PSYCH Study Guide Chapters 9-11
PSYCH Study Guide Chapters 9-11 PSYC 3206-003
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3206-003 at East Carolina University taught by Gary J. Stainback in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/14/16
mdy uide for Chapters 911 Need to Know for Chapter g 1 O besity and body image Children grow to about 2 to 3 inches each year between ages 6 and 11 and double their weight during this period Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do This characteristic lasts through adulthood African American boys and girls grow faster than white children The average 10year old weighs 11 more pounds than 40 years ago Mexican American girls have more body fat than white girls In the US about 17 of children between the ages of 2 and 19 are obese and another 165 are overweight Boys are more likely to be overweight than girls It is most prevalent in Mexican American boys and non Hispanic black girls BODY IMAGE how one believes one looks Body image becomes important early in middle childhood especially for girls Body image can develop into eating disorders in adolescence Obesity often results from an inherited tendency aggravated by too little exercise and too much or the wrong kinds of food Children are more likely to be overweight if they have overweight parents lllness in Middle Childhood ACUTE MEDICAL CONDITIONS Occasional shortterm conditions such as infections and warts Six or even seven bouts a year with colds u or viruses are typical as germs pass among children at school or play CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS physical developmental behavioral or emotional conditions that persist for 3 months or more C 128 of US children have or are at risk of developing a chronic medical condition ASTHMA a chronic allergybased respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing wheezing and dif culty breathing US has historically high level of children with asthma About 12 of children Asthma is more likely in boys than in girls and more likely in black children than white children Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that increases the risk of developing asthma even though they do not know the real cause Air pollutants and tobacco smoke increase the risk as well DIABETES one of the most common diseases in school aged children Characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood as a result of defective insulin production ineffective insulin action or both Type 1 Diabetes is the result of an insulin de ciency that occurs when insulinproducing cells in the pancreas are destroyed Accidental injuries are the leading cause of death among schoolage US children 88 of brain injuries could be prevented by using helmets High risks from snowmobiles and trampolines ognitive Advances CONCRETE OPERATIONS When a child can use the mental operations such as reasoning to solve concrete actual problems Better use of maps and models SPATIAL THINKING A child can use a map or model to help them search for a hidden object and can give someone else directions for nding the object They can nd their way to and from school can estimate distances and can judge how long it will take them to go from one place to another CAUSE AND EFFECT A child knows which physical attributes of objects on each side of a balance scale will affect the result number or objects matter but color does not However they do not know which spatial factors make a difference placement of objects CATEGORIZATION Being able to sort objects into categories such as shape color or both They know that a subclass roses have fewer members than the class that it is part of owers SERIATION AND TRANSITIVE INFERENCE Being able to arrange a group of sticks in order from the shortest to the longest and can insert an intermediatesize stick into the proper place Knowing the difference between lengths and which ones are longer than others INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING being able to solve both inductive and deductive problems and knows that inductive conclusions based on particular premises are less certain than deductive conclusions based on general premises Inductive making observations about particular members of a class of people animals objects or events and then drawing conclusions about the class as a whole Ex If a neighbor s dog barks and another neighbor s dog barks then the conclusion that all dogs bark is drawn Deductive starts with a general statement about a class and applies it to particular members of the class Ex if the belief is that all dogs bark and a new dog comes along it would be reasonable to conclude that the new dog will also bark CONSERVATION A child at age 7 knows that if a clay ball is rolled into a sausage it still contains the same amount of clay conservation of substance That same child at age 9 knows that the ball and the sausage weigh the same Not until early adolescence will he understand that they displace the same amount of liquid if it is dropped into a glass of water Horizontal decalage The inability to transfer knowledge of conservation Liquids vs solids NUMBER AND MATHEMATICS When a child can count in their head can add by counting up from the smaller number and can do simple story problems CLASS INCLUSION the ability to see the relationship between a whole and its parts and to understand the categories within a whole Moral