitrous oxide N20 I Inorganic Fertilizers I Deforestation I Burning of Fossil Fuels 0 Causes of GH I C02 water vapor methane and other gases absorb infrared radiation 0 Albido Effect Re ection of Solar Radiation 0 Ice Cover re ects 0 Cloud Cover re ects 0 Water Absorbs 0 Lake Effect 0 Evaporationgt moist air gt hits cold temperature coast gt snow and precipitation 0 Causes of GW o Interplay of Natural and Anthropogenic in uences are leading to increased global mean temperatures 0 Impacts of GW 0 Increasing Temps 0 Change in Local Climates Shift in Biome Distribution 0 Predictions associated with GW 0 Arctic and Global Temps increase 0 Species distribution changes and Extinctions 0 Changing Species Phenology Timing o Intensified Global Weather Patterns I Droughts I Heat waves I Floods OOOOOO Severe Weather Patterns Melting Permafrost C02 and Methane Released Disease Global Warming actually leads to Stratospheric COOLING This can exacerbate the destruction of Ozone Receding Alpine Glaciers Glacial runoff provides water for 15 billion people mostly in South America China and India Melting Ice Caps Rise in I sea level Water expands as it warms More ifice caps melt and recede 23 of the world s population lives within 150 km of a coastline Mass Migration Limited Space and Resources Con icts and War Ocean water cools becomes denser and sinks to form a powerful deep southward current Ocean releases large amount of heat to atmos o Airline Travel 9 Increased SPMs over N Atlantic 0 0 Cause I Solutions to GW Global Cooling Increase emissions of particulate matter Specially designedjet fuel Build large screens in space to block suns rays Break off chunks of ice shelf 0 Carbon Sequestration 7 pulling C02 out of atmos and putting it somewhere else underground Chemical Conversion 7 CO 9 MgCOg Biomass Conversion Develop methods by which to increase the rate of Photosynthesis Oceanic Photosynthesis Stimulation Limiting Abiotic Factor IRON Collect and deposit products Less people and less fa1ming leads to less C02 0 Reduce GHG Emissions Biomass Conversion Collection METHANE Reduce Rice and Beef Consumption Carbon Dioxide Reduce Burning of Fossil Fuels Carbon Rights Kyoto Protocol Green Taxes Full Cost Pricing COz concentrations are larger in the Northern Hemisphere where 95 of the fossil carbon is released and the NorthSouth difference has grown in parallel with emissions Carbon Isotopes o The Precautionary Principle I The moral and political principle that suggests that if an action or policy migl1t cause severe or irreversible harm in the absence of scienti c consensus that harm would NOT result the action or policy should be modi ed 0 Feedback loops associated with GW 7 some activity results in something else which causes the original one to become enhanced 0 Melt of PF gt to incr Methane and C02 gt GH emissions gt GW gt decr Ice cover gt decr Albedo 0 Temp incr gt incr reproductive speed gt more transmission of malaria Bad Ozone Ground Level Air Pollutant Damages Plants Reduces Photosynthesis Good Ozone Stratospheric Ozone 0 Signi cance o If compressed the relative thickness of ozone in the stratosphere o Shields Planet from harmful UV Radiation 0 Remember Ozone Formation Catalyzed by Sunlight o Destruction is enhanced by colder temperatures 0 Results in seasonal thinning of Ozone at poles Coriolus effect 0 Problems associated with it o CFCs 7 Chloro uorocarbons o A single CFC can convert up to 100000 molecules of ozone o Takes up to 20 years to rise up to Stratosphere o Freon Coolants Refrigerants Aerosol Spray Cans Cleaners Foam Packaging 0 Bromine 0 Wind Currents Tend to Concentrate Ozone Depleting Substances Near Poles 0 Causes of the problems 0 Resulting impacts 0 95 of harmful UV Rays Prevented o UVA 7 Skin Aging 0 UVB 7 Cancer 0 Ozone Thinning Impacts o Suppressed Immune System Skin Cancer Cataracts Damages Terrestrial Plants Reduces Photosynthesis Reduce Crop Yields Single Celled Organisms Aquatic Ecosystems 0 Solutions 0 Phase out use of CFCs and other Ozone depleting substances o 1987 7 Montreal Protocol 0 1992 7 Copenhagen Protocol Insects