Full list of Terms for identification for Midterm
Full list of Terms for identification for Midterm HIST 420
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by KatieE on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 420 at State University of New York at Potsdam taught by Dr. Kevin Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see United States Foreign Relations, 1890-2000 in History at State University of New York at Potsdam.
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Midterm Study Guide Term Identification The World System Immanuel Wallerstein’s book ‘The Modern World System’ (1974) discusses the ‘world system’ that was the colonial era. Although many countries had different sorts of colonies with different ruling styles (formal or informal colonies) and different imports and exports, the principle of the thing was similar from one country and its colonies to another. The next three definitions are part of the world system.The system included the Core country, a powerful well established colonizer, thePeriphery country (or countries), colonized territories, and thSemiPeriphery, previously colonized countries seeking to create their own stable economy and independence. How the system worked was based on the principles of mercantilism in many ways. The core country would use cheap or free labor of the natives in the periphery country to extract the raw materials and natural resources. These would then be shipped back to the core country, and the processing of these materials and the making of products and selling of some key resources such as oil, went on. After this the finished products were often sold back to the periphery country at prices that forced the people into even more poverty. This is an extractive system with no balance between the core and periphery, the core gains (usually), and the periphery loses. Core The core was your typical European country, a well established nation state whose economy was deep and wide, and who held command of the high seas to a significant degree. They were usually quite technologically advanced, and had a significant military power. Britain was her core country when America was a periphery territory. Periphery These were in principle the territories and peoples colonized by core countries. Their nature was far more diverse than the core countries. They were partially claimed by various countries for their natural resources, and partially claimed just so the core country could say they claimed something. These actually included the vast majority of all major continents except parts of China, a rather independent people, and then the Middle East, parts of Africa, and parts of the north eastern Mediterranean as they were still parts of the Ottoman Empire. The results of being a periphery country were essentially abject poverty, enslavement, with sometimes some governing independence, with no freedom of trade or economy. Take the East Coast of the 1 United States, it was a series of small provinces and territories of Britain’s. Britain controlled them primarily with tariffs and acts that limited their economy. The territory primarily exported tobacco, but on the side they were producing textiles small time as well as building a great many ships for England. The Americans (soon to be US Americans) were very well organized for a colonized people, and would become a periphery country not so long after the British started more serious suppression of their (the US folk’s) independent trade. SemiPeriphery The country that is no longer colonized, usually having had to fight for their freedom from oppressors, America (US) is a great example of this. They fought the revolutionary war to try to cast off the inhibiting tariffs and acts passed by Great Britain to limit their trade, as well as get access to go further west, the land of opportunity, to expand their trade, agriculture, and gain other resources. Luckily America did not suffer to nearly the same degree that say, Vietnam or Cuba did in their resistance. The most basic goals of a semiperiphery are to get a centralized government going, create a selfsustaining economy that can enter into some or more of the world economy, eventually hopefully being able to trade on equal ground with those traditional core countries. (back to American groups) LocalsLargely American farmers: they were struggling to keep up with the growing market, which was setting prices for those farmers who needed to stay in business. Farmers were looking for largely national, and not international solutions to these issues. A basic tenet of America’s fight for independence was its rejection of ‘wage slavery’ or the inability to escape from a given lowly social class due to designs of the economic industry and top down business policy making, and they found themselves falling right back into this point. Their goals were interwoven with the populist and bimetallist movements. Farmers were largely borrowers, they wanted things like the subtreasury plan, which proposed that the government buy farms from the farmers in bad years, and sell them back in the good years, to mitigate the negative effects of extensive borrowing, and mitigate borrowing in general. Functionals The emerging American middle class. They are particularly ‘functional’ because they were groups of people who identified themselves increasingly with their functional role (their job) in society/economy. Examples: Lawyers, Teachers, Naval Officer Corps, 2 Missionaries. They began banding together to promote their role and rights. Further example: the NOC promoted themselves so successfully that their nyeon falling out of existence since the civil war was reinvigorated and refunded with great success following the slogan ‘Trade Follows the Flag.’ The Functionals too were realizing the tendency of the return to ‘wage slavery’ and the unionization that followed from these realizations followed in the second half of the 19th century Cosmopolitans Leaders of big business and major industry. These people were also called Inandouters, meaning that they frequently went between top positions in government and CEO and COO related positions in big business. Business leaders like Rockefeller, and government org’s like the State department saw patterns of overproduction in the US economy, the closing of the Frontier, and the solution: expand trade overseas. There were divisions among these cosmopolitans as far as imperialist or nonimperialist ways of doing this, there were certainly many ways to expand trade, and taking colonies was just one of them. Overproduction may well have been an ideologically driven problem, because industries were borrowing money to get off the ground, then having their workers work as long hours as possible for as little money as possible, (so the people had enough money to live, but had to come back to work everyday in order to make it) so that production could go as fast as possible to overcome the debt as well as create profits as fast as possible. *If the workers had been paid just a bit more, they could have paid INTO the American economy, buying the nice things we made, and mitigated the the overproduction and maybe even postponed our push into the international trade sphere, Or changed it in interesting ways. Frederick Jackson Turner An early 20th Century historian who famously looked into the Frontier, and how it reflected America’s unique history. He delivered a speech that was an essay of his in 1893 which garnered little attention, but it went on to be massively sought after in analysis of America’s state of affairs and inquiry into trade expansion. This essay was ‘The Effect of the Frontier on American History.’ It did indeed bring up much controversy, ignoring the existence of Native Americans that we swept over as we expanded 3 across the Frontier. That aside, it was a great template for the justification of expansion into the international trade sphere with no reservation about peoples and races ‘secondary’ to our own. Alfred Thayer Mahan United States Navy Admiral, geostrategist, historian. He did wonders for the NOC, and by extension greatly influenced the US government’s decisions to expand, and how they expandednamely with a naval focus. Mahan wrote a book ‘The Influence of Sea Power upon History.’ This was helpful to the NOC because it gave them the backing they needed to reinvigorate their position. Something that preemptively expanded the president’s powers ‘In re Neagle ...His duty included enforcing “the rights, duties and obligations growing out of the Constitution itself, our international relations, and all the protection implied by the nature of the Government under the Constitution”’ Little did they realize in 1890 the effects this would have on the expansion and international trade, and the ease with which McKinley was able to protect US interests overseas. Mahan’s work also helped with the passing of the Navy Act of 1890, which was some of the first federal funding of three new ships that set the ball rolling for further funding of many more ships in the future, from the SpanishAmerican war, and then the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt who pushed the US navy from 6th largest in the US to 2nd, bested only by great Britain’s Royal Navy. Teller Amendment Feb. 1898, a response to McKinley’s war message about Spain and Cuba, requesting to intervene on Cuba’s behalf against Spain. The Teller Amendment stated that in the event of US’s intervention, "... hereby disclaims any disposition of intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said island except for pacification thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the island to its people." Platt Amendment March 1901 Part of the Army Appropriations Bill introduced by Orville S. Platt, it fundamentally limited Cuba’s abilities to conduct their economy or government independently. (one of the provisions was that all these had to be amended INTO the Cuban constitution, this was not an optional thing for them) sothey could not enter into agreements with Europe or other countries that will ‘limit Cuba’s independence’ which is just to say they could not get into debt by them, which would put them at Europe’s mercy, jeopardizing American control. Furthermore the US has a right to intervene for the ‘interest of Cuba’s well 4 being’ and any military anything undertaken by Cuba had to be OK’d by the US. The Platt Amendment set a precedent for many future dealings with colonialrelated entities as well as a goodly number of other latin and south American countries with which the US dealt and intervened in because they sometimes had resources the US liked, or the occasional unfavorable government that arose contrary to US interests. Emilio Aguinaldo A Filipino revolutionary, politician, sometime president. Born 1869. He married twice, the first for about 20 years, having 5 children. He led the resistance against Spain between 96 and 97, and then again (sort of) during the Spanish American war, in 98. In ‘99 he was recognized as the first president of the Philippines, at the same time, and for the entire time of his presidency he led the resistance fight, both conventional and then insurgent, against US control until 1901, at which point he was captured, effectively ending his presidency. In more detail, he had a discussion with Admiral Dewey, to the effect that Dewey’s word would suffice in promising Philippine Freedom. Dewey bluffed of course, and Aguinaldo was not allowed to be present during the changing of hands between