Rhetoric In The Western World
Rhetoric In The Western World COM 31200
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elda Bahringer on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COM 31200 at Purdue University taught by Samuel McCormick in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/207916/com-31200-purdue-university in Communication Studies at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
The Effeminate Style Previously Women reproduced cooked cleaned Their place was to be chaste silent subordinate to a male and fruitful Had no voice or political of ce Women did communicate in the home If they weren t silent They were whores purchased speech at the price of her uterus to marry a whore is to marry noise public speaking took women from the home where they SHOULD be bearing and raising kids Witches because they voiced the devils sentiments Hysterics speech from an ungoverned emotion Heresiarchs speech must come from the devil or a demented mind Develops to the manly speaker amp ideal of power Manly style is accepted and thought to be factual analytic organized and impersonal Women have to assert their presence Speech served as an entry point for those who wanted to have an impact on society Effeminate style and tv Why is it more effective It s calmed and relaxed men were too hot Father is head of family mother is heart p 81 on bottom The inability to disclose some sense of private self on an intimate mass medium has proven a barrier for mo st men in politics today Manly style is a noose Challenging standards of masculinity Different messages for different styles A woman must rst master the masculine style It s a constant push by women to stretch decorum p87 Women tend to adopt the socially approved style that tv calls for Similar to Aper or Messala Favors Messala but realizes we are going to return to that Eloquence has declined but there are ways to x it We must learn how to operate change Burkian style master masculinity Chapter 5 Phrase Making The memorable phrase concise quippy ex there s an app for that About trivial repetition amp full daily repetition Synecdoche a part of the whole A house divided cannot stand Pizan was looking for reps of women 4 things memorable phrases do Build communities by giving the audience a sense of itself 6 Shape history Provide lessons shape collective memory help us remember the past enable head lines Memorable phrases assume lives of their own Can be used to contort and counteract our opponent p 97 The ability for a phrase to stand for the entire construction of reality enables a rhetor to modify an antagonist s philosophy by converting a single significant rhetorical fragment Task of journalists is eased by eloquent presidents who synopsize their presidencies and interpretations into distilled phrases Chapter 8 Cicero rhetoric wide learning and competent speaking Wisdom eloquence Thought speech Jamison two totally different spheres today Wisdom does NOT equal eloquence Wisdom now belongs to speech writers and eloquence belongs to the Politian s The rst speech writers were sophists p 204 speechwriters help to shape our perceptions p 211 speechwriters are a problem but politicians need them Place advanced copies in reports hands need nationwide headlines Put text on teleprompter allows eye contact Careful phrasing is needed so it can t be misinterpreted p 212 We expect way more speeches than before p 213 Wouldn t it be better if we didn t need so much We need to do these things instead Read history Study writings of world s greatest thinkers Ponder the meanings of war photos Think about major speeches p 220 When the ghosted text contains things the speaker can say truthfully Obscures our view of the thought processes and mind of the speaker Denies the speakers the advantage that comes om writing their own thoughts Deprives p 221 What presidents should do Spend time in the process of determining what questions are worth answering Gathering amp testing data Studying history Weighing alternate proposals Time thinking through the language in which they will answer Considering criticism from people in their circle p 231 4 reasonsadvantages of reunited thinking and speaking The quality of policy making and public leadership might increase If presidents were involved in the creation of the speeches they would be the product Of careful counsel and informed presidential consent Quiz 5 Review Clarity sensitivity skill William Jennings Bryan failed toadapt Radio and TV enable oratory to be at once more public and private Literacy is the basis for eloquence Linear argumentation is NOT a characteristic of the effeminate style Double bind only someone who has achieved credibility as a masculine speaker can risk adopting the effeminate style 7 The memorable phrase is central 8 Synoptic phrase comm headlines memory contorts and counteracts 9 l Qwewwe Need a liberal edu quick intellect dexterous command adapt to new situations 0 Jamison s critique was similar to Platos Polltlcal Style the Artlstry of