History Of Western Civilization Midterm Studyguide
History Of Western Civilization Midterm Studyguide HIS 104
Popular in History of Western Civilization 1815-Present
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anaya Curry on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 104 at Pace University taught by Michael Rosenfeld in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 112 views. For similar materials see History of Western Civilization 1815-Present in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
Anaya Curry March 9 2016 History of Western Civilization Midterm Study Guide Qh 6 The Enlightened Key terms Enlidhtenment an array of intellectual and cultural activities of the 1700 s Philosophes public intellectuals of the Enlightenment era Laissezfaire French for quotLeave it Alonequot Used to identify the economic doctrine of allowing markets to selfregulate without the need for government interference Marketdescribes commerce as a rational pattern of human behavior Salons social gatherings hosted by women in their homes many philosophers and artists would gather there to discuss ideas Deism Enlightenment era belief in a single and possibly benevolent God who created the cosmos but who plays no active role in it Resulting in dual policy of religious freedom Haskalah Hebrew term for Enlightenment Hasidim Adherents to a revivalist s movement in Judaism Began in mid18th century in PolishLithuanian commonwealth by the Ba al Shem Tov lt challenged formalism of synagogue worship Acts of Toleration laws promulgated to offer full or partial constitutional rights to Jews Bourgeoisie the prosperous and primarily urban middle class of Enlightenment Europe Freemasonry secret society that claimed its origins lay in medieval trade guilds Members were mainly wealthy bourgeoisie and noblemen Important People of the Era John Locke 16321704 English philosopher and political theorist known for his contributes to liberalism Believed in human reasoning and just societies were ones that infringed least on the natural rights and freedoms of individuals Produced Two Treaties of Government and An Essay Concerning Human Understanding1689 Pierre Bavle 16471706 French philosopher best known for his work on the Historical and Critical Dictionary1647 1702 Also launched an internationally in uential campaign against religious intolerance from the Dutch Republic Baron de Montesquieu 16891755 famous for his in uential novel The Spirit ofLaW 1748 which analyzed the structures that shape law and characterized governments according to 3 types republics monarchies and despotism Denis Diderot 17131784 French philosopher who was the most important when it came to getting Enlightenment ldeas into a broader circulation Responsible for the publication of the rst Encyclopedia which showed how reason could be applied to nearly all realms of thought and aimed to be a compendium of all human knowledge JeanJacques Rousseau 17121778l Argued that only a government based on a social contract among the citizens could make people truly moral and free Voltaire 16941778l real name FrancoisMarie Arouet believed in the possibility of human progress but that progress is rmly directed by a political and intellectual elite Published Philosophical Letters on the English 1733 which helped propel him to the front ranks of the intellectuals of his time Qh 7 French Revolution and Napoleonic Empire Key Terms Parlements Ancient French aristocratic led system of legal courts reestablished during the regency of Louis XV as a way to extend aristocratic privileges Later when he became of age Louis XV tried to overturn the parlements Estates General French parliament established by the Capetian kings Reestablished in 1789 at the behest of the French aristocracy 3 estates were the nobles the clergy and the common people Third Estates the commoners peasants 75 of the population and the working and middle classes of the city make up this branch of French legislation SansCulottes quotwithout silk breechesquot name for the active political commoners that wanted to emphasize their distinction from the upper classes National Assemblv the governing body the succeeded the Estates General in 1789 during the French Rev Composed of the delegates of the Third Estates Tennis Court Oath oath taken by representatives of the Third Estates in June 1789 in which they pledge to form a National Assembly and write a constitution that limits the king s power Bastille prison where people were incarcerated at the King s orders Attacked by Revolutionaries to show their support for the National Assembly The Great Fear term used by historians to describe the French rural panic and also led to peasant attacks on aristocrats or on seigneurial records of peasants dues Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens the preamble to the French constitution drafted in Aug 1789 it established the sovereignty of the nation and equal rights for citizens acobins radical party that seized power from the Girondists during the French Rev The Jacobins executed King Louis XVI and his family in 1793 outlawed Christianity and sought to create a classless society based on radical principles Girondists moderate group that championed a constitutional monarchy until they were driven from power by the more radical Jacobins Maximilien