Elementary Psychology PSY 12000
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Psychology 120 Carol Donnelly STUDY GUIDE TEST 2 Chapter SiLearning l 2 3 gt V gt19 00 O Learningrelatively permanent change in behavior or potential to respond that results from experience Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Dogs a Unconditioned stimulus USstimulus that automatically produces or elicits a response prior to training Ex FOOD b Unconditioned response URobservable response that is produced automatically prior to training on presentation of US c Conditioned stimulus CSneutral stimulus that is paired w the US during conditioning Ex BELL d Conditioned response CRacquired response that is produced to the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the arrival of the US Ex SALIVATlNG Define a Extinctionconditioned responding diminishes when the CS a er conditioning is presented without being followed by the US Ex Bell CS9 9 no food several times Bell CS 99 no salivation CR b Spontaneous recoveryCR that has disappeared in extinction recovers spontaneously w the passing of time c Inhibitionlearning that an event signals the absence of the unconditioned stimulus Ex Bell CS paired with light several times 9 9no food given to dogTrent Ellis d Generalizationa new stimulus produces a response similar to the one produced by the conditioned stimulus Ex Bell CS 9 9salivation Alarm clock phone rings etc 99 salivation e Discriminationthe response to a new stimulus is different from the response to the original CS Ex Bell CS 9 9Salivation Bell C S 9 9N0 Salivation CR f Higher order conditioningan established CS is presented immediately a er a new event a er several pairings this new event may come to elicit responding Ex bell paired w light several times9 9light begins to elicit salivation What is operant conditioning A procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their actions they learn that their behavrors are instrumental in producing reward and punishments AKA instrumental conditioning What is the Law of Effect If a response in a par cular situation is followed by a satisfyingpleasant consequence it will be strengthened amp If a response in a particular situation is followed by an unsatisfyingunpleasant consequence it will be weakened What is Shaping reinforcement is delivered for successive approximations of the desired response BF Skinner Describe positive and negative reinforcement Positive when presented after a response increase likelihood of occurring again Negative when removed a er a response increase likelihood of occurring again beeping to put on a seat belt What is Aversive Control Presentation of an averse stimulus prevents further responses to that stimulus andor avoidance of stimulus What is Observational Learning Learning from observing others social learning What is Modeling Natural tendency to imitate the behavior of signi cant others in one s surroundings Chapter 167Psychological Disorders 1 2 a Atyprca b Undesirable c Maladaptive intense anxiety where there is no danger d Unjustifiable What is the difference between AXIS l and AXIS H disorders IS I Ego Dystonic temporary panic attack not me 9 gt V 3 Anxiety Disorders 1 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2 ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 3 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 4 Phobias ii Eating Disorders 1 Anorexia Nervosa a turns away from food to cope distorted body image 2 BulimiaNervosa a Turns to food to cope dissatis ed with body weight purges 3 Eating Disorder NOS iii PsychosexualDisorders iv Factitious Disorders Munchausen s Syndrome by Proxy v Somatoform DisordersPsychological disorders that focus on the physical body Somatization Disorder long lasting preoccupation with body symptoms that have no identifiable cause 2 Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder 3 Conversion Disorder presence of real physical problems that seem to have no identi able cause 4 Pain Disorderpresence of pain that has no identi able cause 5 Hypochondriasisperson thinks they have a serious disease but really don t 6 Body Dismorphic Disorder 7warped notion regarding a part of the body ex nose 7 Somatoform Disorder NOS vi Dissociative Disordersseparation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories nesiaforgetting things caused by physical damage to the brain concussion 2 Fugue loss of memory for personal information accompanied by a physical ight to a new less threatening environmen 3 Dissociative Identity Disorder 7 sudden loss in sense of self vii Mood Disorders 1 Major Depressive Disorderdepressed mood loss of interest weight loss insomnia body fatigue guilty thinking thoughts of death 2 Dysthymia poor appetite insomnia low energy less severe than major depressive disorder 3 Bipolar Disorder 1 and Hmood shifts from depression to manic state 4 Cyclothymia viii Schizophreniafundamental disturbances in thought processes emotion behavior b AXIS H7 Ego Syntonic this is ok this is me i Personality Disorders 7 patterns of behavior that lead to signi cant impairments in social functioning ii CLUSTER A l Paranoid Personality Disorder pervasive distrust in others 2 Schizoid Personality Disorder indifferent in interpersonal relationships restricted emotions 3 Schizotypal Personality