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Exam 2 Important Terms

by: Marissa Reyes-Hernandez

Exam 2 Important Terms 2330

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Science > 2330 > Exam 2 Important Terms
Marissa Reyes-Hernandez

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Chapter 5-7
Microorganisms and Disease - 18884
Roshanak Jafari
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Monday March 14, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2330 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Roshanak Jafari in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Microorganisms and Disease - 18884 in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 03/14/16
Chapter 5 Sterilization Destruction or removal of all microbes through physical or chemical means sterile completely free of all viable microbes. an absolute term (includes endospores and viruses, does not include prions) disinfection elimination of most or all of the pathogens on or in a material (generally implies use of antimicrobial chemicals) disinfectants used on inanimate objects, biocides, germicides and bactericides - toxic to many forms of life germicide a disinfectant used to target microorganisms and viruses biocides another name for a disinfectant (destroys life) bactericidal Able to kill bacteria antiseptics disinfectant nontoxic enough to be used on living tissues, used prior to surgery to decrease number of bacterial cells pasteurization brief heating to reduce number of spoilage organisms and destroys pathogens. can be used on foods and inanimate objects decontamination reduce the number of pathogens to a level considered to be safe (as simple as hand washing, or use of heat or disinfectants) sanitization a process that substantially reduces the microbial population to meet accepted health standards (no specific level of control) preservation process of delaying spoilage of food or other perishable products (adjust conditions to slow microbial growth, or chemical can be added) bacteriostatic chemical additives that do not destroy the bacteria but inhibit their growth healthcare associated infections more likely to have infections due to bodily fluids and invasive procedures, prions are a new concern (nosocomial infections) aseptic technique specific method to prevent microorganisms from contaminating an environment bacterial endospores Highly resistant microbe only destroyed by extreme heat or chemical treatment. protozoan cysts Highly resistant microbe, stages in life cycle of intestinal protozoa (Giardia lamblia or cryptosporidium parvum) disinfectant-resistant forms excreted in feces and cause disease when ingested. Easily destroyed by boiling oocysts Highly resistant microbe, stages in life cycle of intestinal protozoa (Giardia lamblia) disinfectant- resistant forms excreted in feces and cause disease when ingested. Easily destroyed by boiling mycobacterium species Highly resistant microbe, waxy cell walls make them resistant to many chemical treatments, acid fast pseudomonas species resistant to and can grow in some disinfectants (gram negative) can cause healthcare associated infections naked viruses lack a lipid envelope, more resistant to disinfectants highest resistance bacterial endospores prions moderate resistance naked viruses, resistant vegetative bacteria least resistance bacterial vegetative cells, fungal spores, yeast, enveloped viruses, protozoan trophozoites decimal reduction time D Value, time required to kill 90% of bacterial population under specific conditions. temperature is indicated by subscript on D critical instruments come in direct contact with body tissues, must be sterile semicritical instruments come in contact with mucous membranes but do not penetrate body tissue, gastrointestinal endoscopes, endotracheal tubes. Free of all viruses and vegetative bacteria non-critical instruments/surface come in contact with unbroken skin, little risk for infection, blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, etc prions infections protein particles not destroyed by standard sterilization processes vegetative cells typical multiplying cell Nosocomial Hospital acquired infection Chapter 6 Experiments designed by ______________ suggested that living cells caused the fermentation of sugar to produce alcohol. Pasteur Koch Wohler Fleming Pasteur Studies done by Buchner showed that ground-up yeast cells were able to convert sugar to alcohol. The components of the mixture that were responsible for this transformation were DNA molecules. enzymes. lipids. carbohydrates. enzymes Concerning catabolism and anabolism, they refer to reactions solely dealing with the metabolism of lipids. the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other. the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other. they refer solely to the reactions involved in synthesis of carbohydrates. the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other AND the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other. the intermediates of one serve as the reactants in the other AND the energy gathered in one is utilized in the other. The general term used to describe the anabolic and catabolic reactions in a cell is enzymatic. thematic. aerobic respiration. metabolism. metabolism Energy is defined as water flowing up a dam. the capacity to do work. the use of high level phosphate bonds. the potential to fall. the capacity to do work Biosynthetic reactions that require energy for the conversion of molecular subunits into larger molecules are called kinetic energy. catabolic reactions. precursor molecules. anabolic reactions. anabolic reactions Exergonic reactions occur when there is more free energy in the products than the reactants. occur when there is more free energy in the reactants than the products. are defined as a decrease in entropy. are chemoorganotrophic. occur when there is more free energy in the reactants than the products. Free energy includes the energy lost as heat. is the amount of energy gained by breaking bonds of a chemical. differs for a given reaction depending on the number of steps involved. always results in a decrease in total energy. is the amount of energy gained by breaking bonds of a chemical AND differs for a given reaction depending on the number of steps involved. is the amount of energy gained by breaking bonds of a chemical. Bacteria that can absorb light energy and convert it into ATP are commonly called cytochromes. lysosomes. chemotrophs. phototrophs. cytochromes AND chemotrophs. phototrophs The readily usable energy currency of cells is electricity. the electron transport system. ATP. CTP. the electron transport system AND CTP. ATP Each of the following statements about chemoorganotrophs is true EXCEPT: They may use substrate-level phosphorylation to produce ATP. They may use oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP. They may use photophosporylation to produce ATP. They utilize an electrochemical gradient. They may use photophosporylation to produce ATP. The name given to the reaction involving removal of electrons or