and Diseases 0 Different types of Insect Vectored Diseases 0 Malaria I More difficult to control than other insectvectored diseases I Complex life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum o The plasmodium parasite that causes malaria attacks red blood cells Anopheles gambiae preferentially feeds on humans The widespread use of window screening in homes biggest reason for elimination in N America Exploitation of anthropogenic settings land use practices for reproduction and development Winged vector Global Change 0 I 39 r lead to J 39 parasite development times 0 Increasing malaria transmission rates in highland areas 0 Scavengers that indirectly lead to disease transmission I Examples House ies German Cockroaches I Health Issues 0 Often associated with human garbage or animal waste 0 Transmit diseases secondarily through tarsal contact with something we are eatingusing o Allergens and Asthma 0 Blood feeders in one or more life stages I Examples Mosquitoes Lice Fleas I Health Issues 0 Bacteria viruses plasmodia etc use bloodfeeding arthropods as a host for part of their life cycle 0 3 case studies I Biology 0 Mosquitoes o Piercingsucking mouthparts Males amp Females feed on nectar Females need blood for egg production Host cues Heat Carbon dioxide and odors associated with certain bacteria 0 Transmit malaria when taking bloodmeal 000 0 Feed exclusively on blood 0 Piercingsucking mouthparts o Laterally compressed body 0 Irritation caused by saliva o Larvae pupate and can remain dormant for months 0 Vibrations heat C02 trigger them to emerge o Transmit Bubonic Plague from rodent to human o 30 days 10 females Quarter million offspring o Lice Feed exclusively on blood Piercingsucking mouth parts Legs modi ed for grasping hair Flattened bodies Irritating to skin Vector rickettsiae which cause symptoms of Typhus and Trench Fevers o Insects that feed on human esh rare I Examples Bot ies Flesh ies Blow ies I Health Issues 0 Diffuse swelling occurs at the site of infestation o Sensations compared with a screw drilling into the esh 0 Most important health risks are secondary bacterial infections and tetanus 000000 0 Controls 0 Elements I Disease 7 what are the symptoms in infected humans I Pathogen 7 what organism is causing the symptoms ie bacteria virus etc I Vector 7 how does it actually transmit the disease I Host 7 symptomatic or asymptomatic what role do they play in the life cycle of the pathogen 0 Current I ITNs Insecticide treated nets reduce death by 2030 in young children I IRS Indoor residual spraying to keep vector population down in dwellings I Coartem and chloroquine for treatment of disease 0 Future I New Drugs to treat resistant parasite I Vaccine I Genetically modified mosquitoes I Closing up houses Food Resources 0 Trends in Global Food Production 0 Increased food production in I Croplands o Industrialized or High Input Agriculture Monocultures 7 one crop Perennial crops 7 same crop every year Large Amounts of Fossil Fuels Large Amounts of Water Commercial Fertilizers Herbicides 0 Pesticides I Livestock 0 Increasing Rangelands 0 Increasing Water Availability I Oceanic Fisheries o 50 overexploited 7 violating max sustained yield 90 of major species have experienced local extinctions 0 Not increasing yield 0 Boats from more places same amount of sh Technology and methods 0 Environmental Effects 0 Rangelands I Habitat Destruction and Conversion I Tropical Rainforest I Biodiversity Hot Spots I Developing Nations 0 Increasing Water availability I Ancient Cattle Traditions I Marginal Habitat I Western Beef Market I Drilling Deep Wells I Arti cially Increase Carrying Capacity I Deserti cation I Surplus Grains Used as Food 0 Subsidized Corn Production and Surplus Corn 0 Creative Ways to Use up Corn and Force Feed it to Cattle 0 Industrial Agriculture 0 Reduces water resources Lakes and Streams Ground Water Depletion Salinization Deserti cation Leaving wide strips of undisturbed natural vegetation along the edges of a large agricultural eld would provide what bene t I Can act as a buffer mechanism that can impede runoff