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ECU / Psychology / PSYC 3206 / Why do african-american children grow faster than white ones?

Why do african-american children grow faster than white ones?

Why do african-american children grow faster than white ones?

Description

School: East Carolina University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Gary stainback
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: psych, developmental psychology, PSYC 3206, and PSYC
Cost: 50
Name: PSYCH Study Guide Chapters 9-11
Description: This is a detailed study guide for chapters 9-11. They cover everything that will be on the next exam. They are based off of the book, notes from class, and the study guide that was provided.
Uploaded: 03/15/2016
42 Pages 58 Views 5 Unlocks
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Study Guide for Chapters 9-11 


Why do african-american children grow faster than white ones?



Need to Know for Chapter 9 

1. Obesity and body image:

- Children grow to about 2 to 3 inches each year between  ages 6 and 11 and double their weight during this period.  - Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do. This  characteristic lasts through adulthood.  

- African American boys and girls grow faster than white  children.

- The average 10-year old weighs 11 more pounds than 40  years ago.  

- Mexican American girls have more body fat than white  girls.  

- In the U.S. about 17% of children between the ages of 2  and 19 are obese and another 16.5% are overweight.  - Boys are more likely to be overweight than girls. - It is most prevalent in Mexican American boys and non Hispanic black girls.  


What influences chronic medical conditions?



- BODY IMAGE: how one believes one looks.

- Body image becomes important early in middle childhood, especially for girls.  

- Body image can develop into eating disorders in  adolescence.  

- Obesity often results from an inherited tendency  aggravated by too little exercise and too much or the  wrong kinds of food. Children are more likely to be  overweight if they have overweight parents.  

2. Illness in Middle Childhood:  

- ACUTE MEDICAL CONDITIONS: Occasional, short-term  conditions, such as infections and warts.

- Six or even seven bouts a year with colds, flu, or viruses  are typical as germs pass among children at school or  play.  

- CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS: physical,  


What is the cause of type 1 diabetes?



Don't forget about the age old question of How can a person maximize utility?

developmental, behavioral, or emotional conditions that  persist for 3 months or more.

- 12.8% of U.S. children have or are at risk of developing a  chronic medical condition.

- ASTHMA: a chronic, allergy-based respiratory disease  characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing,  and difficulty breathing.  

- U.S. has historically high level of children with asthma.  About 12% of children.

- Asthma is more likely in boys than in girls and more likely  in black children than white children.

- Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that  increases the risk of developing asthma even though they  do not know the real cause.  

- Air pollutants and tobacco smoke increase the risk as well. - DIABETES: one of the most common diseases in school aged children. Characterized by high levels of glucose in  the blood as a result of defective insulin production,  ineffective insulin action, or both.  

- Type 1 Diabetes is the result of an insulin deficiency that  occurs when insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are  destroyed.  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of bulge as a part of the milky way's structure?

- Accidental injuries are the leading cause of death among  school-age U.S. children.

- 88% of brain injuries could be prevented by using  helmets.

- High risks from snowmobiles and trampolines. 3.Cognitive Advances: Don't forget about the age old question of What kind of social media platform is twitter?

- CONCRETE OPERATIONS: When a child can use the  mental operations, such as reasoning, to solve concrete  (actual) problems. Better use of maps and models.

- SPATIAL THINKING: A child can use a map or model to  help them search for a hidden object and can give  someone else directions for finding the object. They can  find their way to and from school, can estimate distances,  and can judge how long it will take them to go from one  place to another.  

- CAUSE AND EFFECT: A child knows which physical  attributes of objects on each side of a balance scale will  affect the result (number or objects matter but color does We also discuss several other topics like Where do beta-oxidation and fa synthesis take place?

not). However, they do not know which spatial factors  make a difference (placement of objects).

- CATEGORIZATION: Being able to sort objects into  categories, such as shape, color, or both. They know that  a subclass (roses) have fewer members than the class  that it is part of (flowers).  

- SERIATION AND TRANSITIVE INFERENCE: Being able  to arrange a group of sticks in order, from the shortest to  the longest, and can insert an intermediate-size stick into  the proper place. Knowing the difference between lengths  and which ones are longer than others.

- INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING: being able  to solve both inductive and deductive problems and  knows that inductive conclusions (based on particular  premises) are less certain than deductive conclusions  (based on general premises). Inductive: making  observations about particular members of a class of  people, animals, objects, or events, and then drawing  conclusions about the class as a whole. Ex:// If a  neighbor’s dog barks, and another neighbor’s dog barks,  then the conclusion that all dogs bark is drawn. Deductive: starts with a general statement about a class and applies  it to particular members of the class. Ex:// if the belief is  that all dogs bark, and a new dog comes along, it would  be reasonable to conclude that the new dog will also bark. We also discuss several other topics like What does demographic transition entail?

- CONSERVATION: A child at age 7 knows that if a clay ball is rolled into a sausage, it still contains the same amount  of clay (conservation of substance). That same child at  age 9 knows that the ball and the sausage weigh the  same. Not until early adolescence will he understand that  they displace the same amount of liquid if it is dropped  into a glass of water. Horizontal decalage: The inability to  transfer knowledge of conservation. Liquids vs. solids If you want to learn more check out What does taylor's formula solve?

- NUMBER AND MATHEMATICS: When a child can count  in their head, can add by counting up from the smaller  number, and can do simple story problems.  

- CLASS INCLUSION: the ability to see the relationship  between a whole and its parts, and to understand the  categories within a whole.

4. Moral Reasoning:

- Piaget proposed that moral reasoning develops in three  stages. He argued that children move gradually from one  stage to another, at varying ages.  

- THE FIRST STAGE: from ages 2-7 and is based on rigid  obedience to authority. Young children are egocentric and  cannot imagine that there is more than one way of looking at a moral issue. They believe that rules cannot be bent or changed, that behavior is either right or wrong, and that  offense deserves punishment.  

- THE SECOND STAGE: ages 7 or 8- 10 or 11 and is  characterized by increasing flexibility. Children begin to  develop their own sense of justice based on fairness or  equal treatment for all. They are able to consider more  than one aspect of a situation and make more subtle  judgements.  

- THE THIRD STAGE: around age 11 or 12. The belief that  everyone should be treated alike gives way to the ideal of  equity. According to Piaget, a child of this age might say  that a 2-year old who spilled ink on the tablecloth should  be held to a less demanding moral standard than a 10- year old.  

5. Memory Aides:

- SELECTIVE ATTENTION: the ability to deliberately direct  one’s attention and shut out distractions.

- WORKING MEMORY: involves the short-term storage of  information that is being actively processed, like mental  workspace. Ex:// if you are asked to compute what 42 x 60 is, you would use your working memory to hold part of the answer while you solved the rest.  

- METAMEMORY: knowledge about the processes of  memory. Can be thought of thinking about memory.  - MNEMONICS: a strategy to aid memory (Please Excuse  My Dear Aunt Sally). The most common is the use of  external memory aids.

- EXTERNAL MEMORY AIDS: prompts by something  outside the person.

- REHEARSAL: Saying a telephone number over and over  after looking it up is a form of rehearsal, or conscious  repetition.