Robespierre 1758 1794 French lawyer and politician that laid out the principles of a quotrepublic of virtuequot and of Terror a period of French Rev violence marked by mass executions of quotenemies of the Revolutionquot His execution marked the end of the Terror Reign of Terror 17581794 brutal period of the French Rev in which tens of thousands of French citizens believed to be opposed in any way to the Revolution were executed Thermidorian Reaction the violent backlash against the rule of Robespierre that dismantled the Terror Napoleon Bonaparte 17691821 French general who became First Consul in 1799 and emperor in 1804 dominated European affairs for 2 years while leading France against a series coalitions in the socalled Napoleonic Wars Lasting legal achievement is the Napoleonic Code Exiled to the island of St Helena after losing the battle of Waterloo in 1815 Napoleonic Code Systematic law code established by Napoleon that emphasized individuals rights to property and standardized the legal structures for contacts leases and establishing stock corporations Continental System economic system that aim to create an integrated Continental economy and to bring about the collapse of Britain through the imposition of a strict trade embargo Urbanism the growth of towns and cities resulting from the movement of people from rural to urban areas Battle Waterloo last battle lost by Napoleon it took place near Brussels on June 18 1815 and led to the deposed emperor s nal exile Toussaint L Ouverture 17431803 leader of the Haitian Revolution which was a massive slave revolt 17031804 that overthrew the French colonial government of SaintDomingue and created the independent Republic of Haiti Events of the French Revolution May 5 1789 Estates General convene at Versailes 0June 17 1789 Oath of the Tennis Court uly 14 1789 Storming of the Bastille July August 1789 Great Fear ravages the countryside August 4 1789 National Assembly abolishes feudal privileges August 26 1789 National Assembly issues Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 0 August 1791 Austria and Prussia issue Declaration of Pillnitz 0 October 5 1789 Women march on Versailles and force royal family to return to Paris 0November 1789 National Assembly con scates church lands 0July 1790 Civil Constitutions of the Clergy establishes a national church Louis XVI reluctantly agrees to accept a constitutional monarchy une 1791 Royal family is arrested while attempting to ee France 0April 1792 France declares war on Austria 0 Sept 1792 National Convention abolishes monarchy and declares France a republic January 21 1793 Louis XVI is executed 0February 1793France declares war on Britain Holland and Spain oAprilJune 1793 Robespierre and allies organize and Committee of Public Safety 0 17931794 Reign of Terror darkens Paris and the provinces October 1793 Marie Antoinette is executed February 1794 National Convention abolishes slavery in all French territories July 1794 Robespierre is executed Thermidorian reaction begins 0 17951799 Directory rules 0 1797 Napoleon defeats Austrian armies in Italy and returns in triumph to Paris 0 1799 Aided by disillusioned legislators Napoleon overthrows the Directory and seizes power Ch18 The Industrial Revolution Key Terms Capitalism modern economic system characterized by an entrepreneurial class of property owners who employ others and produce something for a market to make a pro t Capitulations trade agreements bw the Ottoman Empire and European nations that by the 19th century overwhelmingly favored European interest Customs Union freetrade zone established by Prussia in the early 19th century Factory Act of 1833 outlawedchidren under the age of nine to work in factories and limited the amount of hours children bw nine and thirteen worked to nine hours Flying shuttle invented by Englishman John Kay in 1733 this device sped up the process of waiving Industrial Revolution burgeoning 19th century economy driven by mechanization factories an investment in infrastructure and a growing workforce Romanticism cultural and artistic movement in opposition to industrialization preferring emotion and instinct over structural order and rational thought Spinning lennv invented by James Hargreaves that revolutionized the British textile industry by allowing a worker to spin much more thread than was possible on a hand spinner Steam Engines an engine that uses the expansion or rapid condensation of steam to generate power Timeline 0 1733 Invention of the ying shuttle o 1764 Invention of the spinning jenny o 1769First water powered spinning machine 1818 Creation of German Customs Union 1819Peterloo Massacre England 1826Janissaries abolish in Ottoman Empire 0 18301832 Cholera epidemic sweeps across Europe 1833Factory Act regulates work of children in Britain 1850Britian crisscrossed by 6000 miles of rail population of London reaches 25 million Qh 9 Mc ern Politics Key Terms Chartist movement labor movement that began with the London Working Men s Association in 1838 Communism socialist movement that advocated the destruction of capitalism and the development of a new classless society of freedom The Communist Manifesto book written by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx that presents the Marxists view of history as class struggle Concert of Europe body