Spain and the Philippines in Manila later in ‘98.more to come) Open Door Policy A policy favored by countries like the US whose economy was substantial enough to benefit from it. It was a policy that tried to keep countries and regions open to trade, especially places that were ‘spheres of influence’ of other countriesEuropean and Japanese spheres in China for example. Sometimes spheres were hard to trade in because the major county in charge would be impose very high tariffs on the sphere areas to cause them not to buy goods from other countries trying to trade. These spheres tended also to be very narrow in terms of trade as well. The US was trying to make deals with Japan and Britain, but things like the Boxer Rebellion and the RussoJapanese war did not make better relations between eastern and westerners, or encourage major trading with China. Roosevelt Corollary This was an addition to theMonroe Doctrin e. The Monroe doctrine from ¾ of a century before, was a response to Europe’s carving up of South and Latin America. It was a major push that in ways launched the US into international affairs. It was a sort of a containment policy, that called any future European dealings in South America as an act of aggressionand they technically made some deals with Great Britain in parts of it too. It wasn’t 5 wildly self motivated, it was more of a note of separating the spheres, letting the other Americas be sovereign, with a watchful eye from America. This being said the Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to this that made the doctrine an offensive measure instead of a defensive measure. The Platt Amendment grew out of thisRoosevelt created these measures to intervene in the interests of the US, things like getting the Panama canal dug, first wresting it from Columbia, making them sovereign, and then turning around and demanding that they let the US dig a whole huge canal through the middle. (247 AA) Panama Canal Originally signed a joint venture with Great Britain, John Hay, TR’s secretary of state successfully terminated the ClaytonBulwer Treaty of 1850 that made GB a partner in any canal venture, making the Panama Canal a reality of America’s own interests. Earlier attempts at this were still with the british in 1900 the HayPauncefoot Treaty, ‘which allowed the United States to build and ownbut not fortifyan isthmian canal.” This was rejected because of the nonfortifying bit W.J Bryan led the opposition in Senate. There was a second treaty with the same name in 1901 which ended up passing. Nicaragua was the cheapest and most efficient option. Panama, a province of Columbia, was the second option, but it was French controlled and they wanted $100 million for it. Some wise business dealing by Philippe BunauVarilla and William Cromwell made use of the new HayPauncefoot treaty to get France’s asking price down to $40 million. This was pushed forward by the volcanic eruption in Nicaraguathe other canal optionwhich was unsafe thereafter. John Hay negotiated the HayHerran treaty which gave Columbia $10 million plus yearly payment for the 6mile zone in Panama. The columbians rejected the offer and Roosevelt lost his shit. Columbia was hoping to stall so that the French rights to Panama would revert to them in 1904, giving them more leverage. Roosevelt supported a Panamanian revolution in 1903, and blocked Colombian troops from intervening. The same negotiated price from before went now to Panama, but for a 10 mile strip of land instead of 6. The panamanians lost rights to this land as well. The US closed it off, Hey justified it with ‘titular sovereignty.’ The primary purpose of this canal was for Roosevelt to exercise naval power more efficiently. Foul play on TR’s part was loudly noted, however many American’s remained in favor of it. 6 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Standard rules of submarine warfare (Cruiser Rules) include that before a submarine can engage with any ship (of war or in violation of sea law) there must be a blockade in place. Then is it acceptable to shoot torpedoes at them. No submarine can shoot boats on the high seas. Ships can be ‘taken.’ That is boarded, searched, contraband (if found)confiscated, then it can be taken as a prize, or the crew left out on life rafts and Then the ship is sunk. Unrestricted submarine warfare is when submarines sink boats at will wherever they wish, in violation of the rules. The Germans began conducting this warfare early in World War 1, their response to Britain’s starving out of the Central Powers and when it became clear that GB and France were trying to do so, the went ham. Over the course of world war one they sank over 5000 ships. They officially started going unrestricted in 1915 when the intentions of the other belligerents became clear. After sinking the Lusitania Wilson sent a series of warning notes to Germany, and they followed more rules again until 1917, when their situation was looking dire both in war zones and at home. Lusitania The RMS Lusitania A british ocean liner famously sunk by the Germans. It was briefly the largest liner in the world, made in a very competitive age of seafaring vessels. She was traveling from New York to Liverpool, with an assortment of passengers, and some munitions of which the Germans were aware and had warned them about shipping them. May 7 9015, 11 miles off the coast of Ireland, inside the ‘war zone,’ a German Uboat torpedoed the RMS Lusitania, with an internal explosion following shortly after she sank in just 18 minutes, killing 1200 of 1900 on board. This was a breach of the ‘Cruiser Rules,’ even though the Germans claimed otherwise. Some 200 plus Americans were aboard the ship and at this point an incentive could be said to exist in the minds of many American’s