- ORGANIZATION: mentally placing information into  categories (such as animals, furniture, vehicles, and  clothing) to make it easier to recall.  

6. Psychometric Approach – Intelligence:

- WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN  (WISC-IV): The most widely used individual test. It is  used or ages 6 through 16 and measures verbal and  performance abilities, yielding separate scores for each as well as a total space. Pinpoint a child’s strengths and help  diagnose specific problems.

- OTIS-LENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST (OLSAT8): has  levels for kindergarten through 12th grade. Children are  asked to classify items, show an understanding of verbal  and numerical concepts, display general information, and  follow directions.

- Both heredity and environment influence intelligence.  7. IQ Controversy:  

- Whether or not IQ tests actually measure intelligence.  - BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: Brain imaging research shows a  moderate correlation between brain size or amount of  gray matter and general intelligence, especially reasoning and problem solving abilities.  

- SCHOOLING: schooling seems to increase tested  intelligence. Children who entered school late, lost as  many as 5 IQ points each year. IQ scores also drop during  summer vacation.

- RACE/ETHNICITY AND SES: leads to claim that tests are unfair to minorities. Gap has narrowed between test  scores between white and black children as well as  Hispanic American children. The strength of genetic  influence itself appears to vary with socioeconomic status.

- CULTURE: Behavior seen as intelligent in one culture may seem foolish in another. IQ tests vary between cultures  because of this.  

8. Gardener’s View on Intelligence:

- LINGUISTIC: Ability to use and understand words and  nuances of meaning. (writing, editing, translating) - LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL: Ability to manipulate  numbers and solve logical problems. (science, business,  medicine)

- SPATIAL: Ability to find one’s way around in an  environment and judge relationships between objects in  space. (architecture, carpentry, city planning)

- MUSICAL: Ability to perceive and create patterns of pitch  and rhythm. (musical composition, conducting)

- BODILY-KINESTHETIC: Ability to move with precision.  (dancing, athletics, surgery)

- INTERPERSONAL: Ability to understand and  communicate with others. (teaching, acting, politics) - INTRAPERSONAL: Ability to understand the self.  (counseling, psychiatry, spiritual leadership)

- NATURALIST: Ability to distinguish species and their  characteristics. (hunting, fishing, farming, gardening,  cooking)

9. Pragmatics:  

- Pragmatics: the social context of language.  

- Includes both conversational and narrative skills.  - GENDER DIFFERENCES: study in London with 4th graders: when boys and girls worked together, boys used  more controlling statements and negative interruptions,  whereas girls phrased their remarks in a more tentative,  conciliatory way.  

10. Congressional Acts on  Education:  

- THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001:  emphasizes accountability, expanded parental options,  local control, and flexibility. The intent is to funnel federal  funding to research-based programs and practices, with  special emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students  in grades 3 through 8 are tested annually.  

11. Children with Learning  Problems:  

- INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: significantly subnormal  cognitive functioning. Indicated by an IQ of 70 or less.

Sometimes referred to as cognitive disability or mental  retardation. In most cases, the cause is unknown. - LEARNING DISORDER: The two most commonly  diagnosed conditions causing behavioral and learning  problems are Learning Disabilities (LD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility,  impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and  

inappropriate over-activity.  

- LEARNING DISABILITIES: disorders that interfere with  specific aspects of school achievement, such as listening,  speaking, reading, writing, or mathematics. Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed LD.  

- DYSLEXIA: developmental disorder in which reading  achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age.  

- INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT: ensures a free, appropriate public education for all  children with disabilities.  

- INCLUSION PROGRAMS: programs in which children  with special needs are included in the regular classroom.  (integrating disabled and non-disabled children)

12. Gifted Children: - High general intelligence as shown by an IQ score of 130  or higher. Generally excludes highly creative children,  children from minority groups, and children with specific  aptitudes.  

- ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS: broadens knowledge  through classroom activities, research activities, and field  trips.

- ACCELERATION PROGRAMS: speeds up education  through grade skipping, fast-paced classes, or advanced  classes.  

13. Defining and Measuring  Creativity:  

- There are two kinds of thinking: Convergent and Divergent - CONVERGENT: The kind that IQ tests measure. These are looking for a single answer.

Chapter 10 Need to Know 

1. Self-Concept Development:  

- Young children’s self-concepts focus on physical attributes, possessions, and global descriptions. At around ages 7 or  8, children reach the third stage of self-concept  

development. Judgements about the self become more  conscious, realistic, balanced, and comprehensive as  children from representational systems.  

- REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS: broad, inclusive, self concepts that integrate various aspects of the self.  - A child can see themselves as “smart” in one subject and  “dumb” in another. They can compare their “real self” with their “ideal self”.

2. Erikson’s Developmental Stage/Crisis:

- INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY: Erikson’s fourth stage of  psychosocial development. There is an opportunity for  growth represented by a sense of industry and a  

complementary risk represented by inferiority.  

- If a child is not able to obtain praise from an adult, or lack  motivation or self-esteem, they might develop a sense of  inferiority.  

- Developing a sense of industry involves learning how to  work hard to achieve goals.  

3. Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior: - As children get older, they are more aware of their own  and other people’s feelings. They can better control their  emotions and respond to others’ emotional distress.  - By age 7 or 8, children are aware of shame and pride, and  they have a clearer idea of the difference between guilt  and shame. They also understand their conflicting  emotions.  

- By middle childhood, children are aware of their culture’s  rules for acceptable emotional expression. They learn  what makes them angry, fearful, or sad and how other

people react to displays of these emotions and they learn  to behave accordingly.  

- EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION: effortful control of  emotions, attention and behavior.  

- Children low in effortful control tend to become visibly  angry or frustrated when interrupted or prevented from  doing something they want to do.  

- Children high in effortful control can hide their emotions at inappropriate times.  

- Children tend to become more empathetic and more  inclined to prosocial behavior in middle childhood.  

4. After School Programs:

- Generally have low enrollment, low child-staff ratios, and  well-educated staff.  

- Children, especially boys, in after school programs with  flexible programming, and a positive emotional climate  tend to adjust better and do better in school.  

5. Persistent Poverty- Effects:

- About 22% of U.S. children up to age 17 lived in poverty in 2010. (39% of black children and 35% of Hispanic  children)

- Children with single mothers are nearly 5 times more  likely to be poor than children living with married couples.  - Poor children are more likely than other children to have  emotional or behavioral problems.

- Their cognitive potential and school performance suffer  even more.

- Parents who live in poverty are likely to become anxious,  depressed, and irritable and thus may become less  affectionate and less responsive to their children. They  may discipline inconsistently, harshly, and arbitrarily.  

- Children tend to become depressed, have trouble getting  along with others, lack self-confidence, develop behavioral and academic problems, and to engage in antisocial acts.  

- Effective parenting and family interventions can buffer  children from the effects of poverty.

6. Adoptions:

- 1.5 million U.S. children under the age of 18 lived with at  least one adoptive parent and about 136,000 children are  adopted annually.  

- An estimated 60% of legal adoptions are by stepparents  or relatives, usually grandparents.

- OPEN ADOPTIONS: when both parties share information  or have direct contact with the child.  

