NEW Biological Anthropology Test 2 Study Guide
NEW Biological Anthropology Test 2 Study Guide ANTH1013 001
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University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Biological Anthropology Exam 2 Study Guide Topic 10 human osteology growth and development What is osteology the science of studying bones composition structure development functional anatomy relationship to other anatomical units Six skeletal functions 1 support provides a scaffolding to support soft tissue 2 protection provides a hard armor shielding soft tissues ex brain 3 function bones act as levers or struts pulled upon by muscles to produce movement locomotion 4 red blood cell amp marrow productionstorage occurs in long bones in the layers of the skull pelvic bones ribs 5 mineral bank reservoirs of minerals to be tapped by bodies 6 energy reserve adipose tissue stored in marrow Red bone marrow red blood cells platelets and most white blood cells arise in red bone marrow Yellow bone marrow produces fat cartilage and bone gets its yellow color from the carotenoids in the fat droplets in the high number of fat cells Standard anatomical position standing erect facing directly fonNard feet pointed fonNard and slightly apart and arms hanging down at the sides with palms facing fonvard when the thumb is on the lateral side of the hand Categories of bones ong bones large tubular bones of the limbs with articular ends 6 pairs 12 total short bones tubular shafts and articular ends but small 58 total fat bones thin wide bones for protection and muscle attachment 35 total ex ribs or sternum irregular bones blocky or chunky depending on function bone performs 65 infracranial bones ex vertebrae sesamoid bones a short bone embedded within a tendon increases mechanical advantage sesamoid seedlike University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene most famous sesamoid bone is the kneecap patella Human dental formula 21232123 Muscles of mastication temporalis origin temporal lines masseter origin zygomatic arch Dental eruption patternsequence useful because it shows a chart on which teeth develop first in the stages of development universal chart for the growth of teeth in children Ossification of long bones epiphyseal plate role played in bone growth it s where cartilage is formed on the epiphyseal side while cartilage is ossified how a bone is formed on the diaphyseal side which leads to lengthening of bones when bones stop growing in length early adulthood Parts of a long bone epiphysis articular ends of a bone diaphysis shaft of a bone epiphysea plate disappears when bone growth is complete Human life history stages pregnancybirth infancy childhood juvenility adolescence adu hood Life history milestones menarche first occurrence of female menstruation menopause marks the end of female menstrual cycles occurs between the ages of 4550 weaning getting accustomed to food other than mother s milk becoming not as dependent on mother s milk as a baby baby starts consuming other sources of food sexual maturity puberty physical maturity University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Other life history terms senescence conditionprocess of deterioration with age loss of a cell s power of division and growth lactationa amenorrhea the temporary postnatal infertility that occurs when a woman is amenorrheic not menstruating and fully breastfeeding interbirth interval the elapsed length of time between births Anatomical planesdirectional terms sagittal plane cuts the body into left and right halves transverse plane cuts the body into top and bottom halves coronal plane cuts the body into front and back halves anteriorlventra moving towards the front posteriorldorsa moving towards the back media moving towards the midline atera moving away from the midline superior cranial moving upwards inferior cauda moving downwards proxima moving towards the body dista moving away from the body BONES sku cranium mandible cranial bones frontal single occipital single parietal paired temporal paired sphenoid single maxilla paired zygomatic paired nasal paired sutures sagittal coronal lambdoidal mandible teeth mandibularmaxillary incisors mandibularmaxillary canines mandibularmaxillary premolars mandibularmaxillary molars formua vertebrae cervical thoracic lumbar sacrum coccyx sternum bones of the arm amp shoulder girdle clavicle University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene scapula humerus radius ulna bones of the hand carpals metacarpals phalanges phalanx singular pevis sacrum os coxae os coxa singular illium ischium pubis bones of the leg femur tibia fibula bones of the foot tarsals metatarsals phalanges Topic 1 1 overview of classi cation Linnaeus hierarchical classification system kingdom ex Anamalia class ex Vertebrata order ex Primates genus ex Homo species ex sapiens What is binomial nomenclature each species scientific name contains both the genus and species name binomen is written in italics humans Homo sapiens Why is Linnaeus classification hierarchical his system is a collection of nested relationships as one moves up the hierarchy one forms more and more inclusive groups University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Why is Linnaeus system phenetic it was based on overall similarity wasn t concerned with evolutionary relationships What is a clade an ancestral species and all of its descendent species nested within larger clades clades are lineages so another name for a clade is a monophyletic group What is a polyphyletic group group of species but not including the