hydrogen atoms from a compound is termed glycolysis. reduction. oxidation. metabolism. oxidation The name given to the reaction involving addition of electrons or hydrogen atoms to a compound is termed glycolysis. reduction. oxidation. metabolism. reduction NAD in its reduced form is symbolized as NADH. NAD. NAD-. NADP. NADH Glycolysis is also known as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. is also known as the Entner-Duodoroff pathway. is used by Pseudomonas and a few other bacteria. generates some energy and NADPH. is also known as the Entner-Duodoroff pathway AND is used by Pseudomonas and a few other bacteria. is also known as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. The most common starting pathway for the breakdown of sugars is respiration. fermentation. glycolysis. oxidation. glycolysis Glycolysis produces pyruvate. NAD. NADP. acetyl-CoA. pyruvate Cells degrade sugar largely to gain energy. use energy. convert fat to energy. utilize coenzymes. gain energy Oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor in fermentation. aerobic respiration. anaerobic respiration. reduction. aerobic respiration The terminal electron acceptor in respiration may be oxygen. nitrate. NAD. an inorganic molecule. oxygen, nitrate AND an inorganic molecule. oxygen, nitrate AND an inorganic molecule. Which of the following processes generates the greatest amount of energy? fermentation aerobic respiration the Entner-Duodoroff pathway glycolysis fermentation AND the Entner-Duodoroff pathway aerobic respiration Fermentation uses an inorganic molecule as the final electron acceptor. uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor. results in the production of a large amount of ATP. is necessary in some organisms to produce reduced electron carriers. uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor AND is necessary in some organisms to produce reduced electron carriers. uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor. Which is/are true regarding organic acids? They are weak acids. They are often involved in metabolic reactions. They often exist in the ionized form at the near-neutral pH found in a cell. Pyruvate and pyruvic acid refer to different forms of the same substance. All of the choices are true. All of the choices are true. Pyruvate can be metabolized along two major routes. They are oxidation and reduction. fermentation and respiration. metabolism and anabolism. anabolism and catabolism. fermentation and respiration The use of the suffix "ase" on a word denotes a(n) substrate. product. enzyme. electron acceptor. substrate AND electron acceptor. enzyme Enzymes act as substrates. catalysts. products. catabolites. catalysts Enzymes act on _______ to produce ________. products, catabolites substrates, products products, substrates glucose, anabolites substrates, products Enzymes speed up reactions by raising activation energy. producing heat. reducing entropy. lowering activation energy. raising activation energy AND reducing entropy. lowering activation energy The mutual interaction of substrate and enzyme is described as a(n) lock and key arrangement. induced fit. active site. allosteric site. active site AND allosteric site. induced fit Chapter 7 DNA command center of the cell Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine DNA is composed of these four nucleotides Protein Amino acids make up Genome Complete set of genetic information Gene Functional unit of genome; encodes _______ product, usually a protein. Genomics Study of nucleotide sequence is DNA replication and gene transcription and translation Cells must accomplish two tasks to multiply double stranded helix DNA forms a Sugar and phosphate DNAs backbone 5' and 3' end Single DNA strand will have a Complementary and antiparallel DNA strands are Hydrogen bonds DNA is held together by _____________ _____________ between base pairing Adenine to thymine and cytosine to guanine Base pairing Bidirectional DNA replication is usually replication forks DNA replication creates two of these; ultimately meet at terminating site when process is complete Semiconservative DNA replication is __________, meaning it contains one original and one newly synthesized strand Origin of replication Replication begins at the Primers Primases synthesize short stretches of complementary DNA called __________. Helicases Unzip DNA strands Leading strand Synthesized continuously Lagging strand Synthesized did continuously Two complete copies of DNA (each daughter cell receives one) Replication produces Generation time Time it takes to double RNA uracil pairs with adenine instead of thymine; ribose instead of deoxyribose; usually shorter single strand. Synthesized from DNA template strand mRNA Messenger RNA; translated to make protein tRNA Transfer RNA; delivers correct amino acids; each has a specific anticodon sequence. Can be recycled after delivering and go pick up another amino acid before transcription is complete Translation in prokaryotes begins when? rRNA Ribosomal RNA; translates Promoter Start Terminator Finish RNA polymerase Synthesizes single stranded RNA; synthesizes in direction from 5 prime to 3 prime Initiation, elongation, termination Three stages of transcription Initiation Start; getting in place Elongation Adding amino acids to the chain Termination Finished and breaking back down complementary and anti parallel to DNA template strand RNA sequence is Codon Three nucleotides Translation Three reading frames possible, correct reading frame is critical. Incorrect will yield different and likely non functional protein. When this is messed up it causes major problems Ribosomes Serve as translation machines; helps make sure translation doesn't get messed up and cause major problems 30s and 50s Prokaryotic ribosomes comprised of _____ & _____ subunits P site and A site Ribosome has two sites to which tRNAs can bind Pre mRNA (precursor) Eukaryotes are more complex in their transcription & translation because they have a 40s and 60s Eukaryotic ribosomes are _______ & ________ subunits Operon Regulated genes transcribed as single polycistronoc messages termed ________ Regulon Separate operons controlled by a single regulatory mechanism constitute _________. Global control Simultaneous regulation of numerous genes Alternative sigma factors and DNA binding proteins Two mechanisms to control transcription Repressors Block transcription binds to operator, stops RNA polymerase Induction Repressor binds, blocks transcription Repression Repressor unable to bind to DNA Corepressor Attaches to repressor, complex now binds to DNA and block transcription Activators Facilitates transcription Standard sigma factor Loose component of RNA polymerase that recognizes specific promoters for genes expressed during routine growth conditions Alternative sigma factors Recognize different sets of promoters to control expression of specific groups of genes Depressors or activators DNA binding proteins can act as Inducer Binding to activator allows binding to DNA Lactose Lac Operon


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