- Challenges associated with adopting a child: integrating  the adopted child into the family, explaining the adoption  to the child, helping the child develop a healthy sense of  self, and perhaps eventually helping the child find and  contact the biological parents.

- Few significant differences in adjustment between  adopted and non-adopted children have been found. - About 17% of adoptions are transracial, most often  involving white parents adopting an Asian or Latin  American child.  

7. Children’s Choice of Peers:

- Groups form naturally among children who live near one  another or go to school together and often consist of  children of the same racial or ethnic origin and similar  socioeconomic status.  

- Children who play together are usually close in age and of  the same sex.  

- PREJUDICE: unfavorable attitudes toward outsiders,  especially members of certain racial of ethnic groups.  - POSITIVE NOMINATION: children can say who they like  to play with, who they like the most, or who they think  other kids like the most.  

- NEGATIVE NOMINATION: children they don’t like to play  with, like the least, or think other kids don’t like.  - SOCIOMETRIC POPULARITY: the tally that is composed  of positive nominations, negative nominations, or no  nominations.

- SOCIOMETRIC POPULAR CHILDREN: children that  receive many positive nominations and few negative  nominations. Generally have good cognitive abilities, high  achievers, good at solving social problems, are kind and  help other children, and are assertive without being  aggressive.  

- SOCIOMETRIC UNPOPULAR CHILDREN: They can be  unpopular in two ways: rejected and receive a large  number of negative nominations or neglected and receive  few nominations of any kind. Some unpopular children are aggressive and others are hyperactive and withdrawn.  They do not adapt well to new situations and are  insensitive to other children’s feelings.  

- Children look for friends who are like them in age, sex,  and interests. Friendships are associated with positive  developmental outcomes.

8. Selman’s Stages of Friendship:

- Stage 0: Momentary playmateship (ages 3 to 7) - On  this undifferentiated level of friendship, children tend to think only about what they want from a relationship. Most  very young children define their friends in terms of  physical closeness and value them for material or physical attributes. “She lives on my street” or “He has power  rangers”

- Stage 1: One-way assistance (ages 4 to 9) – On this  unilateral level, a “good friend” does what the child  wants the friend to do. “She’s not my friend anymore  because she wouldn’t go with me when I wanted her to.”

- Stage 2: Two-way fair-weather cooperation (ages 6 to  12) – This reciprocal level overlaps stage 1. It involves  give-and-take but still serves many separate self-interests, rather than the common interests of the two friends. “We  are friends; we do things for each other”

- Stage 3: Intimate, mutually shared relationships  (ages 9 to 15) – On this mutual level, children view a  friendship as an ongoing, systematic, committed

relationship that incorporates more than doing things for  each other. Friends become possessive and demand  exclusivity. “It takes a long time to make a close friend, so  you really feel bad if you find out that your friend is trying  to make other friends too”

- Stage 4: Autonomous interdependence (beginning at  age 12) – In this interdependent stage, children respect  friends’ needs for both dependency and autonomy. “a  good friendship is a real commitment, a risk you have to  take”

9. Aggression and Bullying:  

- Aggression declines and changes in form during the early  school years. After age 6 or 7, children become less  aggressive as they grow less egocentric, more  

empathetic, more cooperative, and better able to  communicate.  

- INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION: aggression aimed at  achieving an objective. *The hallmark of the preschool  period*

- HOSTILE AGGRESSION: aggression intended to hurt  another person

- HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS: when people quickly  conclude that others were acting with ill intent and are  likely to strike out in retaliation or self-defense.

- Media violence can lead to long-term aggressiveness.  - Aggression becomes bullying when it is deliberately,  persistently directed against a particular target.  - Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional. - Bullying can be PROACTIVE: done to show dominance - Or REACTIVE: responding to a real or imagined attack. - CYBERBULLYING: posting negative comments or  derogatory photos of the victim on a web site.  

- Physical bullying decreases with age but other bullying  increases.  

- Bullies are often feared, dominant, respected, and even  liked.

- Children who have academic problems are more likely to  be bullies than victims.

10. Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood: - Children with emotional problems are more likely to have  conditions that affect their daily activities and cause them  to miss school.

- OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD)- a pattern  of defiance, disobedience, and hostility toward adult  authority figures lasting at least 6 months and going  beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. Children with ODD constantly fight, argue, lose their temper,  snatch things, blame others, and are angry and resentful.

- CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) – a persistent, repetitive  pattern, beginning at an early age, of aggressive,  antisocial acts, such as truancy, setting fires, habitual  lying, fighting, bullying, theft, vandalism, assaults, and  drug and alcohol use.  

- Between 6 and 16 percent of boys and 2 and 9 percent of  girls are diagnosed with clinical levels of externalizing  behavior or conduct problems.  

- OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) – Children  with this disorder may be obsessed by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images or impulses (often involving irrational  fears); or may show compulsive behaviors, such as  constant hand-washing; or both.

- CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION – a disorder of mood that  goes beyond normal, temporary sadness. Depression is  estimated to occur in 2% of preschool children and up to  2.8% of children under the age of 13 years.

11. Resilient Children & Protective Factors: - RESILIENT CHILDREN – those who weather  circumstances that might blight others, who maintain their composure and competence under challenge or threat, or  who bounce back from traumatic events.

- PROTECTIVE FACTORS: the two MOST important  protective factors that help children and adolescents

overcome stress and contribute to resilience are: good  family relationships, and cognitive functioning. - Resilient children tend to have high IQs and to be good  problem solvers, and their cognitive ability may help them cope with adversity, protect themselves, regulate their  behavior, and learn from experience.

- Other frequently cited protective factors include the  following: the child’s temperament or personality,  compensating experiences, and reduced risk.

12. School Phobia/Anxiety:

- SCHOOL PHOBIA – an unrealistic fear of going to school - SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER – a condition  involving excessive anxiety for at least 4 weeks  

concerning separation from home or from people to whom the child is attached.  

- SOCIAL PHOBIA OR SOCIAL ANXIETY – extreme fear  and/or avoidance of social situations such as speaking in  class of meeting an acquaintance on the street.  

- GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER – anxiety that is not focused on any specific part of the child’s life. These  children worry about everything: school grades, storms,  earthquakes, and hurting themselves on the playground.

Chapter 11 Need to Know 

1. Puberty and Sexual Maturity:  

- PUBERTY: the process that leads to sexual maturity, or  fertility- the ability to reproduce.  

- Physicians in some Western societies see pubertal  changes well before age 10.  

- Puberty involves dramatic biological changes  

- Puberty begins with hormonal changes:

a. First, the hypothalamus releases elevated levels of  gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

b. Next, the increased GnRH triggers a rise in lutenizing  hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

c. In girls, increased levels of FSH lead to the onset of  menstruation.  

d. In boys, LH initiates the release of two additional  hormones: testosterone and androstenedione.  

- Puberty can be broken down into two basic stages:  adrenarche and gonadarche.  

a. Adrenarche occurs between ages 6 and 8. Adrenal  glands secrete increasing levels of androgens, most  notably dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

b. Gonadarche is marked by the maturing of the sex  organs, which triggers a second burst of DHEA  

production.

- PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: the organs  necessary for reproduction. In the female, the sex organs  include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, clitoris, and  vagina. In the male, they include the testes, penis,  scrotum, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland. During  puberty, these organs enlarge and mature.

- SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: physiological  signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex  organs, for example, the breasts of females and the broad  shoulders of males.  

- The first external signs of puberty typically are breast  tissue and pubic hair in girls and enlargement of the  testes in boys.  

- ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT: a rapid increase in  height, weight, and muscle and bone growth that occurs  during puberty. Begins between ages 9 ½ and 14 ½ and  in boys between 10 ½ and 16. Typically lasts about 2  years.  

- SPERMARCHE- the first ejaculation. Occurs at an average age of 13.  

- MENARCHE – the first menstruation. Occurs fairly late  from ages 10 to 16 1/2.  

- SECULAR TREND – a trend that spans several  generations.

2. Adolescent Brain:

- Dramatic changes in brain structures involved in  emotions, judgement, organization of behavior, and self control take place between puberty and young adulthood.  

- Risk-taking appears to result from the interaction of two  brain networks: a socio-emotional network and a  cognitive-control network.

- SOCIO-EMOTIONAL NETWORK – sensitive to social and  emotional stimuli  

- COGNITIVE-CONTROL NETWORK – regulates responses to  stimuli

- There is a steady increase in the white matter of the brain  during adolescence. It allows nerve impulses to be  transmitted more rapidly and helps neurons synchronize  their firing rate, thus improving adolescents’ information processing abilities.  

- Described as a “work in progress”

- Immaturity of adolescent brain has led to questions of  legal responsibility

- Two major brain changes: Growth Spurt and Gray matter  growth

- The growth spurt is chiefly in frontal lobes. Deals with  reasoning, judgement, and impulse control.

- Gray matter growth is continued myelination and  facilitates maturation of cognitive abilities.

3. Sleep Needs and Problems:  

- Sleep deprivation among adolescents has been called an  epidemic.

- 45% of adolescents reported getting insufficient sleep - 31% were borderline

- 20% slept the recommended amount

- Children generally go to sleep later and sleep less on  school days the other they get.  

- Sleeping in on weekends does not make up for the loss of  sleep on school nights.

- Sleep deprivation can sap motivation and cause  irritability, and concentration and school performance can  suffer

- Young people ages 16 to 29 are most likely to be involved  in crashes caused by the driver falling asleep

- Average sleep declines to less than 8 hours at age 16 - Adolescents need more sleep than when they were  younger

- Changes in circadian timing and melatonin may account  for tendency to stay up late.

- School schedules are out of sync with biological rhythms

4. Nutrition and Eating Disorders:

- U.S. adolescents have less healthy diets than other  industrialized countries

- They eat fewer fruits and vegetables and more sweets,  chocolates, and junk food.

- U.S. teens are twice as likely to be overweight as their  age-mates in 14 other industrialized countries.

- Numbers tripled between 1980 and 2004

- A concern with body image may lead to obsessive efforts  at weight control.  

- ANOREXIA NERVOSA – “Self-Starvation”, is potentially  life threatening. It is a distorted body image. The patient is constantly dieting and believe that they are fat when they  are actually far from it. It may cause irregularity or  cessation of menstruation. These patients are often good  students and perfectionists.  

- BULIMIA NERVOSA – a person with bulimia regularly  goes on huge, short-lived eating binges and then may try  to purge the high caloric intake through self-induced  vomiting, strict dieting or fasting, excessively vigorous  exercise, or laxatives, enemas, or diuretics.  

5. Use and Abuse of Drugs

- SUBSTANCE ABUSE – harmful use of alcohol or other  drugs.

- SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE – “addiction”. Can be  psychological or physiological

- Addictive drugs are especially dangerous because they  stimulate parts of the brain that are still developing in  adolescence.

- Nearly one half of U.S. adolescents have tried illicit drugs  by the time they leave high school

- Recent trend is abuse of nonprescription cough and cold  medications

- BINGE DRINKING - consuming five or more drinks on one occasion.

- RISK FACTORS:

a. Difficult Temerament

b. Poor impulse control and sensation seeking

c. Biochemical basis and/or family influence

d. Genetic predisposition or inconsistent parenting e. Early and persistent behavior patterns

f. Peer rejection, alienation, or rebelliousness

g. Attitudes toward drug use and early initiation - Common adolescent drugs: alcohol, marijuana, tobacco

6. Death in Adolescence:  

- 63% of death among adolescents result from motor  vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide,  and suicide.  

- Vehicular accidents are the leading cause of death among  U.S. teens.

- Firearms are the cause of homicide, suicide, and  accidental deaths. One third of all injury deaths are  caused by a firearm

- Suicide is the 4th leading cause of deaths among 15-19  year olds.  

- Depression and feeling alone is a big problem with suicide

7. Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage

- FORMAL OPERATIONS – When adolescents move away  from their reliance on concrete, real-world stimuli and  develop the capacity for abstract thought.

- A capacity for abstract thought

- A more flexible way to manipulate information

- Usually develops around age 11

- HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE REASONING – Involves a  methodical, scientific approach to problem solving, and it  characterizes formal operations thinking. Involves the  ability to develop, consider, and test hypotheses, and the  young person can be compared to a scientist exploring a  problem.

8. Information Processing (Knowledge):  

- Changes in the way adolescents’ process information  reflect the maturation of the brain’s frontal lobes and may help explain the cognitive advances Piaget described.

- STRUCTURAL changes include changes in working  memory capacity and increasing the amount of knowledge stored in long term memory.

a. Declarative Knowledge: (knowing that…) consists of  all the factual knowledge a person has acquired

b. Procedural Knowledge: (knowing how to…) consists  of all the skills a person has acquired, such as being  able to multiply and divide and to drive a car.

c. Conceptual Knowledge: (knowing why…) is an  understanding of, for example, why an algebraic  equation remains true if the same amount is added or  subtracted from both sides.  

- FUNCTIONAL CHANGE – the process for obtaining,  handling, and retaining information.

a. Mathematical and scientific reasoning

b. Improved proficiency in drawing conclusions.

9. Kholberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning:  

- Level 1: Preconventional Morality

a. Punishment and Obedience

b. Instrumental Purpose and Exchange

- Level 2: Conventional Morality

a. Approval of others: “the Golden Rule”

b. Social concern and conscience

- Level 3: Postconventional Morality

a. Contracts, rights, and democratic laws

b. Universal ethical principles

10. Gender Typing:  

- The process in which a child becomes aware of their  gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values  and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as  their own.

11. School Achievement and Self-Efficacy:  - Influences on School Achievement: Self-efficacy beliefs,  parenting styles, ethnicity, peer influences, gender - SELF-EFFICACY – The belief that one can complete a  task

- Students high in self-efficacy believe that they can master tasks and regulate their own learning. These students are  likely to do well in school.

- The school can influence achievement through the quality  of the school, whether or not the student likes the school,  whether or not the school tailors teaching to the student’s abilities, and whether or not the school helps the student  transition to college.  