Disorder appears odd eccentric on how they think and behave iii CLUSTER B l Histrionic Personality Disorder excessive emotionality attention seeking drama queen 2 Narcissistic Personality Disordergrandiosity need for attention lack of empathy 3 Borderline Personality Disorder instability in interpersonal relationship 4 Antisocial Personality Disorderdisregard for and violation of rights of others iV CLUSTER C l ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder perfectionalism preoccupation with orderliness 2 Dependent Personality Disorderneed to be taken care of 3 Avoidant Personality Disorder feelings of inadequacy hypersensitive to criticism What are Anxiety Disorders A class of disorders marked by excessive apprehension and worry that impairs normal functioning What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder Excessive worrying or free oating anxiety that lasts at least 6 months and can t be attributed to anything What is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Anxiety disorder where the person has persistent and uncontrollable obsessions and compulsions a What is an Obsession 7 1 violence is most common 2 contamination shaking hands touching doorknobs toilets b What is a Compulsion iperfectionists handwashing39 checking behavior 6 What is a Panic Attack 7 shortness of breath chest pain39 heart palpitations choking sweating 7 What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 7 follows an extremely traumatic event 8 What are Phobias fears 9 Describe the Model for Treatment for the Anxiety Disorders 10 More women suffer with 11 More men suffer with 12 What is a Sexual Dysfunction vs a Paraphiliasexual dys mctions are impairments in desire for sex or ability to achieve it paraphilias are sexual behavior patterns in unusual objects or situations are required for sexual satisfaction a Paraphilias i Frotteul ismsexually arousing fantasies toward touching and rubbing against an unconsenting person i Fetishism sexual urges involving use of nonliving objects iii Pedophilia sexual urges with prebubescent child age lt14 iv Zoophiliasex with animals v Exhibitionismexposure of one s genitals to an unsuspecting stranger How are Anorexia and Bulimia similar How are Anorexia and Bulimia different Similarities 9 Typical pro le 1319 white female Preoccupation with dieting food weight Discomfort when eating w others Severe changes in habits mood Hyperactivity dif culty w sleep and concentration Fatigue headaches Approval seeking Interpersonal relationship problems Overwhelming urge to be 39n PWSP MBWP Differences 1 Anorexia denial of abnormal eating pattern Bulimia recognizes abnormal eating pattern 2 Anorexia introverted Bulimia extroverted 3 Anorexia turns away from food to cope Bulimia turns to food to cope 4 Anorexia distorted body image Bulimia dissatisfaction with body image 5 Anorexia preoccupation with losing more amp more 1bs Bulimia preoccupation with attaining an ideal unrealistic weight 14 What are the 10 commandments of suicide hat is a delusiondisturbances in the content of thought pillow talking to you Know Ego Dystonic Axis Ti it s not me vs Ego Syntonic Axis Hi it s all about me Personality Disorders a Cluster A odd amp eccentric i Paranoid Personality Disorder ii Schizotypal Personality Disorder iii Schizoid Personality Disorder b Cluster B erratic amp dramatic 39 Borderline Personality Disorder ii Narcissistic Personality Disorder iii Histrionic Personality Disorder iv Antisocial Personality Disorder c Cluster C anxious amp fearful i Dependent Personality Disorder ii Avoidant Personality Disorder iii ObsessiveCompulsive Personality Disorder n a A IQU Chapter llilntelligence 1 Know Howard Gardner s 8 Types of Intelligence 1 Linguisticgreat writers and poets good verbal expression 2 Logical mathsuperior scientists and logical problem solvers 3 Spatialsuperior navigation skills 4 Musicalgifted musicians 5 Kinesthetic bodygifted athletes surgeons 6 Interpersonalpeople who can easily infer others moods 7 Intrapersonal great insight in own feelings amp emotions 8 Nature ability to surv1ve NOTE 6 and 7 compose EQ Emotional Intelligence 2 What does Sternberg say about intelligence Analyticability to process information strong reasoning and logic Creativehow well people cope w new tasks develop unique solutions Practicalhow well people t in street smarts Describe the 3 principles of test construction Standardizationso score can be compared to others Reliabilityyield dependently consistent scores Validitymeasures what it is supposed to What are the baseline tests in the WAIS R7verbal IQ performance 1Q Vocabulary and Block Design If Joe has an IQ of 75 what does that meanborderline mentally challenged 130 9 very superior 120129 9superior 110119 9high average 90109 9average 8089 910w average 7079 9borderline retarted under 69 9mentally challenged What is a Genogram 7Diagram of family history Is Intelligence inherited7Yes 9 gt V gt19 Chapter 177Therapy 1 Describe BioMedical Therapy rapies tipsychotics Antidepressants Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT 7 mimics seizure and gets transmitters in right place 2 Describe Psychoanalysis insightbring whatever has been repressed into awareness 3 Describe Behavioral Therapy no insightijust change in behavioropposite of psychoanlalytic a Behavior