Power Political style is Set of rules for speech and conduct informing practice of comm and display operating through a repertoire of rhetorical conventions depending on aesthetic reactions determines individual ID social cohesion and distributing power Political experience is style We don t know what is it or how to make sense of it The handshake Aesthetic political experience skill and result often involve conventions of persuasive composition that depend on this Discourse must be appealing We are always thinking about the content of our speeches We see politics as an art form 4 styles Courtly Realist Republican Democratic Most important to us Keeping it real the REALIST STYLE Realistic style similar to Machiavelli p 4 political style coherent representation depends on aesthetic reaction The only time we think about stuff is when it s not normal Reactions have political effects There is rhetoric of many things no single rhetoric About the catalog of the means of persuasion It only works in certain political cultures We need to role with the changes and adapt p 6 post modern p 10 techniques amp performances Basic elements of a realist style places politics in a reality outside of the grasp of political texts and promotes strategic thinking as the pureform of political intelligence Effect of the style is to persuade us that there is no style at all 2 basic designs Language is intrinsic to reality it s the realm of oratory Important aspect according to realists This way underpins much oratory This is where oratory goes down Language Is extrinsic of Reality Rhetoric Deeds Textspress Materialsreality Soft power Hard power Realm of ideology About schools About who gets to go to schools The rhetoric doesn t match the record this is a realist persuasive technique Tell it how it is 3Id variable is the political advisor helps to negotiate the roles people need experts to help navigate between the two worlds Causes us not to ask questions we are persuaded by that which we do not perceive Hariman we are unconsciously in uenced by artistic elements which compromise political style We must be aware In order for us to avoid being deceived amp for us to know how to implement style p 3 framework amp crucial task Separation of power and textuality Language and reality Soft power vs hard power Third actor technocrat political advisor Power resides in the political advisor Soft power within the words verbal statements amp how they in uence Hard actual action sanctions textuality Ex threaten to beat someone then the belt comes out Seems like no style at all More on Soft Power Forms press conferences speeches discourse Goal of rhetoric we are getting down to the nitty gritty it s related to stretching decorum Real is NOT static There is a divorce between ethics and ideals in the realistic style We feel like we can trust people because of the idea of ID consubstantiality and people appear trustworthy Modernity trusts empiricalrational evidence Post modernity we aren t asking the right questions p 13 gives us the impression that we are seeing humanity Political Advisor Machiavelli was training to be strategic goal is strategy Warfare and training in warfare is still important it s still strategic Why does this style persuade 3 elements language power technocrat Basic Elements Realists know Human affairs are contingent always changing Realizes on a means end calculus Accept necessity of deception Name of the game 1 most important thing is to look religious strategists CAN hand the truth people cannot people who can handle those who can t handle the truth leaders Ethic of self control courtly style also emphasizes this You have to remain unwavering keep your cool but must look vulnerable on certain occasions About modern calculations to anticipate control structure circumstances Categorical ethics are out the door realists don t care there are no rules sometimes you need to lie and steal bc end justi es the means Society is heteronormative Quiz review 1 Persuasion with no style is the goal in the Realist 2 Hariman says style is active in political realm a Jamison says it s dead 3 Courtly style power as performance power of reality 4 Key of the courtly style inability silence and gestures 5 Premises of courtly moral vs immoral material vs transcendent 6 Use of the body is an example of autonomy 7 Oprah Courtly Style Tropes Facilitate communication around and about focal individuals De ne and enhance personal authority Distribute power within a society oriented toward an individual s display of political authority or aesthetic distinction p Intimate relationships describe people by physical features People draw attention to certain body parts Thrives in the visual world about appearance 3 main areas Celebs bc they must master and distinguish oneself within a rhetoric of gestures Advertising American presidencies Celeb culture Status is conferred and organized by media Media designates what is or is not important Success lies in breeding imitation Distinguish oneself through