carrying silt and excess quantities of fertilizers and pesticides thus preventing water pollution I Can provide habitat for naturally occurring biological control 0 Alternative Methods 0 Eat locally 0 Locally Adapted Crops o Perennial Crops o Drip Irrigation o Intercropping I Multiple Crops Planted Together Simultaneously 0 Family Farming 7 small scale greater output per acre 0 Utilize Greater Diversity of Animals and Plants 0 Fossil Fuels 0 1520 of all commercial energy consumed in Us 0 810 of World s Oil OOOOO 0 Problems Associated I Global Warming I Air Pollution I Acid Rain I Water Pollution Nutrients 7 Nitrogen Fixation Monocultures 0 Single Crop and Requires 7 Herbicides Pesticides Fertilizers 0 Annual Planting 0 Annual Tilling 0 Water Pollution Polyculture 7 other crop to rely on increases biodiversity Fertilizers o Requires Use of Fossil Fuels to Produce o Arti cially increases crop yield 0 Depends upon Inputs of macro and micro nutrients o Leads to Ground Water Contamination Herbicides o Reduces Habitat Complexity 0 Reduces Biodiversity o Contaminates Water Resources Pesticides o Kills NonTarget Organisms o Pesticide Resistance Arises o Contaminates Water Resources 0 Over many generations those insects in the population who have a genetically predisposed resistance survive and pass the trait on to their offspring Pesticide Treadmill 0 Use of Pesticides o Pesticide Resistance Arises 0 Use of a stronger Pesticide o Pesticide Resistance Arises 0 Use of more stronger Pesticides 0 End Result 0 Extremely Expensive 0 Environmental Degradation 0 Human Health Impacts IPM Integrated Pest Management Applying Knowledge of Pest Organism to reduce economic damages in environmentally sustainable ways Combine Cultural Control Prevent Colonization Create Adverse Conditions Host Plant Resistance Biological Control 0 000000 Water 0 Chemical Control minimal and smart 0 Not expensive but takes time and not efficient GMOs Genetically Modi ed Foods 7 one trait extracted and transmitted to another one 0 Less Fertilizers o Nutritious 0 Less Water Allow rice to be grown in new locations that had less water resources 0 Reduce the global anthropogenic production of methane o Faster Growth 0 Higher Yield 0 Disease Pest Resistant o Herbicide Resistant 0 Problems I Unknown Ecological Effects I Harmful Toxins Possible from Mutations I New Allergens I Increased Evolution of Pesticide Resistance I Harm Beneficial Insects Food Resource Alternatives 0 Organic Farming I Acceptable Husbandry Practices I Only use organic fertilizers I No Hormones I No GMOs I No Herbicides I No Pesticides water cycle 0 Precipitation Surface runoff Evaporation Transpiration Condensation Infiltration Water table Ground water Rivers lakes and streams Problems I Quantitative Over consumption I Qualitative Pollution I Not enough in some areas 7 Southwestern US I Demand exceeds supply New York State California Arizona Southern US States Many foreign countries I Aquifer Depletion 0 Water 7 solid takes up more space liquid and cold temp is more dense watersheds and management 0 Areas drained by a single river Mississippi watershed or the Grand River watershed OOOOOOOOO 000 O Oceans O 0 Important scale Anything done in one part of the watershed affects everything downstream Upstream activities impacts downstream Requires cooperation across political boundaries Desalinization Problems I It is expensive slow not efficient not convenient Aquatic Plants I Benthic rooted on the bottom from which they obtain nutrients I Phytoplankton free oating inhabits the upper reaches of water get nutrients right out of water Thermal expansion of oceanic waters as they warm up The melting of glaciers and ice caps water quality parameters 0 00 00000 0 D0 or dissolved ogggen I Direct Relationship to water temp I Cooler water holds more DO I Warmer water holds less DO Turbidity 7 the amount of sediment carried in the water BOD 7 biological ogggen demand 7 gives a measure of how much oxygen is needed in the water body 7 indicates the rate of decomposition and oxygen use in the water Inc Turbidity BOD TEMP 7 Decr D0 D0 