12. Dropping Out of School:

- 3.4% of high school students dropped out during 2009- 2010 school year

- Students have a high risk of dropping out if they have: a. Low SES

b. Are male

c. Are Hispanic

d. Are students with low active engagement

- Average drop-out rates are lower for white students - ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT: the “attention, interest,  investment, and effort students expend in the work of  school”

13. Vocational Training Programs:  

- Training that emphasizes skills and knowledge required for a particular job function

- Usually used for students that plan to go to college

Study Guide for Chapters 9-11 

Need to Know for Chapter 9 

1. Obesity and body image:

- Children grow to about 2 to 3 inches each year between  ages 6 and 11 and double their weight during this period.  - Girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do. This  characteristic lasts through adulthood.  

- African American boys and girls grow faster than white  children.

- The average 10-year old weighs 11 more pounds than 40  years ago.  

- Mexican American girls have more body fat than white  girls.  

- In the U.S. about 17% of children between the ages of 2  and 19 are obese and another 16.5% are overweight.  - Boys are more likely to be overweight than girls. - It is most prevalent in Mexican American boys and non Hispanic black girls.  

- BODY IMAGE: how one believes one looks.

- Body image becomes important early in middle childhood, especially for girls.  

- Body image can develop into eating disorders in  adolescence.  

- Obesity often results from an inherited tendency  aggravated by too little exercise and too much or the  wrong kinds of food. Children are more likely to be  overweight if they have overweight parents.  

2. Illness in Middle Childhood:  

- ACUTE MEDICAL CONDITIONS: Occasional, short-term  conditions, such as infections and warts.

- Six or even seven bouts a year with colds, flu, or viruses  are typical as germs pass among children at school or  play.  

- CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS: physical,  

developmental, behavioral, or emotional conditions that  persist for 3 months or more.

- 12.8% of U.S. children have or are at risk of developing a  chronic medical condition.

- ASTHMA: a chronic, allergy-based respiratory disease  characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing,  and difficulty breathing.  

- U.S. has historically high level of children with asthma.  About 12% of children.

- Asthma is more likely in boys than in girls and more likely  in black children than white children.

- Researchers have discovered a gene mutation that  increases the risk of developing asthma even though they  do not know the real cause.  

- Air pollutants and tobacco smoke increase the risk as well. - DIABETES: one of the most common diseases in school aged children. Characterized by high levels of glucose in  the blood as a result of defective insulin production,  ineffective insulin action, or both.  

- Type 1 Diabetes is the result of an insulin deficiency that  occurs when insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are  destroyed.  

- Accidental injuries are the leading cause of death among  school-age U.S. children.

- 88% of brain injuries could be prevented by using  helmets.

- High risks from snowmobiles and trampolines. 3.Cognitive Advances:

- CONCRETE OPERATIONS: When a child can use the  mental operations, such as reasoning, to solve concrete  (actual) problems. Better use of maps and models.

- SPATIAL THINKING: A child can use a map or model to  help them search for a hidden object and can give  someone else directions for finding the object. They can  find their way to and from school, can estimate distances,  and can judge how long it will take them to go from one  place to another.  

- CAUSE AND EFFECT: A child knows which physical  attributes of objects on each side of a balance scale will  affect the result (number or objects matter but color does

not). However, they do not know which spatial factors  make a difference (placement of objects).

- CATEGORIZATION: Being able to sort objects into  categories, such as shape, color, or both. They know that  a subclass (roses) have fewer members than the class  that it is part of (flowers).  

- SERIATION AND TRANSITIVE INFERENCE: Being able  to arrange a group of sticks in order, from the shortest to  the longest, and can insert an intermediate-size stick into  the proper place. Knowing the difference between lengths  and which ones are longer than others.

- INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE REASONING: being able  to solve both inductive and deductive problems and  knows that inductive conclusions (based on particular  premises) are less certain than deductive conclusions  (based on general premises). Inductive: making  observations about particular members of a class of  people, animals, objects, or events, and then drawing  conclusions about the class as a whole. Ex:// If a  neighbor’s dog barks, and another neighbor’s dog barks,  then the conclusion that all dogs bark is drawn. Deductive: starts with a general statement about a class and applies  it to particular members of the class. Ex:// if the belief is  that all dogs bark, and a new dog comes along, it would  be reasonable to conclude that the new dog will also bark.

- CONSERVATION: A child at age 7 knows that if a clay ball is rolled into a sausage, it still contains the same amount  of clay (conservation of substance). That same child at  age 9 knows that the ball and the sausage weigh the  same. Not until early adolescence will he understand that  they displace the same amount of liquid if it is dropped  into a glass of water. Horizontal decalage: The inability to  transfer knowledge of conservation. Liquids vs. solids

- NUMBER AND MATHEMATICS: When a child can count  in their head, can add by counting up from the smaller  number, and can do simple story problems.  

- CLASS INCLUSION: the ability to see the relationship  between a whole and its parts, and to understand the  categories within a whole.

4. Moral Reasoning:

- Piaget proposed that moral reasoning develops in three  stages. He argued that children move gradually from one  stage to another, at varying ages.  

- THE FIRST STAGE: from ages 2-7 and is based on rigid  obedience to authority. Young children are egocentric and  cannot imagine that there is more than one way of looking at a moral issue. They believe that rules cannot be bent or changed, that behavior is either right or wrong, and that  offense deserves punishment.  

- THE SECOND STAGE: ages 7 or 8- 10 or 11 and is  characterized by increasing flexibility. Children begin to  develop their own sense of justice based on fairness or  equal treatment for all. They are able to consider more  than one aspect of a situation and make more subtle  judgements.  

- THE THIRD STAGE: around age 11 or 12. The belief that  everyone should be treated alike gives way to the ideal of  equity. According to Piaget, a child of this age might say  that a 2-year old who spilled ink on the tablecloth should  be held to a less demanding moral standard than a 10- year old.  

5. Memory Aides:

- SELECTIVE ATTENTION: the ability to deliberately direct  one’s attention and shut out distractions.

- WORKING MEMORY: involves the short-term storage of  information that is being actively processed, like mental  workspace. Ex:// if you are asked to compute what 42 x 60 is, you would use your working memory to hold part of the answer while you solved the rest.  

- METAMEMORY: knowledge about the processes of  memory. Can be thought of thinking about memory.  - MNEMONICS: a strategy to aid memory (Please Excuse  My Dear Aunt Sally). The most common is the use of  external memory aids.

- EXTERNAL MEMORY AIDS: prompts by something  outside the person.

- REHEARSAL: Saying a telephone number over and over  after looking it up is a form of rehearsal, or conscious  repetition.

- ORGANIZATION: mentally placing information into  categories (such as animals, furniture, vehicles, and  clothing) to make it easier to recall.  

6. Psychometric Approach – Intelligence:

- WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN  (WISC-IV): The most widely used individual test. It is  used or ages 6 through 16 and measures verbal and  performance abilities, yielding separate scores for each as well as a total space. Pinpoint a child’s strengths and help  diagnose specific problems.

- OTIS-LENNON SCHOOL ABILITY TEST (OLSAT8): has  levels for kindergarten through 12th grade. Children are  asked to classify items, show an understanding of verbal  and numerical concepts, display general information, and  follow directions.

- Both heredity and environment influence intelligence.  7. IQ Controversy:  

- Whether or not IQ tests actually measure intelligence.  - BRAIN DEVELOPMENT: Brain imaging research shows a  moderate correlation between brain size or amount of  gray matter and general intelligence, especially reasoning and problem solving abilities.  