performance before an audience Want to be powerful unique something to be imitated Rhetoric of gestures Power is concentrated in the body Displayed by performance silence immobility Locally people look at the proximity to a celebs body subordinating speech to gestures immobility p 91 takes advantage of women paradoxical man see women as a pile of parts Quiz Review 1 Realist style human affairs contingent means end deception ethic of self control 2 Example of styling hair realist style because it attempts to look like no style at all 3 Courtly style a Material vs trans b Natural vs mystic c Moral vs politics 4 Oprah s xation with her body 5 Strategists can best handle the truth p 81 amp celeb culture Tina Turner s legs Buy the car get the girl All about selling lifestyle and identity We want the entire thing Republican style We love it Opposite of courtly because it s ALL about speech it s an oral culture Courtly Realist Republican Silence VS Reality VS Speech Body of Monarch Verges on tyranny Oral Gestures Slogans Heroic mythos Bodily performance Force and hard pwr Soft power Metonymy Forming and adjusting Speech constitutes reality hereYou can talk your way into existence LOVES to compose and deliver persuasive speeches Beieve consensus is the means and the end of politicspower Personal embodiment of Civic Culture Heroic Mythos in times of turmoil someone will rise up belief that someone would voice the feelings of the people and at the height of great events 2 Catches In an electronic age rep style is made to look foolish New media shattered great speeches Rep style is all about forming and adjusting to new media to look like the hero Elitious There are structural constraints on who can embody style If you don t look good you won t make it BUT that doesn t matter as long as ONE person can All about Cicero he was an oddity of his time Most signi cant drawback n0 sense of equality and justice But it s all functional Style exempli es us Does 4 things the best By embodying civic culture it can activate cultural memory Motivate continued aspirations inspire toward civil leaders Has a wow factor Entertains us kmNi k Bureaucratic Style Thrives in Cultures ofwriting Mustfigure out 4 things Jurisdictional Autonomy who s in charge of what There is a hierarchy of o ices p 153 how can anyone make AN Y progress though this organizational structure Towering figure looks up towards offices Possibility of endless deferral Authority in making subsets Must be able to effect ethos of the officials N w Specialized education work max labor expertise or procedural rectitude Example not having to deal with paperwork is a perk of being toward the top of the hierarchy A Priority on writing more important than speech because the organization is constituted by the written culture and power flows through the culture not by oral commands but by writing and reading Someone would have the authority to interpret 4 things that you need to master 1 Tork and Tweek rules stretch them 2 A culture at its best is democratic If it s all organized how can it do anything unexpected P 175 Action requires a higher form of ignorance Example Man before the Law followed the rules but DIDN T act in a higher form of ignorance never took the basic change amp we MU ST take chances Writing as it relates to power Ideal of organization Chapter 6 0f Harlman Trying to tie classic principles Style is not dead Says we need a framework of language in the present p 178 notion of dramaticism 1 All action is structured according to essential ingredients of drama Act what happened purpose scene 2 Meaning is created through stage performance 3 Power is constituted 4 Persuasion is the Language is symbolic Final Exam Study Guide Com 312 Unit Five Old and new eloquence What Jarnieson says presidents should do and what they actually do Effeminate style Whores why women who appeared in public were considered whores Synecdoche What we learned from William Jennings Bryan Functions of synoptic phrases Divorce between speech and thought Why speechwriters are needed Unit Six De nition of political style pages 4 and 187 De nition of rhetoric Politics and aesthetics Representative texts for each style Realist style language reality expert Four basic elements of the realist style Hard power soft power Courtly style gestures silence xation on the body Division of the ruler s body in courtly style Contemporary sites of the courtly style Metonymy Key features of the republican style Critiques of the republican style Consensus A higher form of ignorance Keys to knowledge in bureaucratic style Split of the average of ce worker page 169 she is at once a person and a persona she is a clerk sitting at a desk which has a picture of her family on it Tensions in decorum chapter six Hariman s key to political success page 191 knowing when to be aesthetically sensitive and when to be relatively anesthetized numb frozen amp knowing when to activate a political style and when not to
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