of diplomatic agreements designed primarily by Austrian minister Klemens von Metternich bw 18141848 in order to maintain a balance of power on the Continent and to prevent destabilizing social and political change in Europe Congress of Vienna conference of European diplomats convened from 1814 to 1815 to redraw boundaries and work toward peace after decades of con ict Conservatism political approach that values tradition and stability above the individual Cult of domesticitv cultural view of in the 19th century that idealized women s role in the home discouraging them from seeking work or other opportunities outside of their domestic duties Historical Materialism the Marxist theory that believes that the process by which economic concerns propel historical change Karl Marx 1818 1883 German philosopher and economist who believed that a revolution of the working classes would overthrow the capitalist order and create a classless society Klemens von Metternich 17731859 Austrian prince who took the lead in devising the postNapoleonic settlement arranged by the Congress of Vienna from 18141815 Liberalism political view calling for civil liberties such as equality under the law right to vote and a freemarket economy Proletariat term to describe the working class Socialism social and political ideology that advocated the reorganization of society to overcome the new tensions created by industrialization and restore social harmony through communities based on cooperation Timeline 0 17731859Klemens von Metternich o 1814 JosephMarie de Maistre Essay on the Generative Principle of Political Institutions 0 18141815 Congress of Vienna 1818 1883 Karl Marx 18211830 Greek War of Independence o 1825Decembrist revolt in Russia 0 1830 Conservatives lose power in Britain uprising throughout Europe 1832Reform Bill Britain 0 1834 New Poor Law Britain 0 1838 Beginning of Chartist movement 0 1846 Corn Laws Repealed Britain 0 1847Ten Hours Act Britain 1848 Rebellions throughout Europe Marx and Engels The Communist Manifesto 1857Matrimonial Causes Act Britain 1859John Stuart Mill On Liberty Chg Namnlism Key Terms Act of Union Parliamentary legislation that united Great Britain and Ireland AlNahda Arabic for awakening or renaissance Islamic intellectual and cultural movement centered in Egypt that advocated the integration of Islamic and European culture AntiSemitism term to describe the vicious hatred toward and persecution of Jews Camillo di Cavour Prime minister of Piedmont and founder of the Italian Liberal Party played a key role in the movement for Italian uni cation under the rule of the Piedmontese King Victor Emmanuel II Crimean War 18531856 rooted in a long desire of Russia to increase its in uence over the Ottoman Empire the immediate cause of the war when Russia claimed to have protective oversight over the Orthodox Christians It pitted France and Britain against Russia France and Britain had allies with the Ottomans Guiseppe Garibaldi 18071882 Italian revolutionary leader who led the ght free Sicily and Naples from the Habsburg Empire Kulturkampf Otto von Bismarck s quotcultural warquot against Catholicism in Germany Muhammed Ali Pasha Ottoman Albanian commander in the ottoman army who became leader of Egypt with the Ottomans initial approval Muhammed ibn Saud Founder of the rst Saudi state and the Saud dynasty Nationalism awareness that the members of an individual nationgroup share a depth feeling values and attitudes toward the world Otto von Bismark18151898 Leading Prussian politician and German prime minister who waged war to create a united German Empire actually established in 1871 Pale of Settlement Region of Russian Empire where Jews were allowed to live Pogroms viciousattacks from 1648 on against entire Jewish communities in the Pale of Settlement Realpolitik Politics based on strategic and tactical realities instead of Idealism Tanzimat movement by the Ottoman government to promote economic development and the integration of the empire s nonMuslims and nonTurks into civil society Wahhabis Conservativereform movement within Sunni Islam that stressed returning to strict reliance on the Qur an and Hadith purging Islam of non Arabic traditions and restoring ethnic Arabs to leadership international Islam Zionism the name for the central portion ofJerusalem but by extension referring to all of IsraelPalestine Movement by Jews to establish a Jewish state in the Holy Land as a refuge from European persecution beginning in the 19th century Timeline 1801Act of Union bw England and Ireland 18051848 Rule of Muhammed Ali Pasha in Egypt 18241891 Second Saudi state 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act Ireland o 1830 Greece Declared an independent nation Bulgaria secures autonomy from Ottomans 1831 Rifa a alTahtawai The Essence ofParis 18391876 Tanzimat on Ottoman Empire 0 18451852 Irish Potato Famine 1848 Europe rocked by revolutions 18521870Second Empire in France 0 18521856 Crimean War 0 18591870 Uni cation of Italy 0 1861 Abolition of serfdom 0 18621871 Uni cation of Germany 0 1870 FrancoPrussian War 1878 Romanina secures autonomy from Ottomans 1881 First appearance of the term quotantiSemitic in English 1896Theodore Herzl ThejeWish State 1903Publication of The Protocols of the Elders onion
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