at this point, to enter the war. The British wanted the US to enter very seriously, but Wilson refused to act. He sent a series of warning messages to Germany about their sea conduct and they halted unrestricted warfare in september for over a year. “Bank Loans” These were major contributors to US’s entry into the war. When the issue first arose, W.J. Bryan, secretary of state, expressed his concern that funding belligerents might damage the US position of real neutrality. However, J.P. Morgan, head of probably the largest bank in America at the time, worked with Wilson in lending France, GB, and Germany quite a 7 lot of money. The Federal Reserve, still very new at the time, also participated in thistheir goals were to regulate inflation. Europe was sending gold to America in payment for Munitions and the like, but even then the EU currency values could not keep up with the cost of war. The Fed sold lots of war bonds, quite successfully marketing out Europe’s debt to smaller American banks and Americans themselves. All this ended up amounting to, once the dust had settled, upwards of 1214 Billion. Germany did not count because the US only lent them a number of million, which would be hypothetically covered by their $33 Billion dollar reparations. Soon after the serious investments into loans to Europe were under way, the US entered the war. Wilson wanted to maintain neutrality but these loans did sort of compromise that, additionally, Morgan Bank was only really interested in funding the Allies, which gave more reason for the US to enter on their side (at least effectively if not in name.) Zimmerman Telegram sent Jan. 1917. this was the last strawthe last thing that happened before America mobilized. Germany had recently started up with unrestricted submarine warfare again, and then they sent a telegram, intercepted by British intelligence saying that the German ambassador to Mexico should offer that Germany fund Mexico if they ally themselves with Germany for any future dealings with the US, and additionally promised to restore to Mexico the lost territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona. No one took the actual threat in the telegram extremely seriously, but Americans were now far more for the war than they had been before, enough so that Wilson sent the US to war shortly thereafter. “A Seat at the Peace Table” Dr. Smith’s top reason for the US entering the war. I argue that it is tied with the bank loans. WIlson’s major concern was that Europe would settle things on their own terms. Wilson needed to ensure that in the outcomes of the major shifts going on in Europe, decisions on trade agreements, diplomatic relations, and governments of democratic natures be suitable for US interests. Additionally Wilson had offered for the US to be arbitrator for the conflict before it became too serious, but was rebuffed, which was a concern considering how much aid the US was giving belligerents already. 14 points I) No secret Treaties II) Freedom of the Seas III) Worldwide Open Door IV) Arms Reduction V) Impartial Mediation of Colonial Claims VI) Get out of Russia and help as needed. VII) Restore Belgium VIII) Restore France, settle AlsaceLorraine issue with Prussia IX) Draw 8 proper boundaries for Italy X) Let AustriaHungary live XI) Sort out and get out of Rumania, Serbia, and Montenegro and sundry lands there according to culture and people. XII) Give Turkey sovereignty, Dardanelles free trade. XIII) Free Polish state XIV) League of nations. Wilson was an idealist, and some of these points were very selfinterested for the US, but he campaigned for it and the League Covenant extensively. Robert Tucker’s criticism of this and the league treaty is an idealism that fails to draw up a strategy of national security. League of Nations The Brainchild of W. Wilson’s that came out of the Paris Peace Treaty, which ended the first world war. This was a group of countries who would (and many did) agree to a series of amendments uniting them in particular ways including agreement to respect each other's sovereignty in the face of external aggression, to take an attack on any member of the league as an attack on itself, and to counsel with the other members in the event of any such onslaught. If an issue arises between league nations, there is a designated arbitrator of another league nation to settle it, especially when it comes to quelling another world warWilson believed the league’s success would make WWI the war to end all wars. Problem isthe US never signed the damn thing. (see treaty fight) Treaty of Versailles Wilson’s greatest failure. (see Treaty Fight also) It was the official treaty with Germany (who was not part of the negotiations) that followed the initial ceasefire a number of months later (28 February, 1919) The treaty had clauses ranging from war crimes (and reparations)(both from article 231), to the prohibition on the merging of Austria with Germany without the consent of the League of Nations, the list goes on. It was led by the ‘big four’ which became the ‘big three’ US, GB, FR, after Japan walked out, highly insulted. Germany almost didn’t sign the treatypart of why it took so long, but finally did after one leader resigned and the Allies threatened to invade. Their problem was that they were losing their entire industrial region, which they very much did not want to part with. The failures of this treaty led to provisions like the Dawes and Young Plans, and the Locarno agreement. Treaty Fight Shortly before he went to Versailles, there was a major election in the house and senate that left him without a democratic majority in either the house or senate. He went without a single republican, which showed terrible partisanship when it should have been bipartisan. 