Descriptive Astronomy The Solar System
Descriptive Astronomy The Solar System ASTR 26300
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rico Stanton on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 26300 at Purdue University taught by Jaehyon Rhee in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/207822/astr-26300-purdue-university in Astronomy at Purdue University.
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Review Sheets for Midterm Exam 3 Chapter 7 At the minimum be aware of all things with understanding on pages 15 to 20 of Lecture Note 13 and on pages 3 to 13 of Lecture Note 14 Also study your textbook Study Figure 71 on page 210 to 211 of your textbook What are the four major observed features ofthe solar system exactly What are the terrestrial planets Earthlike planets and inner planets and their properties venus mercury earth and mars What are the jovian planets Jupiterlike planets and outer planets and their properties Uranus Saturn Neptune and Jupiter Jupiter and Saturn are mostly helium and hydrogen gas Neptune and Uranus are water methane and ammonia Jovian planets are bigger than terrestrial planets They have a core of rock metal and hydrogen compounds with masses about 10 times the earth No solid surfaces and as their depth increases so does theirtemperature and pressure the asteroid belt orbital resonance with Jupiter s disrupted the orbits of planetisimals in the asteroid belt preventing them from accreting into planets the Kuiper belt region of the solar system beyond the planets consists mainly of small bodies from the solar system s formation It is made up of many small volatiles such as ammonia methane and water and the home to at least three dwarf planets including Pluto the Oort cloud a spherical cloud of comets nearly 1 light year away from the sun Be able to list astronomical objects in the solar system including asteroids and comets in order of 0 Average distance from the Sun 0 Orbital period How are these two parameters related to each other Do the same thing in order of 0 Size 0 Average surface temperature 0 The number of moons lo one ofjupiter s moons Most volcanically active body in the solar system Europa one ofjupiter s moons Covered by water ice Ganymede one ofjupiter s moons The largest moon in the solar system Callisto one of jupiter s moons The outermost galilean moon Has a heavily cratered and icy surface Titan one of saturn s moons The second largest moon in the solar system Triton oen of neptune s moons The coldest world in the solar system Charon Chapter 8 What is the nebular theory What is the solar nebulal Where did it come from Its chemical composition Be able to explain the four main observed features of the solar system Ch 7 by using the nebulartheory For example 0 What caused the orderly patterns of motion exactly What processes are involved in it How do the processes work How did the terrestrial planets come from How did the terrestrial planets s moons come from How did the jovian planets come from How did the jovian planets large and mediumsize moons come from How did the jovian planets small moons come from How did asteroids come from How did comets in the Kuiper belt come from o How did comets in the Oort cloud come from What is the frost line What did solar wind do in early solar system How did the Sun s rotation rate change What are the heavy bombardment and giant impacts What can be explained by each of them OOOOOOO Chapter 9 Earth s interior layering by density and layering by strength Core mantle crust center to surface What causes geological activity And how lmpact cratering volcanisms erosion and tectonics What are these exactly 0 Accretion o Differentiation o Radioactive decay o Convection o Conduction 0 Radiation What is the role of a planet s size for the thickness of lithosphere and geological activity What makes electric elds What makes magnetic fields What are three requirements for a planet to have magnetic fields Which planets have magnetic elds What are four major processes that shape planetary surface How do they work exactly lava plains shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes What is outgassing lts importance What are three fundamental properties that determine a planet s geological history How does each of the four major processes depend on each of the three fundamental properties How can you determine a surface s geological age Complete the following table You should need more spaces for geological properties Cratering ongoing Cratering ASTR 26300 Fall 2009 Review Sheets for Midterm Exam 2 Chapter 4 0 What are these How are they related to one another 0 Speed 7 how far an object will go in a certain amount of time 0 Velocity 7 the speed and direction of an object o Acceleration 7 any change in velocity over time 0 Force 7 anything which changes an objects momentum o Momentum 7 the product of an objects mass times velocity 0 Angular momentum 7 momentum attributable to rotation or revolution The angular momentum of an object moving in a circle of radius r is mass times velocity times radius What is the difference between speed and velocity What is the difference between velocity and acceleration Speed is the distance in a certain period of time Velocity is a measure of both speed and direction of a moving object Acceleration is the measure of the rate of change of velocity A car can accelerate by speeding up slowing down or changing its direction essentially changing its velocity What is the gravitational acceleration g on Ealth s surface The acceleration of an object caused by gravitational force Acceleration rate of 98 meterssecondAZ That is what are its magnitude and direction If you drop a ball how does the ball s speed change as a function of time The higher you drop the ball from the faster it will accelerate to the ground What did Galileo show through his famous experiment at the Leaning Tower of Pisa What was his conclusion He showed