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WKU - PSY 100 - Study Guide

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WKU - PSY 100 - Study Guide

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background image Consciousness  •  Deals with our awareness of ourselves and the world around us 
•  William James described consciousness as a stream of thoughts, it is continuous  
•  Today’s view is that consciousness is a state of awareness of ourselves and of our world 
•  States of consciousness: levels of consciousness ranging from alert wakefulness to 
deep sleep  •  Waking states of consciousness  o  Focused awareness: a state of heightened alertness in which one is fully  absorbed in the task at hand  §   Consciousness is selective; we can filter out extraneous stimuli  o  Drifting consciousness (daydreaming): a state of awareness characterized by  drifting thoughts or mental imagery  §   Daydreaming: a form of consciousness during a waking state in which  one’s mind wanders to dreamy thoughts or fantasies; generally, involve 
mundane aspects of everyday life, tend to daydream when bored 
•  We blink more when our mind wanders, reducing the amount of  information coming in to the brain  §   We tend to be happier when focused, a wandering mind is not a happy  mind  o  Divided consciousness: a state of awareness characterized by divided attention  to two or more tasks or activities performed at the same time  §   Part of the mind is on auto pilot while the other part is thinking about other  things  §   Altered states of consciousness: states of awareness during wakefulness  that are different than the usual person’s waking state; the outside world 
fades out of awareness 
•  Occur when daydreaming, meditating, using mind altering drugs   Sleeping and Dreaming  •  Why we sleep: we spend one-third of our lives sleeping  o  Protective function 
o  Energy conservation 
o  Restore bodily processes 
o  Consolidate newly learned information into lasting memories 
o  May strengthen immune system 
•  Circadian rhythm: the pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly  each day  o  Controls many different body process in a 24-hour cycle 
o  Biological clock: a clocklike mechanism in the hypothalamus is responsible for 
regulating our sleep-wake cycles  o  Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN): regulates our sleep-wake cycles, located in the  hypothalamus  •  Melatonin: our sleep hormone  o  Light causes it to decrease (morning) from the pineal gland and increase  (evening) it at nightfall  •  Jet lag: a disruption of sleep-wake cycles caused by the shifts in time zones that  accompany long-distance air travel  o  Internal body clocks do not adjust easily to time shifts associated with changes in  time zones or shift work  The Sages of Sleep  •  Stage 1: theta waves, small, irregular brain waves, a light sleep 
background image •  Stage 2: theta waves, sleep spindles and mixed EEG activity  o  Starts about 2 minutes after Stage 1, more time spent here than any other stage  •  Stages 3 and 4: delta waves, progressively more in 4 than 3, deep stages of sleep,  difficult to wake someone from stage 4  o  Sleep walking, sleep talking, bed wetting 
o  After Stage 4, there is a brief return to Stages 3 and 2 
•  Stage 5: REM sleep (rapid eye movement), majority of dreaming happens during this  stage, brain activity is as high as when awake though the muscles are relaxed  o  The state of sleep that involves rapid eye movements and that is most closely  associated with periods of dreaming; plays an important role in memory 
o  Also referred to as paradoxical sleep because of the high levels of brain activity  and the inability to move, leaving the person practically paralyzed  •  With each 90-minute cycle, stage 4 sleep decreases and REM sleep increases  o  The average person goes through 4 or 5 sleep cycles a night 
o  As the night goes on, stage 4 sleep disappears and we progress faster to REM 
sleep   •  Stages 1-4 are categorized as non-REM (nREM); nREM dreams are more thought-like  Brain Wave Patterns  •  Electroencephalograph (EEG): one of several devices used by researchers to determine  how our bodies respond when we sleep  o  Measuring sleep: about every 90 minutes we pass through a cycle of five distinct  sleep stages  §   Measures right and left eye movements, muscle tension, brain waves  •  Ordinary wakefulness: fast, low-amplitude beta waves  o  Beta waves: correlated with alertness and problem solving  •  Relaxed wakefulness: slower, rhythmic alpha waves  o  Alpha waves: associated with resting and relaxation  •  Stage 1 sleep: small, irregular brain waves 
•  Stage 2 sleep: appearance of spindle shaped waves called sleep spindles 
•  Stage 3/4 sleep: appearance of large, slow delta waves 
•  REM sleep: similar to ordinary wakefulness 
•  Delta waves: slow, rhythmic brain wave patterns associated with deep sleep 
•  Activation synthesis hypothesis: the proposition that dreams represent the brain’s 
attempt to make sense of the random discharges of electrical activity that occur during 
REM sleep 
Random electrical activity in the brainstem is interpreted by the cerebral cortex to 
create a story line
  Dreams  •  Wish fulfillment theory: Freud believed that dreams represent the deepest wishes, urges,  and desires of our unconscious  •  Manifest content: the events that actually occur in your dream 