ancestor What is a paraphyletic group an ancestral species and some of its descendants What is an evolutionary homology existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures or genes in different species What is an evolutionary analogy structures that have similar form or function but were not present in the last common ancestor of those groups What is a cladogram a branching diagram showing the cladistic relationship between a number of species sympesiomorphy a trait that s found in the last common ancestor of some specific group of taxa and that s expected to be in that ancestor s descendants shared ancestral trait synapomorphy trait that has changed from the condition seen in the last common ancestor and which is shared among some of its descendants shared derived trait autapomorphy trait that has changed from the condition seen in the last common ancestor and which isn t shared among some of its descendants uniquely derived trait How does phenetic classification differ from a cladistic classification phenetics classifies species based on overall similarity and not concerned with phylogeny earliest approach but now uncommon cladistics classifies species based on phylogeny only developed in the 19603 and is now dominant University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene What is evolutionary systematics classifies based partially on phylogeny recognizes grades and clades grade set of things with a similar set of characteristics cade set of things which evolved from each other Topics 11 12 13 introduction to primates On which continents and major islands do you find primates Central amp South America Africa lndia Asia Japan Madagascar Southeast Asia islands Borneo amp Sumatra Habitats of living primates found in tropicalsemitropical areas of the new and old worlds most nonhuman primates are arboreal and live in the forest or woodland habitats some old world monkeys ex baboons spend much of the day on the ground the same also goes for African apes gorillas chimps and bonobos but all nonhuman primates spend some time in the trees especially when sleeping Body size range of living primates extremely large range it can range from a tiny mouse lemur 3502 to a male gorilla approx 400bs locomotion variation in living primates quadrupeda use all four limbs to support the body vertica clingingleaping grasping onto trunks of trees or other large plants while kneesankles are tightly flexed by forcefully extending long hind limbs a primate can spring powerfully away either forward or bacloNard brachiation arm swinging suspensory form of locomotion in which the body moves by being alternatively supported by one forelimb and then the other all apes to some degree have arms that are longer than their legs and some gorillas bonobos and chimps practice a special form of quadrupedalism called knucklewalking support weight of upper body on back surfaces of bent fingers University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Dietary variation in living primates most primates are omnivorous having a diet consisting of many food types such as plants meats and insects most primates eat a combo of fruits nuts seeds leaves other plants and insects many also get animal protein from birds or amphibians some capuchins baboons bonobos and chimps occasionally kill and eat small mammals including other primates others like the African colobus monkeys and leafeating monkeys iangurs of India and southeast Asia have become more specialized and mostly eat leaves What anatomical features do all primates share postorbita bar where the zygomatic bone and the frontal bones join to form a lateral strut which runs around the eye socket of most strepsirrhine primates grasping handsfeet fingernails not claws fonNardly facing eyes stereoscopic vision reduced sense of olfaction sense of smell larger brains relative to body size the arboreal hypothesis explains primate origins states that primates39 unique set of traits is an adaptation to living in trees visua predation hypothesis states that unique primate traits arose as adaptations to preying on insects and on small animals comparative method method used to test hypotheses about adaptation looks for repeated associations Primate classification animals are organized into specific categories ex the order primates includes all primates at the next level down the suborder primates are divided into two smaller categories strepsirhini amp haplorhini strepsirhini suborder that includes lemurs and lorises haplorhini suborder that includes tarsiers monkeys apes and humans comparative genomics making direct comparisons between genes and the entire genetic makeup of different species University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology 1 3 35 4 v 1 Order Primates 3 L a 7 I c 1 if quot39 1 a r Fquot a r4 39J 1 3 3 41 Suborder St h g I 995quot W Haplorhini c 23 3 3 7 lnfraorder Lemuriformes g 2 alllemursand AnthropOIdea TarSliformes a 5 quot lorises all monkeys apes allxarslersl 13 3 andhumans 05 3 U 9 b i A lt a p 2 5 5 4 c aw rd Platyrrhini Catanhim lt9 0 all New World all Old World monkeys 3 a monkeys apes and humans 0 D 3 CD quot 75 O 57 cu D a O 8 3 U x quotquot D supe am39ly LemurOldea Lorisoidea Atelordea Cercopithecoidea Homfnoidea a g 5 all lemurs all lonses allNemeld all Old World 0 Q monkeys monkeys apes and humans m 704 J k 539 a Q Q V M O 5 9 2 o X D w O C b A Id m g g Pithecridae e idae lei ae y 9 Family saklstills and squlrrelmonkeys howlersspider Hylobatidae Homlnldae w 9 3 39 uakans capuchins owl monkeys and gibbons and grearapes and D B lt monkey and munquls S39amang 