- SCHOOLING: schooling seems to increase tested  intelligence. Children who entered school late, lost as  many as 5 IQ points each year. IQ scores also drop during  summer vacation.

- RACE/ETHNICITY AND SES: leads to claim that tests are unfair to minorities. Gap has narrowed between test  scores between white and black children as well as  Hispanic American children. The strength of genetic  influence itself appears to vary with socioeconomic status.

- CULTURE: Behavior seen as intelligent in one culture may seem foolish in another. IQ tests vary between cultures  because of this.  

8. Gardener’s View on Intelligence:

- LINGUISTIC: Ability to use and understand words and  nuances of meaning. (writing, editing, translating) - LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL: Ability to manipulate  numbers and solve logical problems. (science, business,  medicine)

- SPATIAL: Ability to find one’s way around in an  environment and judge relationships between objects in  space. (architecture, carpentry, city planning)

- MUSICAL: Ability to perceive and create patterns of pitch  and rhythm. (musical composition, conducting)

- BODILY-KINESTHETIC: Ability to move with precision.  (dancing, athletics, surgery)

- INTERPERSONAL: Ability to understand and  communicate with others. (teaching, acting, politics) - INTRAPERSONAL: Ability to understand the self.  (counseling, psychiatry, spiritual leadership)

- NATURALIST: Ability to distinguish species and their  characteristics. (hunting, fishing, farming, gardening,  cooking)

9. Pragmatics:  

- Pragmatics: the social context of language.  

- Includes both conversational and narrative skills.  - GENDER DIFFERENCES: study in London with 4th graders: when boys and girls worked together, boys used  more controlling statements and negative interruptions,  whereas girls phrased their remarks in a more tentative,  conciliatory way.  

10. Congressional Acts on  Education:  

- THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001:  emphasizes accountability, expanded parental options,  local control, and flexibility. The intent is to funnel federal  funding to research-based programs and practices, with  special emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students  in grades 3 through 8 are tested annually.  

11. Children with Learning  Problems:  

- INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: significantly subnormal  cognitive functioning. Indicated by an IQ of 70 or less.

Sometimes referred to as cognitive disability or mental  retardation. In most cases, the cause is unknown. - LEARNING DISORDER: The two most commonly  diagnosed conditions causing behavioral and learning  problems are Learning Disabilities (LD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a syndrome characterized by persistent inattention and distractibility,  impulsivity, low tolerance for frustration, and  

inappropriate over-activity.  

- LEARNING DISABILITIES: disorders that interfere with  specific aspects of school achievement, such as listening,  speaking, reading, writing, or mathematics. Dyslexia is the most commonly diagnosed LD.  

- DYSLEXIA: developmental disorder in which reading  achievement is substantially lower than predicted by IQ or age.  

- INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT: ensures a free, appropriate public education for all  children with disabilities.  

- INCLUSION PROGRAMS: programs in which children  with special needs are included in the regular classroom.  (integrating disabled and non-disabled children)

12. Gifted Children: - High general intelligence as shown by an IQ score of 130  or higher. Generally excludes highly creative children,  children from minority groups, and children with specific  aptitudes.  

- ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS: broadens knowledge  through classroom activities, research activities, and field  trips.

- ACCELERATION PROGRAMS: speeds up education  through grade skipping, fast-paced classes, or advanced  classes.  

13. Defining and Measuring  Creativity:  

- There are two kinds of thinking: Convergent and Divergent - CONVERGENT: The kind that IQ tests measure. These are looking for a single answer.

Chapter 10 Need to Know 

1. Self-Concept Development:  

- Young children’s self-concepts focus on physical attributes, possessions, and global descriptions. At around ages 7 or  8, children reach the third stage of self-concept  

development. Judgements about the self become more  conscious, realistic, balanced, and comprehensive as  children from representational systems.  

- REPRESENTATIONAL SYSTEMS: broad, inclusive, self concepts that integrate various aspects of the self.  - A child can see themselves as “smart” in one subject and  “dumb” in another. They can compare their “real self” with their “ideal self”.

2. Erikson’s Developmental Stage/Crisis:

- INDUSTRY VS INFERIORITY: Erikson’s fourth stage of  psychosocial development. There is an opportunity for  growth represented by a sense of industry and a  

complementary risk represented by inferiority.  

- If a child is not able to obtain praise from an adult, or lack  motivation or self-esteem, they might develop a sense of  inferiority.  

- Developing a sense of industry involves learning how to  work hard to achieve goals.  

3. Emotional Growth and Prosocial Behavior: - As children get older, they are more aware of their own  and other people’s feelings. They can better control their  emotions and respond to others’ emotional distress.  - By age 7 or 8, children are aware of shame and pride, and  they have a clearer idea of the difference between guilt  and shame. They also understand their conflicting  emotions.  

- By middle childhood, children are aware of their culture’s  rules for acceptable emotional expression. They learn  what makes them angry, fearful, or sad and how other

people react to displays of these emotions and they learn  to behave accordingly.  

- EMOTIONAL SELF-REGULATION: effortful control of  emotions, attention and behavior.  

- Children low in effortful control tend to become visibly  angry or frustrated when interrupted or prevented from  doing something they want to do.  

- Children high in effortful control can hide their emotions at inappropriate times.  

- Children tend to become more empathetic and more  inclined to prosocial behavior in middle childhood.  

4. After School Programs:

- Generally have low enrollment, low child-staff ratios, and  well-educated staff.  

- Children, especially boys, in after school programs with  flexible programming, and a positive emotional climate  tend to adjust better and do better in school.  

5. Persistent Poverty- Effects:

- About 22% of U.S. children up to age 17 lived in poverty in 2010. (39% of black children and 35% of Hispanic  children)

- Children with single mothers are nearly 5 times more  likely to be poor than children living with married couples.  - Poor children are more likely than other children to have  emotional or behavioral problems.

- Their cognitive potential and school performance suffer  even more.

- Parents who live in poverty are likely to become anxious,  depressed, and irritable and thus may become less  affectionate and less responsive to their children. They  may discipline inconsistently, harshly, and arbitrarily.  

- Children tend to become depressed, have trouble getting  along with others, lack self-confidence, develop behavioral and academic problems, and to engage in antisocial acts.  

- Effective parenting and family interventions can buffer  children from the effects of poverty.

6. Adoptions:

- 1.5 million U.S. children under the age of 18 lived with at  least one adoptive parent and about 136,000 children are  adopted annually.  

- An estimated 60% of legal adoptions are by stepparents  or relatives, usually grandparents.

- OPEN ADOPTIONS: when both parties share information  or have direct contact with the child.  

- Challenges associated with adopting a child: integrating  the adopted child into the family, explaining the adoption  to the child, helping the child develop a healthy sense of  self, and perhaps eventually helping the child find and  contact the biological parents.

- Few significant differences in adjustment between  adopted and non-adopted children have been found. - About 17% of adoptions are transracial, most often  involving white parents adopting an Asian or Latin  American child.  

7. Children’s Choice of Peers:

- Groups form naturally among children who live near one  another or go to school together and often consist of  children of the same racial or ethnic origin and similar  socioeconomic status.  