Modification rewards i Identify target behavior Monitor to establish baseline ii39 Identify positive i39einforcers i Establish schedule of reinforcement v Enlist social support v Moniter amp record progress b Systematic Desensitization take baby steps gradually making connection between the thing feared and die emotion of relaxation c Aversive Conditioningelectric shock therapy pill that makes u nauseous when drinking alc d Modelinghere s how you do it follow a ei39 me e Floodinglarge exposure to the feared all at one time Describe Rational Emotive Therapy REDTherapist is expert STOP BLAMING YOURSELF HOEBAG i39 lt1y y 4 5 Describe Cognitive Therapy Rational Emotive Therapy directby changing the way you think you can alter your brain chemistry 6 Describe Humanistic Therapy nondirectclient is expert opposite RET Goal become fully functioning person 7 Describe Group Therapyexplore problem w others who have the same problem Chapter 147Stress amp Health 1 Know General Adaptation Syndrome GASAlarm Resistance Exhaustion 2 Know how stress in uences immune systemstress decreases lymphocytes and makes you get sick easier 3 Know how we control stress a External source of stress Life Event b Personal Appraisal interpretation i Healthy Person challenge ii Sick Person threat Personality Type i Healthy Person easygoing selfconfident optimistic ii Sick Person reactive low selfefficacy pessimistic d Coping w Stress Personal Habits i Healthy Person nonsmoking regular exercise good nutrition ii Sick Person smoking no exercise poor nutrition e Social Support i Healthy Person enduring level of social support ii Sick Person lacking social support f Outcome i Healthy Person tendency toward health ii Sick Person tendency toward illness 0 Chapter 127Motivation amp Work 1 BioPsychoSocial Model a Instinct Theory bio b Psychoanalytic Theory psychLibidopnmitive sexual and aggressive energy c Behaviorist Theory socialthings we re rewarded for we continue to do d Humanistic Theory psychMaslow s Hierarchy of Needs Top Self Actualization motivated to have a vocation Theory Y Bottom Psychological needs Motivated by jobs for a paycheck Theory X Cognitive Theory psychsocial motivated bc it tells me who I am YerkesDodson Theory law biopsychmotivated to meet optimum level of arousal Opponent Process Theory biobiologically wired to be in balance Internal Push bio External Pull socialhunger pushes within self to tell self to eat external forces pull eating pattern FWDH30 Chapter 137Emotion WSQEJ HeP NE Facial expressions aren t universal nature lzard Gestures are cultural IamesLange Theoryperceived stimulus9 body responses experienced emotion CannonBard Theorybody responses 9cognitive label9experienced emotion Twofactor Theory of Emotion Adaptation Level Phenomenon Relative Depravation Theoryperception that one is worse off What factors are related to happiness Control Flow close relationships Purpose in life E WHOQOU N Humor Helping others Dumb PSYCH 120 EXAM 1 REVIEW Key components to science Observation and Explanation veryimportant 1 Zeitgeist Spirit of the times Anthropomorphismprojection of human attributes AnimismAs though nature was alive or possessed a soul Magic N Early Philosophers 400 BC 3 Dark Ages 5001500 AD Religion Ruled Negative Social Climate Persecution discriminated against women Beginning of Psychology 1 Structuralism 1 First School ofPsychology Founder William Wundt 1879 2 Functionalism 2 Darwin said we evolved from animals to humans Want to know the function purpose of the mind Mental processes are a stream Science of mental life 3 Psychoanalytic Freud Conscious mental life is the tip of the iceburg Id quotbeastquot inside everyone that has an aggressive and sexual drive Super Ego Developed to contrast the Id What you should do Ego Middle between Id and Super Ego Referee ThanatosDeath Instinct 4 Behavioristic 3 Watson 1 920 s1960 s Science of observable behavior Cognitive Revolution Everything that happens inside the mind Marriage between behaviorism imagery Learning perception thinking dreams things that happen in your mind Decade of the Brain Where we are now in Psychology Technology allows us to see what happens inside the brain Correlation Patterns no relationship m How does shoe size relate to math test Positive relationship 1 2 How does the number of hours worked relate to the amount of tips received Negative re lationship How does the amount of baseball practice relate the the number of errors per game 7 Scientific Method A multistep technique that generates empirical knowledge knowledge derived from systematic observations of the world 1 Observe 2 Detect regularities certain consistent features or conditions 3 Generate a hypothesis prediction 4 Observe predictions of hypothesis are checked for accuracy Descriptive Statistics Know what mean mode median variability range standard deviation are descriptive statistics and what they mean Independent Variable Aspect in an experiment that is manipulated Dependant Variable Behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment Experimental Condition group Group who gets the change or independent variable Control Condition group Group that doesn39t get the change or independent variable Bio Psycho Social Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that relay information from one