5 humans 0 32quot marmosets g lt C w E O 2 3 D m o Pongmae Gorillinae Homininae a subfamily O39angmans gorillas chimpanzees g 0 b0 ones and a E humans 0 395 m d w w w W m U 3 9 m g p g a anini V T be All primates I All monkeys Homlmm l1 I All strepsirhines I Al hOmS39nO39dS I All haplorhmes 39Al ape 39 39 1 din extinct WW I I formes All homlnlns inc u g M A arS humans oidS MS and mm Pongo Go 1 39All anthrop 5 Pan Homo Genus I a r w 39 7 M pygmaeus W n orangutans 4 sggrllc i troglodytes i MW 2suospems SDames Chimpanzeesl Sapiens Q 3 SUbSchues Damscus g bonobos g m 7 m 3 Primitive mammalian features tapetum lucidum reflective layer in the eye that aids in night seeing rhinarium wet nose amp split upper lip strepsirhini multiple nipples bicornuate uterus quotheartshapedquot uterus composed of two quothornsquot separated by a septum unfused mandibular symphysis when the halves of the mandible aren t fused together Strepsirhine primates emurs all live on the island of Madagascar body size range 10215le most are diurnal day but some are nocturnal night arborea and terrestrial quadrupeds vertical clingers and leapers eats fruit flowers gums and leaves examples of lemurs Lemur catta ringtailed lemur Propithecus sifaka University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Daubentonia ayeaye has a long middle finger to help graspcatch food in trees logs in the ground etc and also for scooping out the sustenance in fruits also used to tap on trees for woodboring insect larvae moving under the bark Jonses live in Africa and Asia body size range 20235bs al nocturnal arboreal quadrupeds slow climbers and vertical clingingleaping eats fruit gums and insects galagos bushbabies native to continental Africa al nocturnal eats insects other small animals fruit and gums has a significant leaping ability and also can hop and runwalk on all fours derived features of strepsirhine primates tooth comb dental comb dental structure found in some mammals comprising of a group of front teeth arranged in a manner that facilitates grooming similar to a hair comb primitive features of strepsirhine primates unicornuate uterus tapetum lucidum multiple nipples wet nose amp split upper lip unfused mandibular symphysis Haplorhine primates tarsiers monkeys and apes derived features of haplorhines loss of tapetum lucidum dry nose amp fused upper lip tarsiers live in Southeast Asia body size range all around 35oz al nocturnal vertical clingingleaping eats insects and small animals Anthropoid primates monkeys amp apes derived features fused mandible postorbital closure unicornuate uterus single pair of nipples University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Platyrrhine primates new world monkeys live in SouthCentral America body size range 35oz22lbs all diurnal except for the owl monkey which is crepuscular arboreal quadrupeds suspension saltation eats fruits leaves insects seeds and gums derived features laterally flaring flat nostrils primitive features three premolars dental formula 21332133 taxa Ateles spider monkey with prehensile tail Cebus capuchin uses stone tools Catarrhine primates old world monkeys amp apes native to Africa amp Asia derived features downwardly facing nostrils 21232123 dental formula ischial callosities and tuberosities al diurnal Cercopithecoid primates old world monkeys live in Africa amp Asia body size range 25lbs70lbs al diurnal most arboreal but some terrestrial all quadrupeds eats fruit leaves seeds invertebrates vertebrates derived features bilophodont molars molars that have four cusps oriented in two parallel rows resembling ridges or 39lophs Hominoids apes live in Africa amp Asia everywhere for humans body size range 13385 lbs al diurnal suspension knucklewalking bipedalism eats fruits leaves insects meat and seeds derived features tai loss larger brain long arms broad thorax University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Topic 14 primate locomotion diet and social behavior Fundamental niche full range of environmental conditions physical amp biological under which an organism can exist Realized niche a portion of the fundamental niche that an organism actually occupies Primate diets frugivory frugivore includes fruits amp seeds foivory folivore includes young and mature leaves and flower blossoms insectivory insectivore includes crunchy adult insects and soft larvae or pupae body size amp diet insectivores are small frugivores are medium and folivores are large diet and teeth frugivore rounded cusps and short crests good for crushing brittle fruits foivore long crests on molars good for shearing cellulose insectivore long crests on molars good for shearing chitin Primate locomotor styles quadrupedalism terrestrial quadrupedalism arboreal quadrupedalism knucklewalking suspension brachiation bridging leaping vertical clinging amp leaping quadrupedal leaping saltation Basic social groups noyau males and females solitary but are on overlapping ranges ex orangs pongo amp bushbabies galago polyandry one female and multiple adult males ex tamarins Saguinus monogamy one adult female and one adult male ex gibbons Hyobates amp titi monkeys polygyny one adult male and multiple adult females exgonHas University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene Sexual selection intersexua selection female choice differential mating success of members of one sex due to preferences of members of the opposite sex for certain phenotypes intrasexua selection malemale competition differential mating success of males due to outcompeting other males for access to females why do primate females do the choosing