Reasoning Piaget proposed that moral reasoning develops in three stages He argued that children move gradually from one stage to another at varying ages THE FIRST STAGE from ages 27 and is based on rigid obedience to authority Young children are egocentric and cannot imagine that there is more than one way of looking at a moral issue They believe that rules cannot be bent or changed that behavior is either right or wrong and that offense deserves punishment THE SECOND STAGE ages 7 or 8 10 or 11 and is characterized by increasing exibility Children begin to develop their own sense ofjustice based on fairness or equal treatment for all They are able to consider more than one aspect of a situation and make more subtle judgements THE THIRD STAGE around age 11 or 12 The belief that everyone should be treated alike gives way to the ideal of equity According to Piaget a child of this age might say that a 2year old who spilled ink on the tablecloth should be held to a less demanding moral standard than a 10 year old Memory Aides SELECTIVE ATTENTION the ability to deliberately direct one s attention and shut out distractions WORKING MEMORY involves the shortterm storage of information that is being actively processed like mental workspace Ex if you are asked to compute what 42 x 60 is you would use your working memory to hold part of the answer while you solved the rest METAMEMORY knowledge about the processes of memory Can be thought of thinking about memory MNEMONICS a strategy to aid memory Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally The most common is the use of external memory aids EXTERNAL MEMORY AIDS prompts by something outside the person REHEARSAL Saying a telephone number over and over after looking it up is a form of rehearsal or conscious repetition ORGANIZATION mentally placing information into categories such as animals furniture vehicles and clothing to make it easier to recall 6 Psychometric Approach Intelligence 7IQ WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN WISCIV The most widely used individual test It is used or ages 6 through 16 and measures verbal and performance abilities yielding separate scores for each as well as a total space Pinpoint a child s strengths and help diagnose speci c problems OTISLENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST OLSAT8 has levels for kindergarten through 12th grade Children are asked to classify items show an understanding of verbal and numerical concepts display general information and follow directions Both heredity and environment in uence intelligence Controversy Whether or not IQ tests actually measure intelligence BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Brain imaging research shows a moderate correlation between brain size or amount of gray matter and general intelligence especially reasoning and problem solving abilities SCHOOLING schooling seems to increase tested intelligence Children who entered school late lost as many as 5 IQ points each year IQ scores also drop during summer vacation RACEETHNICITY AND SES leads to claim that tests are unfair to minorities Gap has narrowed between test scores between white and black children as well as Hispanic American children The strength of genetic in uence itself appears to vary with socioeconomic status CULTURE Behavior seen as intelligent in one culture may seem foolish in another IQ tests vary between cultures because of this 8 Gardener s View on Intelligence 10 Educa on 11 Problems LINGUISTIC Ability to use and understand words and nuances of meaning writing editing translating LOGICALMATHEMATICAL Ability to manipulate numbers and solve logical problems science business medicine SPATIAL Ability to nd one s way around in an environment and judge relationships between objects in space architecture carpentry city planning MUSICAL Ability to perceive and create patterns of pitch and rhythm musical composition conducting BODILYKINESTHETIC Ability to move with precision dancing athletics surgery INTERPERSONAL Ability to understand and communicate with others teaching acting politics INTRAPERSONAL Ability to understand the self counseling psychiatry spiritual leadership NATURALIST Ability to distinguish species and their characteristics hunting shing farming gardening cooking Pragmatics Pragmatics the social context of language Includes both conversational and narrative skills GENDER DIFFERENCES study in London with 4th graders when boys and girls worked together boys used more controlling statements and negative interruptions whereas girls phrased their remarks in a more tentative conciliatory way Congressional Acts on THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001 emphasizes accountability expanded parental options local control and exibility The intent is to funnel federal funding to researchbased programs and practices with special emphasis on reading and mathematics Students in grades 3 through 8 are tested annually Children with Learning INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY signi cantly subnormal cognitive functioning Indicated by an IQ of 70 or less 12 13 Creativity There are two kinds of thinking Convergent and Divergent Sometimes referred to as cognitive disability or mental retardation In most cases the cause is unknown LEARNING DISORDER The two most commonly diagnosed conditions causing behavioral and learning problems are