neuron to the next 1 Dopamine inhibitory effects Parkinson39s and schizophrenia 2 Serotonin linked to sleep dreaming arousal depression eating disorders and 0CD 3 Endorphins Morphine chemical painkillers Brain Evolution Brain Stem survival hind brain Oldest and innermost part central core old brain Medulla Controls heart beat breathing cross over point In uences ow of information between spinal cord and brain Swallowing coughing sneezing blood pressure breathing and heartbeat Cerebellum Muscular control motor behavior in uences learning and memory quotlittle brainquot Smaller than normal is linked to autism Damage can produce ataxia slurred speech severe tremors loss of balance similar to alcohol intoxication r connects 2 halves of the cerebellum Integrating movements from left to right side of body Thalamus Like telephone switchboard orients sensory neurons Reticular Formation Network of neurons that help control arousal and attention Limbic System emotion motivation and memory mid brain 1 Amygdala Aggression and fear 2 Hypothalamus Hunger thirst sex behavior controls endocrine system Sleep body temp movement 3 NucleusAccumbens pleasure center Cerebral Cortex information process foresight fore brain More than 80 of brain s weight Trillion synaptic connections Cerebral Cortex and information processing 1 Frontal Lobe judgement and planning Motor premotor prefrontal Control of fingers speech abstract thinking decision making II Parietal Lobe body sensations Pressure temperature pain warmth III 0ccipital Lobe Vision IV Temporal Lobe llearing REMEMBER Corpus Callosum holds 2 halves of brain together Pons holds 2 halves of cerebellum together Emotional Development Harlow Surrogate monkey mothers baby attached to cuddly mother and leaned over to fake mother for feeding Attachment need was based on Level of comfort Body contact Contentment Ai nswo rth Observed mothers interacting with child when mother left the room 39 wants to be with mother most Americans 20 yrs Later comfortable w emotion Difficult to console 20 yrs Later roIIercoaster relationships clingy jealous Genotyp e Actual genetic information inherited from one39s parents Phenotype Observable characteristics such as red hair usually controlled by the genotype Erick Erickson 1 Infancy rst year trust vs mistrust 2 Toddler second year autonomy vs shame doubt 3 Preschool 35 yrs initiative vs guilt 4 Elementry school 6puberty competence vs inferiority 5 Adolescence teen 2039s identity vs role confusion 6 Young adult 2039s 4039s intimacy vs isolation 7 Mid adult 4039s 6039s generativity vs stagnation 8 Late adult 6039s on integrity vs despair Piaget Schema simple idea about how the world works Assimilate maintain schema Accommodate change schema Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Development Experiences the world through senses and actions looking and touching Obiect Permanence 81 0 months just bc I don t see it doesn39t mean it s not there StrangerAnXiety get anxious about being alone with a stranger Discovers abstract scientific and moral reasoning Kholberg moral thinking a Preconventional morality infant to age 9 Avoid punishment and gain rewards b Conventional morality adolescence Gain approval avoid disproval do duty to society 0 Post conventional morality after 20 A irms agreed upon rights universal ethics Three Styles of Disipline 1 Authoritarian Parenting high control low warmth 2 Authoritative Parenting rm control good warmth best type 3 Permissive Parenting no control little or no warmth Sexual Development Female XX Male XY Klinefelter Syndrome XXY Gender Typing The acquisition of masculine or feminine gender identity and roles Androgyny Posession of psychological traits of both men and women Males and females have equal intelligence but different preferences Four theories of Gender Typing 1 Freud s gender identi cation theory Sexual energy identijying with the same seX parent 2 Social Learning Theory Rewards and punishment rewarded when correct and punished when wrong 3 Cognitive Development Theory Child s struggle to comprehend self and world 4 Gender Schema Theory Looking atself and world through a quotgender lens Adolescence Puberty Period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs mainly in adolescence Otto Rank Wanted to know who would be most creative in their eld 100 comply gives in bc they don39t want con ict no anxiety but no creativity 39 5050 highest level of anxiety more creative than 100 group iv 100 assert own preference most creative in their field Early Adulthood my 4 tasks for early adulthood 1 Define your dream of adult accomplishment 2 Find someone who is living your dream a mentor 3 Develop a vocation 4 Open up to new intimate relationships Intelligence 2 types 1 Crystallized Intelligence Increases w age 2 Fluid Intelligence Decreases w age Recognition stays the same w old age and recalling decreases w age Death Kubler Ross s 5 Stages 1 2 539quot 0quot Denial Anger and Resentment Bargaining Depression Peaceful acceptance not everyone gets to this stage Personality Barnum Effect Our tendencies to accept as valid descriptions of our personality that are generally true of everyone EX what fortunetellers do Marriage Satisfaction All due to positive vs negative time together
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