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Date Created: 09/19/15
Soils differ strikingly from each other Name AGRONOMY 255 251 270 SOIL DIFFERENCES This week we illustrate the great differences and ask you to learn how they differ and to become skilled in describing the differences Objectives 1 10 11 12 13 14 To be able to Use the Munsell system to describe soil color and explain the Munsell code including the concepts of hue value and chroma Name and explain the origin of the colors in soil which are caused by iron by organic matter and the colors observed in the absence of iron and organic matter Discuss how and why surface and subsoil soil colors change as one goes from well drained to poorly drained soil silt List the particle size limits for sand and clay Given an unlabeled textural triangle explain its general organization and label the 12 textural classes Given a sample of soil determine its texture by feel placing it in its correct textural class Define quottexturequot and quotstructurequot Define quotpedquot and discuss how peds are formed Identify and describe the two quotstructurelessquot conditions in soil single grained and massive Identify and describe granular platy blocky and prismatic soil structures either when given sample peds or in a monolith Define the soil horizons listed in the study guide and recognize them when obviously present in a profile monolith Distinguish and describe soil horizons in the 0 122 cm 0 4 ft cores provided and discuss the visible features such as structure color quotSoil of the Weekquot Identify name and obvious horizon boundaries in the select the one which matches a soil texture and horizon boundaries Given several soil profile descriptions core using the characteristics of color 2 Reading Assignment Brady and Weil quotElements of the Nature and Properties of Soilsquot pp 1 19 52 57 96 106 Spring 2011 II I STUDY GUIDE Concepts of Soils A What Do You See in Soil Profiles What is soil 1 Award mad9 Asa mm 1 th w win ziibuuf firth 3 KS A 439 39 x Soil Names Series Names 39 N i F na jf 0133 f Malt JR333 gin 529 f 00351 i beg quot3395quot W ip fg quot395 v Infinig m ei ismmils Fi i v b Soil Patterns p 17 a mwmdm dmhmwnmamp WW o mlmmm339 amp m5 y dam 9 1M2 15 Mil M arrjam cz ma a l k 7 Soils in Profile quot l azmwrdrmszhmwwampkamhmb V i x M lli39 39i i Hf 37quot Cwlwftf lt3 inhitvmwmi tivi uw ist c iiquot iw u 3 7 kg manys vn Pedon Soil Horizons in a Miami Silt Loam Soil O 6 L Q J 5 33 P am ewiz f r3 of n 3339 v quot g A surg m l m a A w i F0031 E var l p Morima cJm f dem 901 KL g In M3 St 39 1 My manmwme W B J0H 7 fv C antjflg f pigV7 If lift ff JiC39if f 0 Offtqyi l f ZJ EWJJEZI J i fps a I 1 4 J r Pedons and Polypedons m 0iquot N 5 I x I v 0 016 55303 i 43 1 Monoliths D s marks MAL3 e X F n M f quot 0 of wirqo ll hagi Pea wfk 501quot 3 mi My m w r N z 039 4 cram a Elftsir 39 gmx 0 quotWquot 6 Few gk chive Ewen ma Pf 27 rgtquotIfii39 quotasquot 4 Observing Soil Horizons Notes not necessary Read pages 11 14 Karad Soil Profile Can you identify the horizons Slides look at the next few photographs while listening to my comments on each they are designed to illustrate what we ve talked about above Notes not necessary on these slides The Soil Monoliths at the center of the Front Bench A The soil profiles displayed here are undisturbed soil samples taken from the surface down to 4 feet 122 cm Stand back several feet to get a general look at the soils List 5 of the distinct colors that the soils display F g 39F cv Egg 019 Elmar III Which soil would you like for your garden wm gd 39LTVn Why EHquot Ea ElfquotH emu ierquot was INS g H i39lw 39ifux i Lot 63 quot 9quotR w ftg i hztcz rlaf kala f h Irmpl q CIVIC 33 gs axm fir19 3 Mu 50135va 394 How many distinctive layers based solely on color do you think you see in each of the following soils Zanesville silt loam Houghton Muck LM39Z Cecil silt loam C5 Watseka sand J5 Which of the soils on display was formed over gravel bkwgma Discuss your decisions with the tutor RETURN TO THE COMPUTER Soil Color description origin use p 97 A The Munsell System Computer Presentation and Bench 1 Hue r 4m new Valueu39mhmwm s5W hkm mqrgole e Chrxnna vanw nrgC Hal a imA How to Read Soil Color Using the Munsell System eg lOYR64 I108 UAW f lmy2723 0 449 ggl jgwg E29443 Soil color read using moist soil wig 5322 m ring 513552 3 I hair am Sources of Soil Color organic matter humus and iron oxides Sample Munsell code description of moist soils on display Bench 1 Munsell Code Color Name m Unk Soil 1 Unk Soil 2 Ji lzesgsag Soil Iron Colors Bench 1 Oxidized Iron Fe red brown tan yellow Mottling awmJ my Ewwg 39 V J 39 Reduced Iron FeW ib wusg mgg my The Pembroke has been separated into its individual