Learning Disabilities LD and attention de cithyperactivity disorder ADHD ADHD is a syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility impulsivity low tolerance for frustration and inappropriate overactivity LEARNING DISABILITIES disorders that interfere with speci c aspects of school achievement such as listening speaking reading writing or mathematics Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed LD DYSLEXIA developmental disorder in which reading achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT ensures a free appropriate public education for all children with disabilities INCLUSION PROGRAMS programs in which children with special needs are included in the regular classroom integrating disabled and nondisabled children Gifted Children High general intelligence as shown by an IQ score of 130 or higher Generally excludes highly creative children children from minority groups and children with speci c aptitudes ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS broadens knowledge through classroom activities research activities and eld trips ACCELERATION PROGRAMS speeds up education through grade skipping fastpaced classes or advanced classes De ning and Measuring CONVERGENT The kind that IQ tests measure These are looking for a single answer Chapter 10 Need to Know 1 SelfConcept Development Young children s selfconcepts focus on physical attributes possessions and global descriptions At around ages 7 or 8 children reach the third stage of selfconcept development Judgements about the self become more conscious realistic balanced and comprehensive as children from representational systems REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS broad inclusive self concepts that integrate various aspects of the self A child can see themselves as smart in one subject and dumb in another They can compare their quotreal selfquot with their quotideal selfquot 2 Erikson39s Developmental StageCrisis INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY Erikson s fourth stage of psychosocial development There is an opportunity for growth represented by a sense of industry and a complementary risk represented by inferiority If a child is not able to obtain praise from an adult or lack motivation or selfesteem they might develop a sense of inferiority Developing a sense of industry involves learning how to work hard to achieve goals 3 Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior As children get older they are more aware of their own and other people s feelings They can better control their emotions and respond to others emotional distress By age 7 or 8 children are aware of shame and pride and they have a clearer idea of the difference between guilt and shame They also understand their con icting emotions By middle childhood children are aware of their culture s rules for acceptable emotional expression They learn what makes them angry fearful or sad and how other people react to displays of these emotions and they learn to behave accordingly EMOTIONAL SELFREGULATION effortful control of emotions attention and behavior Children low in effortful control tend to become visibly angry or frustrated when interrupted or prevented from doing something they want to do Children high in effortful control can hide their emotions at inappropriate times Children tend to become more empathetic and more inclined to prosocial behavior in middle childhood After School Programs Generally have low enrollment low childstaff ratios and welleducated staff Children especially boys in after school programs with exible programming and a positive emotional climate tend to adjust better and do better in school Persistent Poverty Effects About 22 of US children up to age 17 lived in poverty in 2010 39 of black children and 35 of Hispanic children Children with single mothers are nearly 5 times more likely to be poor than children living with married couples Poor children are more likely than other children to have emotional or behavioral problems Their cognitive potential and school performance suffer even more Parents who live in poverty are likely to become anxious depressed and irritable and thus may become less affectionate and less responsive to their children They may discipline inconsistently harshly and arbitrarily Children tend to become depressed have trouble getting along with others lack selfcon dence develop behavioral and academic problems and to engage in antisocial acts Effective parenting and family interventions can buffer children from the effects of poverty Adop ons 15 million US children under the age of 18 lived with at least one adoptive parent and about 136000 children are adopted annually An estimated 60 of legal adoptions are by stepparents or relatives usually grandparents OPEN ADOPTIONS when both parties share information or have direct contact with the child Challenges associated with adopting a child integrating the adopted child into the family explaining the adoption to the child helping the child develop a healthy sense of self and perhaps eventually helping the child nd and contact the biological parents Few signi cant differences in adjustment between adopted and nonadopted children have been found About 17 of adoptions are transracial most often involving white parents adopting an Asian or Latin American child Children39s Choice of Peers Groups form naturally among children