that two balls of different size will fall at the same rate What is mass The amount of matter in an object What is weight The force that a scale measures when you stand on it What is the difference between mass and weight Weight depends on both mass and the forces gravity acting on your mass Weight is mass times acceleration of gravity What would your mass and weight be on the Moon On the moon your weight is only 165 of what it is on earth What does weightlessness in space mean It means that an object is in a constant free fall other known as orbit around a planet In which situation can we experience it Astronauts in a space shuttle do not feel the effects of gravity in space for this reason What is Newton s rst law of motion List some phenomena which can be explained by the rst law All objects in motion remain in motion unless acted upon by an outside force Examples are feeling normal in an airplane and space shuttles needing no fuel once they exit earth s atmosphere What is Newton s second law of motion List some example phenomena which can be explained by the second law acceleration is produced when a force acts upon a mass The greater the mass of an object the greater amount of force needed to create acceleration Examples are throwing a baseball further than a shotput or why Jupiter has a greater affect on asteroids and comets than earth does 0 What is Newton s third law of motion List some example phenomena which can be explained by the third law For any force there is always an equal and opposite reaction force Examples are how you always fall back towards the earth when you jump upward and how a rocket engine works generating force propelling a rocket What is conservation of momentum The total amount of momentum of interacting objects cannot change as long as no external force is acting on them that is their total momentum is conserved For example an individual object can gain or lose momentum only if some other object s momentum changes by a precisely opposite amount What is conservation of angular momentum Rotating objects have angular momentum moving around curves and that angular momentum can only be changed by the twisting force of torque The total angular momentum of a set of interacting object cannot change An individual object can change its angular momentum only by transferring some angular momentum to or from another object 0 Using conservation of angular momentum can you explain a gure skater s spin as the person s arms are shrunken As the gure skater pulls their arms closer in they speed up because they reduce their radius increasing rotational velocity and conserving angular momentum 0 Using conservation of angular momentum can you explain Kepler s second law of motion An object A moves faster because it gets closer to object B which it is orbiting because the gravitational pull increases Since the radius of object As orbit is getting smaller it constitutes more torque acting upon it What are three basic types of energy List some energies in each type Kinetic energy thermal energy Radiative energy light Potential energy gravitational potential energy mass energy What does temperature indicate What does thermal energy measure Temperature measures the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance Thermal energy measures the total kinetic energy of all the randomly moving particles in a substance What is the difference between temperature and thermal energy Higher temperature means that particles on average have more kinetic energy hence are moving faster Thermal energy depends on temperature but the amount of particles in a substance if an object has a higher density it will lead to a total higher kinetic energy but not necessarily a higher average What is gravitational potential energy Depends upon a mass and how far it can fall as a result of gravity An object has more gravitational potential energy when it is higher and less when it is lower 0 When you throw a ball upward how does gravitational potential energy change as a function of its height What about its kinetic energy as f function of its height It has more potential energy when it is high and up than when it is near the group because energy must be conserved during the ball s ight 0 Why does thermal energy increase as gas cloud in space contracts Because as the density of the cloud increases it means that many more molecules are packed into a smaller area creating more thermal energy What is conservation of energy Objects always get their energy from other objects Energy can t be created or destroyed What is Newton s law of universal gravitation Direction and magnitude Every mass attracts other mass through the force called gravity The strength of the gravitational force attracting any two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses Example doubling the mass of one objects doubles the force of gravity between the two objects The strength of gravity between two objects decreases with the square of the distance between their centers That is the gravitational force follows an inverse square law with distance Example doubling the distance between two objects weakens the force of gravity by a factor of 202 or 4 In addition to what Kepler showed what did Newton show He showed that kepler s laws are consequences of the laws of motion and the universal law of gravitation Using mathematical expressions of his laws of gravity and motion that a planet orbiting the sun should automatically have an elliptical orbit which obeys keplers law What are possible types of orbital paths Bound orbit when an object goes around another object over and over again elliptical such as earth unbound orbit paths which bring an object close to another object just once for example the comets that enter the inner solar system follow unbound orbits They come in from a far just once loop around the sun and never return 0 If you want to know the mass of the Sun which information do you need