and males do the competing for access to mates females are typically the dominant sex in primate species and are the driving force in the reproductive process leads to females being extremely picky on who they want to mate with so male primates try to one up each other so they can potentially have the females approval what is sperm competition competition between sperm of two or more males for the fertilization of an ovum more pronounced in species with high female promiscuity copulating with more than one female Why primates live in groups shared defense of predators shared defense of food resourcesterritorial areas access to mates advantagesdisadvantages to group living advantages selfish herd effect alarm calls mobbing disadvantages predator attraction Topic 15 intro to paleontology Taphonomy study of what happens to an individual after death Principle of superposition in a series of sedimentary strata lower strata are older Fossw preserved remains or traces of past organisms Figuring out the age of a fossil relative dating science of determining the relative order of past events without necessarily determining their absolute age absoute dating process of determining an age on a specified time scale radioisotopic dating method for determining the age of an object based on the concentration of a particular radioactive isotope contained within it and the half life of that isotope University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene what is a halflife the time period in which 12 the amount of a radioactive isotope is converted chemically to a daughter product how is the radioisotopic decay of isotopes used to date fossils it provides a significant source of info to help deduce the age of a fossil and the rates of evolutionary change if the halflife of 14C is 5730 and the bone found in a cave has only A of the original 14C remaining how old is the bone 11460 years how is changes in magnetic polarity used to check the absolute dates assigned to fossils the higher the polarity the older the fossil is Depositional environments fluvial river lacustrine lake deposits caves karst systems regions made up of porous limestone containing deep fissures caves and streams Topic 16 overview of primate evolution and deep time Archonta colugos tree shrews primates Cenozoic era paleocene 6554 million years ago eocene 5434 million years ago oligocene 3423 million years ago miocene 2355 million years ago pliocene 5518 million years ago pleistocene 18 million years ago10000 years ago holocene 10000 years agotoday Radiations of fossil primates adapids primarily radiated during the eocene epoch body size smallmedium in size diet primarily folivorous but also consumed small nuts fruits and seeds omomyids primarily radiated during the eocene epoch body size relatively small body mass University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene diet nocturnal insectivores locomotion leaped frequently have grasping handsfeet oligocene platyrrhines Branisella earliest platyrrhine where are extinct platyrrhinelike primates outside of South America nearest extant relatives live in Africa how did platyrrhines get to South America no one knows what other mammals appear in South America at the same time as platyrrhine primates cavlomorph rodents the hoatzin eocene anthropoids Eosimias found near China geological age lived in the eocene epoch oligocene anthropoids of Africa the fayum geographically located in Egypt unlike any community today some true catarrhines and some platyrrhinelike animals locomotion of Aegyptopithecus arboreal quadruped SAMPLE QUESTIONS ANSWERS The human dental formula is 21232123 The singular of phalanges is phalanx The long bone of the upper arm is the humerus ln standard anatomical position the thumb is on the lateral side of the hand In living adults the shaft of a long bone is filled with yellow bone marrow The patella is an example of an sesamoid bone Which of the following is an example of a paired bone in the adult human cranium parietal University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene The visual predation hypothesis suggests that the earliest primates acquired grasping hands and stereoscopic vision to expoit which niche an arboreal predator of insects Which of the following correctly describes an evolutionary homology either a symplesiomorphy or synapomorphy a trait shared by more than one species and also inherited from a common ancestor Lemurs are found where Madagascar only On Madagascar the ayeaye fills the same niche as which other animal woodpecker Which of the following animals has a tooth comb aka dental comb Lemur catta ringtailed lemur The mandible of a lemur differs from the mandible of a human in which way the lemur mandible is not fused at the symphysis and the human mandible is Which of the following is an osteological feature of all primates postorbital bar Which of the following primate anatomical characteristics is a symplesiomorphy shared with nonprimate mammals five fingers on each hand and five toes on each foot What is the name for layer of cells that lie behind the retina and improves the visual acuity of nocturnal animals tapetum lucidum The tooth comb is composed of which teeth incisors amp canines Smallbodied primates with short arms long legs and elongated tarsals ie ankle thatjump between trees perform which kind of locomotor behavior vertical clingingleaping Unlike strepsirhine primates haplorhines have which anatomical feature dry nose University of Arkansas ANTH 1013 Intro to Biological Anthropology Delezene
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