who live near one another or go to school together and often consist of children of the same racial or ethnic origin and similar socioeconomic status Children who play together are usually close in age and of the same sex PREJUDICE unfavorable attitudes toward outsiders especially members of certain racial of ethnic groups POSITIVE NOMINATION children can say who they like to play with who they like the most or who they think other kids like the most NEGATIVE NOMINATION children they don t like to play with like the least or think other kids don t like SOCIOMETRIC POPULARITY the tally that is composed of positive nominations negative nominations or no nominations SOCIOMETRIC POPULAR CHILDREN children that receive many positive nominations and few negative nominations Generally have good cognitive abilities high achievers good at solving social problems are kind and help other children and are assertive without being aggressive SOCIOMETRIC UNPOPULAR CHILDREN They can be unpopular in two ways rejected and receive a large number of negative nominations or neglected and receive few nominations of any kind Some unpopular children are aggressive and others are hyperactive and withdrawn They do not adapt well to new situations and are insensitive to other children s feelings Children look for friends who are like them in age sex and interests Friendships are associated with positive developmental outcomes 8 Selman s Stages of Friendship Stage 0 Momentary playmateship ages 3 to 7 On this undifferentiated level of friendship children tend to think only about what they want from a relationship Most very young children de ne their friends in terms of physical closeness and value them for material or physical attributes quotShe lives on my streetquot or quotHe has power rangersquot Stage 1 Oneway assistance ages 4 to 9 On this unilateral level a quotgood friendquot does what the child wants the friend to do quotShe s not my friend anymore because she wouldn t go with me when I wanted her toquot Stage 2 Twoway fairweather cooperation ages 6 to 12 This reciprocal level overlaps stage 1 It involves giveandtake but still serves many separate selfinterests rather than the common interests of the two friends quotWe are friends we do things for each otherquot Stage 3 Intimate mutually shared relationships ages 9 to 15 On this mutual level children view a friendship as an ongoing systematic committed relationship that incorporates more than doing things for each other Friends become possessive and demand exclusivity quotIt takes a long time to make a close friend so you really feel bad if you nd out that your friend is trying to make other friends tooquot Stage 4 Autonomous interdependence beginning at age 12 In this interdependent stage children respect friends needs for both dependency and autonomy quota good friendship is a real commitment a risk you have to takequot Aggression and Bullying Aggression declines and changes in form during the early school years After age 6 or 7 children become less aggressive as they grow less egocentric more empathetic more cooperative and better able to communicate INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION aggression aimed at achieving an objective The hallmark of the preschool penod HOSTILE AGGRESSION aggression intended to hurt another person HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS when people quickly conclude that others were acting with ill intent and are likely to strike out in retaliation or selfdefense Media violence can lead to longterm aggressiveness Aggression becomes bullying when it is deliberately persistently directed against a particular target Bullying can be physical verbal or emotional Bullying can be PROACTIVE done to show dominance Or REACTIVE responding to a real or imagined attack CYBERBULLYING posting negative comments or derogatory photos of the victim on a web site Physical bullying decreases with age but other bullying increases Bullies are often feared dominant respected and even liked 10 11 Children who have academic problems are more likely to be bullies than victims Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood Children with emotional problems are more likely to have conditions that affect their daily activities and cause them to miss school OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER ODD a pattern of de ance disobedience and hostility toward adult authority gures lasting at least 6 months and going beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior Children with ODD constantly ght argue lose their temper snatch things blame others and are angry and resentful CONDUCT DISORDER CD a persistent repetitive pattern beginning at an early age of aggressive antisocial acts such as truancy setting res habitual lying ghting bullying theft vandalism assaults and drug and alcohol use Between 6 and 16 percent of boys and 2 and 9 percent of girls are diagnosed with clinical levels of externalizing behavior or conduct problems OBSESSIVECOMPULSIVE DISORDER OCD Children with this disorder may be obsessed by repetitive intrusive thoughts images or impulses often involving irrational fears or may show compulsive behaviors such as constant handwashing or both CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION a disorder of mood that goes beyond normal temporary sadness Depression is estimated to occur in 2 of