To nd the mass of the sun you need earths orbital period 1 year and its average distance from the sun If you want to measure the mass of Jupiter which information do you need To measure the mass of Jupiter you need the orbital period and average distance of one of jupiters moons What causes tides exactly In which situation does the strongest tide occur When does the weakest tide occur Gravity causes tides Tides fall twice each day gravity attracts the earth and the moon toward each other because the strength of gravity declines with distance the gravitational attraction of each part of the earth to moon becomes weaker as we go from the side of the earth facing the moon to the side facing away from the moon This creates a stretching force or tidal force that stretches the entire earth to create two tidal bulges one facing the moon and one opposite the moon Chapter 5 Four basic ways in which light can interact with matter Emission absorption transmission and re ection Why does healthy grass look green Because a green lawn only absorbs all colors other than green What is light What is the wave particle duality What is photon Light carries energy called radiative energy it comes in different forms called colors Wave particle dualty states that matter and light exhibit the behavior of both waves and particles Light comes in individual pieces called photons that have properties of both particles and waves Like baseballs photons of light can be counted individually and can hit a wall one at a time Like waves each photon is also characterized by a wavelength and a frequency What are wavelength and frequency Wavelength is the distance from one peak of a wave to the next Frequency is how many wave peaks passing by a point in each second How are speed of light wavelength and frequency related to one another Speed of light is 300000 kms the speed of any wave light is measured by its wavelength times its frequency S W x F the relation is as follows the longer the wavelength the lower the frequency and vice versa 0 How are energy speed of light wavelength and frequency related to one another 0 Be able to list the different categories of light in order of decreasing or increasing Page 155 o wavelength 0 frequency 0 energy 0 speed What is spectrum What information can we obtain from spectra The complete spectrum of light including radio waves infared Visible light ultraviolet light X rays and gamma rays From this table you can obtain wavelength frequency and energy of light 0 What are basic three types of spectra Continuous emission and absorption In which situation can we get a continuous spectrum an emission line spectrum or an absorption line spectrum A continuous spectrum can come from a lightbulb giving off light in all directions An emission line spectrum can occur from a thin or low density gaseous cloud that emits light only are certain wavelengths depending on temperature and composition an absorption spectrum can occur if a cloud is between you and a lightbulb whereas the cloud absorbs some of the light leaving black lines in the spectra What are energy levels When do we get absorption or emission lines Will hydrogen and helium produce the same pattern of absorption lines If no why With what information can you determine chemical composition of a star s atmosphere electrons can only have particular amounts of energy and not energies in between As an analogy if you use an adjustable platform to wash windows you can achieve any height you want but with a ladder you can only achieve certain heights like an electron can only reach certain energy levels Hydrogen and helium each emit and absorb light at speci c wavelengths which make it possible to detect each of them in distant objects What is the thermal radiation spectrum In a low density cloud of gas atoms and 39 are 391 J 39 J r J The gas clouds produce a simple emission or absorption line spectrum the lines occur only at speci c wavelengths that correspond to particular energy level transitions An object s thermal radiation depends only on what parameter temperature 0 What is Stefan Boltzmann law exactly 7 hotter objects emit more light at all frequencies or wavelengths per unit area What is Wien s law exactly Hotter objects emit photons with a higher average energy that is a shorter average wavelength With a thermal radiation spectrum what information can we obtain We can use this to nd out temperatures of distant objects In general a blue star is hotter or colder than a red star Why Hotter because they are larger blue light shorter wavelengths which means greater energy photons What is the Doppler effect What information can we obtain with the Doppler effect The Doppler effect tells us how fast an object is moving towards or away from us To obtain that information what do we need to measure the lines location on the spectrum and the space between the lines In which situation do you get a redshift A red shift comes when wavelength are shifted to longer for objects going away from us When do you get a blue shift A blue shift comes when wavelengths are shifted to shorter for objects coming towards us How can we measure the rotational speed of a distant object How does the width of a spectral line change with the rotational speed Using the Doppler effect as the object rotates light from the part of the object rotating toward us will be blue shifted light from the part rotating away will be red shifted and light from the center of the object won t be shifted at all The spectral lines will appear wider than if they would if the object were not rotating The faster an object is rotating the broader in wavelength the spectral lines will become Therefore you can measure the rotational speed of a distant object by measuring the width of its spectral lines Chapter 6 0 What are the two most important properties of a telescope l The light collecting area telescopes with a larger light collecting area can gather a greater