•  Latent content: the true, underlying meaning of a dream, disguised by symbols 
o  Lucid dreams: involve being aware that one is in a dream state, less frequently  being able to control the dream that is occurring  •  Why we dream: no one really knows, there are theories though  o  Help sort through possible solutions to everyday problems and concerns  
o  Work through emotional crises or traumas 
•  Dreams lack logical thought in ordering of events of conscious thought  Sleep Deprivation 
background image •  Fatigue, emotional irritability 
•  Health problems: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, coronary disease 
•  Cognitive problems: impaired attention, reaction time, cognitive speed and accuracy, 
motor coordination, decision making, impaired memory, academic performance  •  Greater vulnerability to accidents  o  One of the most common causes of motor vehicle accidents  Sleep-Wake Disorders  •  A diagnostic category of psychological or mental disorders involving disturbed sleep  patterns  •  Insomnia: trouble falling asleep, trouble remaining asleep, trouble returning to sleep after  nighttime awakenings, and persistent early morning awakening  o  Sleep is a natural function that cannot be forced 
o  Most common sleep disorder 
•  Narcolepsy: the sudden and irresistible onset of sleep  o  Sleep attack usually lasting 15 minutes, it only consists of REM sleep  •  Sleep apnea: a frequent, reflexive gasping for air that disrupts sleep; temporary  cessation of breathing during sleep  o  More common in men and obese people 
o  Caused by a structural defect (an overly thick palate or enlarged tonsils 
•  Nightmare disorder: frequent, disturbing nightmares that interfere markedly with normal  sleep  o  Children are especially prone, usually occurs in REM sleep  •  Sleep-terror disorder: involves panic-laden night terrors that seem to be unrelated to  dream content; repeated episodes of intense fear during sleep, causing the person to 
awake abruptly in a terrified state 
o  Primarily affects children, usually outgrown by adolescence  •  Sleepwalking: when persistent and chronic, may be more than a passing phase and may  indicate a sleep-wake disorder  o  More common in children than adults  Learning •  Psychologists generally define learning as a relatively permanent change in behavior acquired through experience •  Learning is not inborn (meaning like infant reflexes) and it involves changes in behavior that are enduring but not necessarily permanent •  Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior acquired through experience
•  Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together
•  Ivan Pavlov: a prominent Russian psychologist who did research on digestion in dogs
o  Founder of classical conditioning
o  Discovered that dogs will salivate in response to the sound of a tone in a process
we now call classical conditioning Classical Conditioning •  A form of learning that depends on the role of association
•  A previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response identical or similar to the one
that was originally elicited by another stimulus as the result of the pairing or association of the two stimuli •  Neutral stimulus: a stimulus that produces no relevant response
•  Unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that elicits an unlearned response
background image •  Unconditioned response: an unlearned response to a stimulus
•  Conditioned stimulus: a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned
response after it has paired with an unconditioned stimulus •  Conditioned response: an acquired or learned response to a conditioned stimulus •  Extinction: the process by which the association between the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus is broken •  Spontaneous recovery: the spontaneous return of a conditioned response following extinction •  Reconditioning: the process of relearning a conditioned response following extinction Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination •  Stimulus generalization: the tendency for stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit the conditioned response •  Stimulus discrimination: the ability to differentiate conditioned responses to different but related stimuli •  Factors that strengthen classical conditioning: o  Frequency pairings
o  Timing
o  Intensity of the unconditioned stimulus
•  Watson and Rayner’s study of learned responses o  Little Albert study: they conditioned him to fear white rats by using a loud gong sound and that carried over into a fear of animals with fur and even a fur coat (related stimuli) •  Classical conditioning in the real world o  Advertising
o  Positive emotions
o  Drug cravings
o  Taste aversions
o  The immune system
Operant Conditioning •  Learning responses that produce changes, or consequences, in the environment o  Process of learning in which the consequences of a response determine the probability that the response will be repeated

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School: Western Kentucky University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Mark Graves
Term: Spring 2016
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Chapters 4, 5, and 6 study guide
Uploaded: 03/15/2016
20 Pages 49 Views 39 Unlocks
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