preschool children and up to 28 of children under the age of 13 years Resilient Children amp Protective Factors RESILIENT CHILDREN those who weather circumstances that might blight others who maintain their composure and competence under challenge or threat or who bounce back from traumatic events PROTECTIVE FACTORS the two MOST important protective factors that help children and adolescents 12 overcome stress and contribute to resilience are good family relationships and cognitive functioning Resilient children tend to have high le and to be good problem solvers and their cognitive ability may help them cope with adversity protect themselves regulate their behavior and learn from experience Other frequently cited protective factors include the following the child s temperament or personality compensating experiences and reduced risk School PhobiaAnxiety SCHOOL PHOBIA an unrealistic fear of going to school SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER a condition involving excessive anxiety for at least 4 weeks concerning separation from home or from people to whom the child is attached SOCIAL PHOBIA OR SOCIAL ANXIETY extreme fear andor avoidance of social situations such as speaking in class of meeting an acquaintance on the street GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER anxiety that is not focused on any speci c part of the child s life These children worry about everything school grades storms earthquakes and hurting themselves on the playground Chapter 11 Need to Know 1 Puberty and Sexual Maturity PUBERTY the process that leads to sexual maturity or fertility the ability to reproduce Physicians in some Western societies see pubertal changes well before age 10 Puberty involves dramatic biological changes Puberty begins with hormonal changes a First the hypothalamus releases elevated levels of gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH b Next the increased GnRH triggers a rise in lutenizing hormone LH and folliclestimulating hormone FSH c In girls increased levels of FSH lead to the onset of menstruation d In boys LH initiates the release of two additional hormones testosterone and androstenedione Puberty can be broken down into two basic stages adrenarche and gonadarche a Adrenarche occurs between ages 6 and 8 Adrenal glands secrete increasing levels of androgens most notably dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA b Gonadarche is marked by the maturing of the sex organs which triggers a second burst of DHEA production PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS the organs necessary for reproduction In the female the sex organs include the ovaries fallopian tubes uterus clitoris and vagina In the male they include the testes penis scrotum seminal vesicles and prostate gland During puberty these organs enlarge and mature SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs for example the breasts of females and the broad shoulders of males The rst external signs of puberty typically are breast tissue and pubic hair in girls and enlargement of the testes in boys ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT a rapid increase in height weight and muscle and bone growth that occurs during puberty Begins between ages 9 12 and 14 12 and in boys between 10 12 and 16 Typically lasts about 2 years SPERMARCHE the rst ejaculation Occurs at an average age of 13 MENARCHE the rst menstruation Occurs fairly late from ages 10 to 16 12 SECULAR TREND a trend that spans several generations Adolescent Brain Dramatic changes in brain structures involved in emotions judgement organization of behavior and self control take place between puberty and young adulthood Risktaking appears to result from the interaction of two brain networks a socioemotional network and a cognitivecontrol network SOClOEMOTIONAL NETWORK sensitive to social and emotional stimuli COGNITIVECONTROL NETWORK regulates responses to stimuli There is a steady increase in the white matter of the brain during adolescence It allows nerve impulses to be transmitted more rapidly and helps neurons synchronize their ring rate thus improving adolescents information processing abilities Described as a quotwork in progressquot lmmaturity of adolescent brain has led to questions of legal responsibility Two major brain changes Growth Spurt and Gray matter growth The growth spurt is chie y in frontal lobes Deals with reasoning judgement and impulse control Gray matter growth is continued myelination and facilitates maturation of cognitive abilities Sleep Needs and Problems Sleep deprivation among adolescents has been called an epidemic 45 of adolescents reported getting insuf cient sleep 31 were borderline 20 slept the recommended amount Children generally go to sleep later and sleep less on school days the other they get Sleeping in on weekends does not make up for the loss of sleep on school nights Sleep deprivation can sap motivation and cause irritability and concentration and school performance can suffer Young people ages 16 to 29 are most likely to be involved in crashes caused by the driver falling asleep Average sleep declines to less than 8 hours at age 16 Adolescents need more sleep than when they were younger Changes in circadian timing and melatonin may account for tendency to stay up late School schedules are out of sync with biological rhythms Nutrition and Eating Disorders US adolescents