- Children who play together are usually close in age and of  the same sex.  

- PREJUDICE: unfavorable attitudes toward outsiders,  especially members of certain racial of ethnic groups.  - POSITIVE NOMINATION: children can say who they like  to play with, who they like the most, or who they think  other kids like the most.  

- NEGATIVE NOMINATION: children they don’t like to play  with, like the least, or think other kids don’t like.  - SOCIOMETRIC POPULARITY: the tally that is composed  of positive nominations, negative nominations, or no  nominations.

- SOCIOMETRIC POPULAR CHILDREN: children that  receive many positive nominations and few negative  nominations. Generally have good cognitive abilities, high  achievers, good at solving social problems, are kind and  help other children, and are assertive without being  aggressive.  

- SOCIOMETRIC UNPOPULAR CHILDREN: They can be  unpopular in two ways: rejected and receive a large  number of negative nominations or neglected and receive  few nominations of any kind. Some unpopular children are aggressive and others are hyperactive and withdrawn.  They do not adapt well to new situations and are  insensitive to other children’s feelings.  

- Children look for friends who are like them in age, sex,  and interests. Friendships are associated with positive  developmental outcomes.

8. Selman’s Stages of Friendship:

- Stage 0: Momentary playmateship (ages 3 to 7) - On  this undifferentiated level of friendship, children tend to think only about what they want from a relationship. Most  very young children define their friends in terms of  physical closeness and value them for material or physical attributes. “She lives on my street” or “He has power  rangers”

- Stage 1: One-way assistance (ages 4 to 9) – On this  unilateral level, a “good friend” does what the child  wants the friend to do. “She’s not my friend anymore  because she wouldn’t go with me when I wanted her to.”

- Stage 2: Two-way fair-weather cooperation (ages 6 to  12) – This reciprocal level overlaps stage 1. It involves  give-and-take but still serves many separate self-interests, rather than the common interests of the two friends. “We  are friends; we do things for each other”

- Stage 3: Intimate, mutually shared relationships  (ages 9 to 15) – On this mutual level, children view a  friendship as an ongoing, systematic, committed

relationship that incorporates more than doing things for  each other. Friends become possessive and demand  exclusivity. “It takes a long time to make a close friend, so  you really feel bad if you find out that your friend is trying  to make other friends too”

- Stage 4: Autonomous interdependence (beginning at  age 12) – In this interdependent stage, children respect  friends’ needs for both dependency and autonomy. “a  good friendship is a real commitment, a risk you have to  take”

9. Aggression and Bullying:  

- Aggression declines and changes in form during the early  school years. After age 6 or 7, children become less  aggressive as they grow less egocentric, more  

empathetic, more cooperative, and better able to  communicate.  

- INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION: aggression aimed at  achieving an objective. *The hallmark of the preschool  period*

- HOSTILE AGGRESSION: aggression intended to hurt  another person

- HOSTILE ATTRIBUTIONAL BIAS: when people quickly  conclude that others were acting with ill intent and are  likely to strike out in retaliation or self-defense.

- Media violence can lead to long-term aggressiveness.  - Aggression becomes bullying when it is deliberately,  persistently directed against a particular target.  - Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional. - Bullying can be PROACTIVE: done to show dominance - Or REACTIVE: responding to a real or imagined attack. - CYBERBULLYING: posting negative comments or  derogatory photos of the victim on a web site.  

- Physical bullying decreases with age but other bullying  increases.  

- Bullies are often feared, dominant, respected, and even  liked.

- Children who have academic problems are more likely to  be bullies than victims.

10. Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood: - Children with emotional problems are more likely to have  conditions that affect their daily activities and cause them  to miss school.

- OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD)- a pattern  of defiance, disobedience, and hostility toward adult  authority figures lasting at least 6 months and going  beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. Children with ODD constantly fight, argue, lose their temper,  snatch things, blame others, and are angry and resentful.

- CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) – a persistent, repetitive  pattern, beginning at an early age, of aggressive,  antisocial acts, such as truancy, setting fires, habitual  lying, fighting, bullying, theft, vandalism, assaults, and  drug and alcohol use.  

- Between 6 and 16 percent of boys and 2 and 9 percent of  girls are diagnosed with clinical levels of externalizing  behavior or conduct problems.  

- OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) – Children  with this disorder may be obsessed by repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images or impulses (often involving irrational  fears); or may show compulsive behaviors, such as  constant hand-washing; or both.

- CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION – a disorder of mood that  goes beyond normal, temporary sadness. Depression is  estimated to occur in 2% of preschool children and up to  2.8% of children under the age of 13 years.

11. Resilient Children & Protective Factors: - RESILIENT CHILDREN – those who weather  circumstances that might blight others, who maintain their composure and competence under challenge or threat, or  who bounce back from traumatic events.

- PROTECTIVE FACTORS: the two MOST important  protective factors that help children and adolescents

overcome stress and contribute to resilience are: good  family relationships, and cognitive functioning. - Resilient children tend to have high IQs and to be good  problem solvers, and their cognitive ability may help them cope with adversity, protect themselves, regulate their  behavior, and learn from experience.

- Other frequently cited protective factors include the  following: the child’s temperament or personality,  compensating experiences, and reduced risk.

12. School Phobia/Anxiety:

- SCHOOL PHOBIA – an unrealistic fear of going to school - SEPARATION ANXIETY DISORDER – a condition  involving excessive anxiety for at least 4 weeks  

concerning separation from home or from people to whom the child is attached.  

- SOCIAL PHOBIA OR SOCIAL ANXIETY – extreme fear  and/or avoidance of social situations such as speaking in  class of meeting an acquaintance on the street.  

- GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER – anxiety that is not focused on any specific part of the child’s life. These  children worry about everything: school grades, storms,  earthquakes, and hurting themselves on the playground.

Chapter 11 Need to Know 

1. Puberty and Sexual Maturity:  

- PUBERTY: the process that leads to sexual maturity, or  fertility- the ability to reproduce.  

- Physicians in some Western societies see pubertal  changes well before age 10.  

- Puberty involves dramatic biological changes  

- Puberty begins with hormonal changes:

a. First, the hypothalamus releases elevated levels of  gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

b. Next, the increased GnRH triggers a rise in lutenizing  hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

c. In girls, increased levels of FSH lead to the onset of  menstruation.  

d. In boys, LH initiates the release of two additional  hormones: testosterone and androstenedione.  

- Puberty can be broken down into two basic stages:  adrenarche and gonadarche.  

a. Adrenarche occurs between ages 6 and 8. Adrenal  glands secrete increasing levels of androgens, most  notably dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

b. Gonadarche is marked by the maturing of the sex  organs, which triggers a second burst of DHEA  

production.

- PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: the organs  necessary for reproduction. In the female, the sex organs  include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, clitoris, and  vagina. In the male, they include the testes, penis,  scrotum, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland. During  puberty, these organs enlarge and mature.

- SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS: physiological  signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex  organs, for example, the breasts of females and the broad  shoulders of males.  

- The first external signs of puberty typically are breast  tissue and pubic hair in girls and enlargement of the  testes in boys.  