amount of light in a shorter time 2 Angular resolution telescopes that are larger are capable of taking images with greater detail What is the light collecting area of a 10 meter telescope How about a 2 meter telescope Area TED22 therefore Area 102A2 5A2 25 The light collecting area ofa 10 meter telescope is 25 Area 22A2 1A2 l The light collecting area ofa 2 meter telescope is 1 What is angular resolution The minimum angular separation that a telescope can distinguish Does smaller or larger value of angular resolution mean better resolution Larger telescopes have larger angular resolution which is better because you can more easily distinguish between two objects in the sky What is diffraction limit How are 139 quot limit 39 gquot and 39 r s diameter related to one another In order to improve angular resolution you need to increase or decrease the size of your telescope The minimum angular separation of two sources that can be distinguished by a telescope depends on the wavelength of the light being observed and the diameter of the telescope This angle is called the diffraction limit In order to improve angular resolution you need to increase the size of your telescope A telescope to detect longer wavelength light needs to be larger or smaller Larger What are the two basic designs of telescopes The refracting telescope and the re ecting telescope What are the differences between them The refracting telescope focuses light with lenses Refracting telescopes are very large with large heavy lenses Re ecting telescopes focuses light with mirrors They have much greater diameters Most modern telescopes are re ectors What is the size of the largest telescopes in each design The largest refracting telescope is 1 meter The largest re ecting telescopes are 25 and 30 meters 0 What are the three primary uses of telescopes Which information can we obtain from each technique Imaging 7 takes pictures of the sky spectroscopy 7 breaks light into spectra and timing 7 measures how light output varies with time What are the main ve problems due to the atmosphere that affect ground based observations Daylight light pollution weather atmospheric turbulence and blocking most forms of light What is light pollution How can we resolve the problem Light pollution is found in large cities and it is caused by excessive arti cial light We can resolve this by putting re ective covers on streetlights or by using low pressure sodium lights What is the atmospheric turbulence What causes twinkling How can we resolve this turbulence problem Turbulent air ow in earth s atmosphere distorts our View This causes twinkling We can prevent this with adaptive optics What is adaptive optics How does the technique work It is used to remove the affects of atmospheric distortion and in retinal imaging systems to reduce the impact of ocular aberrations It works by rapidly changing the shape of a telescope s mirrors to compensate for some of the effects of turbulence What are four major factors to be considered when a ground based observatory site is chosen Calm dry high and dark Why do we put telescopes into space Forms of light other than radio and Visible do not pass through earth s atmosphere Also much sharper images are possible because there is no turbulence What is the exact purpose of the inteferometry technique Interferometry is a technique for linking two or more telescopes so that they have the angular resolution of a single large one ASTR 26300 Fall 2009 Review Sheets for the Final Exam The final exam will be cumulative with greater weights on new chapters and there will be 100 to 120 problems You may expect the following weights Chapters 1 to 10 approximately five 5 problems per chapter Chapters 11 12 amp 14 approximately 15 problems per chapter Utilize both previous review sheets provided for the three midterm exams and these review sheets for Chapters 11 12 amp 14 in addition to the lecture notes CHIP homework amp Quick Quiz problems and textbook You do NOT need to study the following parts for this exam Section 124 Section 143 Chapter 11 What you need to study in this chapter is self planatmy So at the 39 39 be aware of evervthinq in Lecture Notes 21 and 22 Then study the following o What are the sources of internal heat for the terrestrial planets What is the source of internal heat for each jovian planet Jupiter slow contraction by converting potential energy into thermal energy Saturn by differentiation due to gradual helium rain Uranus emits no excess internal energy Neptune source remains mysterious o What makes the magnetic fields and the magnetosphere of Earth What makes the magnetic fields and the magnetosphere of Jupiter What makes different colors of clouds for the jovian planets Different H compounds make clouds of different color Why do Earth s clouds have only one color 0 Systematize your knowledge and understanding about the properties and origins of large amp medium moons vs small moons What are lo Europa moon of Jupiter covered by water ice Ganymede moon of Jupiter the largest moon in the solar system Possible subsurface liquid ocean due to tidal heating and radioactive decay Callisto moon of Jupiter Outermost Galilean moon Heavily cratered icy surface Least geologically active since it has no orbital resonance ortidal heating Titan moon of Saturn Second largest moon of the solar system Mimas medium sized moon of saturn Enceladus Miranda smallest medium sized moon of Uranus Large tectonic features and few craters amp Triton moon of Neptune The coldest world in the solar system Orbits Neptune backward What are their characteristics 0 What is tidal heating Orbital resonance makes lo s orbit elliptical Lo s elliptical orbit in combination with Jupiter s tidal force causes tidal heating This tidal heating makes Jupiter volcanically active What is orbital resonance 0 What causes volcanism ortectonics on many mediumsize and large moons O O 0 Chapter 12 What you need to study in