have less healthy diets than other industrialized countries They eat fewer fruits and vegetables and more sweets chocolates and junk food US teens are twice as likely to be overweight as their agemates in 14 other industrialized countries Numbers tripled between 1980 and 2004 A concern with body image may lead to obsessive efforts at weight control ANOREXIA NERVOSA quotSelfStarvation is potentially life threatening It is a distorted body image The patient is constantly dieting and believe that they are fat when they are actually far from it It may cause irregularity or cessation of menstruation These patients are often good students and perfectionists BULIMIA NERVOSA a person with bulimia regularly goes on huge shortlived eating binges and then may try to purge the high caloric intake through selfinduced vomiting strict dieting or fasting excessively vigorous exercise or laxatives enemas or diuretics Use and Abuse of Drugs SUBSTANCE ABUSE harmful use of alcohol or other drugs SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE addiction Can be psychological or physiological Addictive drugs are especially dangerous because they stimulate parts of the brain that are still developing in adolescence Nearly one half of US adolescents have tried illicit drugs by the time they leave high school Recent trend is abuse of nonprescription cough and cold medications BINGE DRINKING consuming ve or more drinks on one occasion RISK FACTORS a Dif cult Temerament b Poor impulse control and sensation seeking c Biochemical basis andor family in uence d Genetic predisposition or inconsistent parenting e Early and persistent behavior patterns f Peer rejection alienation or rebelliousness g Attitudes toward drug use and early initiation Common adolescent drugs alcohol marijuana tobacco Death in Adolescence 63 of death among adolescents result from motor vehicle crashes other unintentional injuries homicide and suicide Vehicular accidents are the leading cause of death among US teens Firearms are the cause of homicide suicide and accidental deaths One third of all injury deaths are caused by a rearm Suicide is the 4th leading cause of deaths among 1519 year olds Depression and feeling alone is a big problem with suicide Piaget39s Formal Operations Stage FORMAL OPERATIONS When adolescents move away from their reliance on concrete realworld stimuli and develop the capacity for abstract thought A capacity for abstract thought A more exible way to manipulate information Usually develops around age 11 HYPOTHETICALDEDUCTIVE REASONING Involves a methodical scienti c approach to problem solving and it characterizes formal operations thinking Involves the ability to develop consider and test hypotheses and the young person can be compared to a scientist exploring a problem 8 Information Processing Knowledge Changes in the way adolescents process information re ect the maturation of the brain s frontal lobes and may help explain the cognitive advances Piaget described STRUCTURAL changes include changes in working memory capacity and increasing the amount of knowledge stored in long term memory a Declarative Knowledge knowing that consists of all the factual knowledge a person has acquired b Procedural Knowledge knowing how to consists of all the skills a person has acquired such as being able to multiply and divide and to drive a car c Conceptual Knowledge knowing why is an understanding of for example why an algebraic equation remains true if the same amount is added or subtracted from both sides FUNCTIONAL CHANGE the process for obtaining handling and retaining information a Mathematical and scienti c reasoning b Improved pro ciency in drawing conclusions 9 Kholberg39s Levels of Moral Reasoning Level 1 Preconventional Morality a Punishment and Obedience b Instrumental Purpose and Exchange Level 2 Conventional Morality a Approval of others quotthe Golden Rulequot b Social concern and conscience Level 3 Postconventional Morality a Contracts rights and democratic laws 10 ll 12 b Universal ethical principles Gender Typing The process in which a child becomes aware of their gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as their own School Achievement and SelfEf cacy In uences on School Achievement Selfef cacy beliefs parenting styles ethnicity peer in uences gender SELFEFFICACY The belief that one can complete a task Students high in selfef cacy believe that they can master tasks and regulate their own learning These students are likely to do well in school The school can in uence achievement through the quality of the school whether or not the student likes the school whether or not the school tailors teaching to the student s abilities and whether or not the school helps the student transition to college Dropping Out of School 34 of high school students dropped out during 2009 2010 school year Students have a high risk of dropping out if they have a Low SES b Are male c Are Hispanic d Are students with low active engagement Average dropout rates are lower for white students ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT the quotattention interest investment and effort students expend in the work of schooV Vocational Training Programs Training that emphasizes skills and knowledge required for a particularjob function Usually used for students that plan to go to college
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