9 Additionally he let his friend House go to Europe to scout out the scene before him, which many saw as too personal. His first trip was fine, but upon his return the treaty came to the senate, and Wilson wanted it passed, the whole thing, no changes. There were then the ‘irreconcilables’ who wouldn’t vote on it no matter what ( under a third of the senate.) There were H.C. Lodge’s ‘reservationists,’ they did not want article 10. This article stated that a state had to literally give up sovereignty so everyone could solve their problems collectively, even a threat to say, the US itself. Lodge and his people refused to give up any sovereignty. They would agree to it without A10. Wilson wasn’t having it, and all his constituents stuck with him, so it lost the vote, twice. After this he had to return to Paris, where he lost the 2nd treaty point to Britainfreedom of the seas, and let Japan stay in Shantung. Dollar Diplomacy US principle of buying the open door of other countries, focus on Asia and Latin America . US investments in LA doubled between 1924 and ‘29, up to $3.5 Billion, primarily in copper in Chile and Venezuelan oil. By 1925 there were so many American troops and big banks controlling Latin American countries and so much influence due to the Monroe Doctrine that LA countries started seriously resisting this. Hoover scored big when in ‘29 and 30 they started discussing then decided that the Roosevelt Corollary was no justification for rampant intervention and control in LA. In Asia the US had loaned Japan $200 million by 1926. The US put a bunch of caps on immigration numbers then too, limiting Asian and European migrant influx greatly. Japan was offended, the US stopped funding them in 1929. By 1930 the US had also put$190 million into China. There were huge strikes in China, 1919, over the amount of western influence, including the lack of Chinese control of their own tariffs, and being dependent on British oil for kerosene. The US began to worry when China and Japan struck up relations with Russia, and China suddenly had an official communist party in 1921. Japan started looking for other funding options after the stock market crashed, which was also when America stopped funding them. They decided to force an incident and retake Manchuria once and for all. Promotional State The period of American economic development (1890s) when they realized that they had to start taking part in the international scene or they would be doing America a disservice. It was a series of programs developed to subsidizeif you will, American entrepreneurs looking to invest and enter into global markets. Also, it was a process of making 10 international trade easier, lowering tariffs and encouraging others to engage in trade and allow for free flow of American capital. This included military measures at timessuch as China or Latin America. Cooperative State With America’s presence already well established in the international scene, the fostering of international trade organizations and regulatory US officials around the world fostered and regulated the world system to ensure American investments well being and security. This occurred despite ‘Isolationism’ at home in America. Regulatory State From 1930 to WWII. Many world economies were seriously suffering at this point, and America imposed lots of regulatory efforts in the global economy to promote stabilization in economy and governments. Washington Conference of 1921 Efforts towards disarmament. 4, 5, and 9 power treaties. Navy buildups and defense funding was becoming astronomical, they needed to limit this. US goals included limiting the arms and navies of the main powers, and also making Japan dependent upon US finances. Drawn up by Hughesthe secretary of state: 5 power treaty : 5:3:1.75 tonnage allowance respectively for US and GB, then Japanese, then France and Italy. 4 power treatyended the GBJapanese alliance and provided that in the event of an Asian boiling point reach, the 4 main powers would consult. US, GB, FR, and Japan. 9 power treaty: Signed by the 4 plus Italy, China, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugalmade open door treaty international law. (security clause including recognition of Japan’s control of Manchuria) Many complaints from France, Japan, ensued about limitations on boat sizes. Dawes Plan 1924, loanbond package for Germany, investment in german capital goods, $200 million, private, not tax, dollars. This came up when US demanded France pay back their debt and they came to US bankers for helpEurope was at the US’s mercy. The official plan reduced Germany’s reparation fee to $250 million annually. This would be helped by the 200 million booster shot, half provided by American private banks, and half by foreign banks. Germany had a lot of investors, however, ‘German and US investors became addicted to the loans.’ Became investment competition with other great countries. Speculation won the day and everyone’s economies tanked. 11 Young Plan1929 further reduced Germany’s reparations from 33 Billion to 8 Billion to be payed over 58 years, simultaneously the US pumped a total of 1.25 billion into Germany, and given them a number of more billion in short term loans, Germany owed the US a whole lot. “Spirit of Locarno” Locarno Switzerland, 1925. Germany, France, Belgium guaranteed land boundaries. The spirit involved here was this along with Italy and GB signing as guarantors of the agreement.best diplomacy in Europe of the 20’s. KelloggBriand Pact super idealistic statement condemning war and signees agreeing to settle disputes peacefullyKellogg was secretary of state and Briand was the French Primiere. It was a total joke. Signed by the most nations of the world. 12
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