this chapter is self planatmy So at the 39 39 be aware of evervthinq in Lecture Notes 23 and 25 Then study the following 0 Again what is orbital resonance 0 Using orbital resonances with Jupiter explain 1 the origin of the asteroid belt orbital resonances with Jupiter disrupted the orbits of planetesimals in the asteroid belt preventing them from accreting into a planet That s why no planet formed between the orbits of mars and Jupiter 2 the distribution of the asteroids in the asteroid belt many asteroids were ejected but some remained and make up the asteroid belt today And 3 the nonexistence of a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter Most asteroids in other regions of the inner solar system accreted into one of the planets Which astronomical object can cause meteor showers How and when can meteor showers occul What are the origins and properties of Kuiper belt comets What are the origins and properties of Oort cloud comets What are Pluto and Eris Dwarf planets and members of the kuiper belt What are their properties Not gas giants do not have rings has an icy composition like a comet and has a very elliptical inclined orbit 0 000 1 ASTR 26300 Fall 2009 Chapter 14 What is the biggest difference between the Sun and planets What were the Sun s energy sources incorrectly proposed to be in the past What is the correct energy source ofthe Sun What are the Sun s current age and lifetime What is gravitational equilibrium The outward pressure of the suns interior gases balances out the gravitational inward pulling at every point keeping the suns size stable What are two important requirements to begin and sustain nuclear fusion How did the Sun achieve these requirements in the rst place Study basic properties of the Sun shown on page 8 of Lecture Note 26 Radius is 696000 mass is 2x10quot30 kg luminosity is 38x10quot26 watts composition is 70 hydrogen 28 helium and 2 heavier elements Rotation rate is 25 days for the equator and 30 days for the poles The surface temperature is 5800 K on average and 4000 K in the sunspots The core temperature is 15 million K Study the Sun s atmospheres The photosphere is the visible surface of the sun the chromospheres is the middle layer of the solar atmosphere The corona is the outer layer of the suns atmosphere Solar wind is the stream of charged particles from the surface of the sun Study the Sun s interior The core of the sun 15 million K the radiation zonei s where energy transports upward by photons The convection zone is where energy is transported by rising of hot gas Know the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion Nuclear fission is when bigger nucleus splits into smaller nuclei Nuclear fusion is when small nuclei stick together to make a bigger nucleus How and where does nuclear fusion the protonproton chain occur in the Sun It occurs in the sun s core The high pressures and temperatures in the solar core are just right for the nuclear fusion of four hydrogen nuclei into one helium nucleus What are the differences between electromagnetic force and strong force Understand the solar thermostat A decline in core temperature causes the fusion rate to drop so the core contracts and then heats up again A rise in core temperature causes the fusion rate to rise so the core expands and then cools down Because the fusion rate is so sensitive to temperature gravitational equilibrium acts as a thermostat that keeps the fusion rate steady Understand how energy generated by nuclear fusion can travel from the Sun s core to us Energy moves through the sun s deepest layers of the core and radiation zone through radiative diffusion After energy emerges from the radiation zone convection carries it the rest of the way to the photosphere In the photosphere energy is radiated into space as sunlight How can we know the Sun s interior By making mathematical models observing solar vibrations and observing solar neutrinos What is neutrino What is the solar neutrino problem Has the problem been solved If so how Homework questions Where is the asteroid belt located Between the orbits of mars and Jupiter Jupiter nudges the asteroids through the influence oforbital resonance Can an asteroid belt be pure metal Yes it must have been the core of a shattered asteroid Did a large terrestrial planet ever form in the region of the asteroid belt No because Jupiter prevented one from accreting According to current evidence Pluto is best described asa large member of the Kuiper belt A typical meteor is created by a particle about the size ofapea Which have the most elliptical and tilted orbits Oort Cloud comets Which ofthe following objects are probably not located in the same region ofthe solar system in which they originally formed Oort Cloud comets About how often does a 1kilometer object strike the earth Every million years Which direction do a comets dust and plasma tails point Generally away from the sun Which ofthese groups of particles has the greatest mass Four individual protons Which ofthese layers ofthe sun is the coolest Photosphere What do we mean when we say that the sun is in gravitational equilibrium There is a balance within the sun between the outward push of pressure and the inward pull of gravity When we say that the sun is a ball of plasma we mean thatthe sun consists of gas in which many or most of the atoms are ionized missing electrons At the center of the sun fusion converts hydrogen intohelium energy and neutrinos Solar energy leaves the core ofthe sun in the form of photons How does the number of neutrinos passing through your body at night compare with the number passing through your body the entire day About the same From center outward which of the following lists the layers ofthe sun in the correct order Core radiation zone convection zone photosphere chromospheres corona The sun s surface as we see it with our eyes is called the photosphere
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