- ADOLESCENT GROWTH SPURT: a rapid increase in  height, weight, and muscle and bone growth that occurs  during puberty. Begins between ages 9 ½ and 14 ½ and  in boys between 10 ½ and 16. Typically lasts about 2  years.  

- SPERMARCHE- the first ejaculation. Occurs at an average age of 13.  

- MENARCHE – the first menstruation. Occurs fairly late  from ages 10 to 16 1/2.  

- SECULAR TREND – a trend that spans several  generations.

2. Adolescent Brain:

- Dramatic changes in brain structures involved in  emotions, judgement, organization of behavior, and self control take place between puberty and young adulthood.  

- Risk-taking appears to result from the interaction of two  brain networks: a socio-emotional network and a  cognitive-control network.

- SOCIO-EMOTIONAL NETWORK – sensitive to social and  emotional stimuli  

- COGNITIVE-CONTROL NETWORK – regulates responses to  stimuli

- There is a steady increase in the white matter of the brain  during adolescence. It allows nerve impulses to be  transmitted more rapidly and helps neurons synchronize  their firing rate, thus improving adolescents’ information processing abilities.  

- Described as a “work in progress”

- Immaturity of adolescent brain has led to questions of  legal responsibility

- Two major brain changes: Growth Spurt and Gray matter  growth

- The growth spurt is chiefly in frontal lobes. Deals with  reasoning, judgement, and impulse control.

- Gray matter growth is continued myelination and  facilitates maturation of cognitive abilities.

3. Sleep Needs and Problems:  

- Sleep deprivation among adolescents has been called an  epidemic.

- 45% of adolescents reported getting insufficient sleep - 31% were borderline

- 20% slept the recommended amount

- Children generally go to sleep later and sleep less on  school days the other they get.  

- Sleeping in on weekends does not make up for the loss of  sleep on school nights.

- Sleep deprivation can sap motivation and cause  irritability, and concentration and school performance can  suffer

- Young people ages 16 to 29 are most likely to be involved  in crashes caused by the driver falling asleep

- Average sleep declines to less than 8 hours at age 16 - Adolescents need more sleep than when they were  younger

- Changes in circadian timing and melatonin may account  for tendency to stay up late.

- School schedules are out of sync with biological rhythms

4. Nutrition and Eating Disorders:

- U.S. adolescents have less healthy diets than other  industrialized countries

- They eat fewer fruits and vegetables and more sweets,  chocolates, and junk food.

- U.S. teens are twice as likely to be overweight as their  age-mates in 14 other industrialized countries.

- Numbers tripled between 1980 and 2004

- A concern with body image may lead to obsessive efforts  at weight control.  

- ANOREXIA NERVOSA – “Self-Starvation”, is potentially  life threatening. It is a distorted body image. The patient is constantly dieting and believe that they are fat when they  are actually far from it. It may cause irregularity or  cessation of menstruation. These patients are often good  students and perfectionists.  

- BULIMIA NERVOSA – a person with bulimia regularly  goes on huge, short-lived eating binges and then may try  to purge the high caloric intake through self-induced  vomiting, strict dieting or fasting, excessively vigorous  exercise, or laxatives, enemas, or diuretics.  

5. Use and Abuse of Drugs

- SUBSTANCE ABUSE – harmful use of alcohol or other  drugs.

- SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE – “addiction”. Can be  psychological or physiological

- Addictive drugs are especially dangerous because they  stimulate parts of the brain that are still developing in  adolescence.

- Nearly one half of U.S. adolescents have tried illicit drugs  by the time they leave high school

- Recent trend is abuse of nonprescription cough and cold  medications

- BINGE DRINKING - consuming five or more drinks on one occasion.

- RISK FACTORS:

a. Difficult Temerament

b. Poor impulse control and sensation seeking

c. Biochemical basis and/or family influence

d. Genetic predisposition or inconsistent parenting e. Early and persistent behavior patterns

f. Peer rejection, alienation, or rebelliousness

g. Attitudes toward drug use and early initiation - Common adolescent drugs: alcohol, marijuana, tobacco

6. Death in Adolescence:  

- 63% of death among adolescents result from motor  vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide,  and suicide.  

- Vehicular accidents are the leading cause of death among  U.S. teens.

- Firearms are the cause of homicide, suicide, and  accidental deaths. One third of all injury deaths are  caused by a firearm

- Suicide is the 4th leading cause of deaths among 15-19  year olds.  

- Depression and feeling alone is a big problem with suicide

7. Piaget’s Formal Operations Stage

- FORMAL OPERATIONS – When adolescents move away  from their reliance on concrete, real-world stimuli and  develop the capacity for abstract thought.

- A capacity for abstract thought

- A more flexible way to manipulate information

- Usually develops around age 11

- HYPOTHETICAL-DEDUCTIVE REASONING – Involves a  methodical, scientific approach to problem solving, and it  characterizes formal operations thinking. Involves the  ability to develop, consider, and test hypotheses, and the  young person can be compared to a scientist exploring a  problem.

8. Information Processing (Knowledge):  

- Changes in the way adolescents’ process information  reflect the maturation of the brain’s frontal lobes and may help explain the cognitive advances Piaget described.

- STRUCTURAL changes include changes in working  memory capacity and increasing the amount of knowledge stored in long term memory.

a. Declarative Knowledge: (knowing that…) consists of  all the factual knowledge a person has acquired

b. Procedural Knowledge: (knowing how to…) consists  of all the skills a person has acquired, such as being  able to multiply and divide and to drive a car.

c. Conceptual Knowledge: (knowing why…) is an  understanding of, for example, why an algebraic  equation remains true if the same amount is added or  subtracted from both sides.  

- FUNCTIONAL CHANGE – the process for obtaining,  handling, and retaining information.

a. Mathematical and scientific reasoning

b. Improved proficiency in drawing conclusions.

9. Kholberg’s Levels of Moral Reasoning:  

- Level 1: Preconventional Morality

a. Punishment and Obedience

b. Instrumental Purpose and Exchange

- Level 2: Conventional Morality

a. Approval of others: “the Golden Rule”

b. Social concern and conscience

- Level 3: Postconventional Morality

a. Contracts, rights, and democratic laws

b. Universal ethical principles

10. Gender Typing:  

- The process in which a child becomes aware of their  gender and thus behaves accordingly by adopting values  and attributes of members of the sex that they identify as  their own.

11. School Achievement and Self-Efficacy:  - Influences on School Achievement: Self-efficacy beliefs,  parenting styles, ethnicity, peer influences, gender - SELF-EFFICACY – The belief that one can complete a  task

- Students high in self-efficacy believe that they can master tasks and regulate their own learning. These students are  likely to do well in school.

- The school can influence achievement through the quality  of the school, whether or not the student likes the school,  whether or not the school tailors teaching to the student’s abilities, and whether or not the school helps the student  transition to college.  

12. Dropping Out of School:

- 3.4% of high school students dropped out during 2009- 2010 school year

- Students have a high risk of dropping out if they have: a. Low SES

b. Are male

c. Are Hispanic

d. Are students with low active engagement

- Average drop-out rates are lower for white students - ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT: the “attention, interest,  investment, and effort students expend in the work of  school”

13. Vocational Training Programs:  

- Training that emphasizes skills and knowledge required for a particular job function

- Usually used for students that plan to go to college

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