does not impact Temp if DO 0 limits BOD Nutrient load 7 Nitrogen Phosphates and others C02 H20 Carbonic Acid SOXH20 Sulfur Acid Inputs 7 materials added to the water body from outside the water body such as leaves point vs nonpoint sources of pollution O 0 Point Source Source of contamination originates from a speci c point or area I Examples Ef uent Pipes Coalfired Power Plants Cattle Feed Lots Nonpoint source Source of contamination is widespread I Examples Fertilizers from lawns Road salt Automobiles trophic status of lakes 0 O Oligotrophic I Cold water bottom is rockysandy lots of oxygen deep and clear I High on DO I Low on BOD Eutrophic I Warm water shallow sunlight has more impact muddy bottom turbid I Low DO I High BOD eutrophication natural vs cultural 7 O 0 Natural aging process of a lake or stream Aquatic Succession Cultural Speeds up the natural process increasing the rate of eutrophication as a result of human activities I Anything that we do that makes it go from OLI to EUT crops major types of pollution 0 00000000 0 Pollutant Any material causing deleterious ecological effects or health problems Aesthetics Biological Die offs Biomagnification Public health Toxicity Local effects Contaminated wells rivers lakes etc Ecological effects Eutrophication Silt in runoff Pesticides Fertilizers and herbicides from agricultural runoff DDT Atrazine Chemicals Toxins from industry PCBs Heavy metals mercury lead arsenic acid precipitation Waste heat thermal pollution I Speeds up eutrophication I Lowers DO and increases BOD Cousteau warning Dilution effect I Dilution is not sufficient in benthic areas to take care of everything we re dumping in the ocean I Most oceanic food chains begin in shallow areas where waste is being dumped air pollution and it s relationship to water pollution 0 Types of Pollutants I Suspended particulate matter SPM soot I Sources 0 Municipal coal fired power plants 0 Industry 0 Wood burning I Sulfur Oxides SO I Sources 0 Burning Coal 0 Industry I Effects 0 1 Cause of Acid precipitation I Controls 0 Burn clean coal 0 Taller stacks 0 Natural gas I Mercury Primary pollutant I Source 0 Burning coal 0 Industry 0 Incineration of Garbage and medical waste I Effects Mercury Central Nervous System CNS Developmental Abnormalities Biomagnification nonbiodegradable Through food chains o Concentrated in fatty tissues I Controls 0 Eliminate Burning Coal and others 0 EPA and zero tolerance Clean Air Act 0 1970 Clean Air Act 0 1972 Water Pollution Control Act Toxicology o Toxins o Depends on 0 Dose amount of exposure 0 Duration of exposure 0 Capacity of body to remove Any substance can be toxic at the right dose A transfer of energy from one trophic level to the next A transfer of matter from one trophic level to the next Convergent Evolution Toxins derived from diet Toxins found in reef fish Herbivorous fish consume certain species of filamentous bluegreen algae contain toxin Accumulates in tissues Predatory fish end up having high concentrations Global Warming 000000000 0 o LD50 0 Chemical with an LD50 of 50 mg or less per kg body weight 0 LD50 or median lethal dose amount that kills 50 of the test population within l4days 0 Experimental Results produce Dose Response Curves o Dosedependent 0 Linear response 0 Threshold Linear response 0 No Threshold Nonlinear response 0 Threshold Nonlinear response 0 Bioaccumulation substances build up in tissue over time within the lifetime of an organism o Fatsoluble compounds such as DDT PCBs etc build up in fatty tissue 0 Can occur in pregnant women herbivorous snails herbivorous fish carnivorous fish 0 Biomagnification substances build up at each level as they pass through the food chain 0 These compounds magnify as each step in the food chain collects them plants gt Fishgt predatory fish 0 Accumulating Pollutants 0 Must be longlived break down slowly mobile in water air soluble in fats biologicallyactive o Dangers to women and children 0 Birth defects 0 Contamination of breast milk 0 Reduced intellectual development in young children


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