components notice the changes in color Soil Humus Color Bench 1 As residues decompose the resulting humus causes the soil color to become aAQL Compare the Maumee soil color before and after burning What gives the color before burning 550C after burning m im IV Soil A What gives the color to each horizon of the Saugatuck A Rum 5 E an absence of iron or humus color 1 ii in w B Tm cmmkta g gmwrmmu mm mgmmfii uvvy S Soil Color as a measure of organic matter content Using the Munsell chart Unk Soil l LE organic matter Unk Soil 2 2 8 organic matter Color Soil Drainage and Vegetation right end of bench 1 Forest soils vs Prairie soils 1 Compare the colors of the subsoil of the four soils What colors do you see in the well drained soils imamnidu ihkwmik mwg What39colors do you see in the poorly drained soils q MampJ QKampJ EHH9V333MQ J Lu 7 Compare the depth and darkness of the surfaces of these four soils Between the two prairie soils which one has the greater accumulation of organic matter DFUWWamp4 Between the two forest soils which one has the greater accumulation of organic matter 39Bmmkgmi Compare the surface horizons of the well drained prairie and the well drained forest soil do soils developed under prairie vegetation or I K x k forest vegetation contain more organic matter pirm l RETURN TO THE COMPUTER Texture p 97 104 v v w 1 t 1 A definition Amwrwvhss aaw fsgm mmamlgmvhk L750J W mkM quot q 1 on WNW 51L n v r5A Claq pfr gep1 mil39 55 as a ssu gz eiiirii J V 1 Particle size limits United States Department of Agriculture System sand Z hua mm silt05r 2 mm clay 4002 mm Soil Textural Triangle How many textural class categories are there 5 Description of a simplified textural triangle Loam 53quot gimp 375 Wm xii 53 Ii1M sf itm u Slang Ez zi gx 52M i lQ2 72L l Q xV m4 5 Up Clay Loam AM 351quot w x w i iii 1 sham and 9 GEE3 s J 39 43 Clay i zgi i I M gar1714 0i017v Writ i i i P I 6t 4quot A E 5 Texture by Feel study this prior to doing the known amp unknown texture sample 1 Moisten a sample of soil the size of a golf ball but don39t get it very wet the thumb and forefinger to try to form a ribbon Our first decision If the moist soil is a Extremely sticky One of the and stiff CLAYS b Sticky and stiff One of the to squeeze CLAY LOAMS c Soft easy to One of the squeeze only LOAMS slightly sticky 30ur second decision Do we need an adjective to refine our description a The soil feels very smooth Use adjective SILT OR SILTY b The soil feels Use no somewhat gritty adjective c The soil feels very very gritty Use adjective SANDY Our final refinement The true texture triangle has two small additional changes a The lines jog a little b There are three additional and less common classes sand loamy sand and silt Beware the feel of a soil is modified by a The amount of moisture present Compare them at like moisture contents b The amount of organic matter This especially affects clayey soils Very matter cause the soil to be quotsmoothquot silt content c The kind of clay Work it until it is uniformly moist then squeeze it out between clay CLAY LOANS LOANS sand Silt clay 5mm CW 51m CLAY LOAM WW CLAY Low SANDY LOAM LOAN SILT LDAM sand silt o I y 39 39 8 m 39 o 30 Sd ldv clay stave perce fsand causing an over estimation of In tropic and subtropic regions different types of clay particularly kaolinite predominate and give a less sticky feel 39L F Soil Texture Practice Session 1 Work first on the known texture samples located on the large wooden textured triangle on the table As you work with them notice where they fall on the triangle a Learn the feel of soils with different clay centent by l comparing the loam clay loam and clay 2 comparing the silt loam to the silty clay loam 7 3 comparing the sandy loam to the sandy clay loam u Learn the feel of soils with similar amounts of clay ie compare loam silt loam and sandy loam 0 Practice with the knowns until your fingers are educated 2 Now try the quotunknownsquot on the front bench If in doubt about one then compare it back to the practice samples on the triangle Record the texture which you think each of the unknowns has TEXTURE UNKNOWN TEXTURAL CLASS 1 39ngaaw 2 5quot Citu wigy 3 langj 4 icpiiifcm Nu Now that you have this completed check with the tutor to see if you are correct Label the textural triangle below with the correct textural class name in each of the 12 areas SELF TEST 100 39 WV 9 Sn 0 63a G a Z N Nf39 J Iquot 1 20 X y Y M lo Os 1o WWII 39 wk MAAM 39 2 22 a 02 e 39 39 a saxawe Percent sand RETURN TO THE COMPUTER FOR A DISCUSSION OF STRUCTURE AND HORIZONS Structure Bench 2 and p 104 106 7 x it A4 Definition of soil structure armmwwWWwairmdifhWMim iMw swm m hm k 6 as k k 3 Wha t l S a P ed g I e g at e Dachami rst of airJ Ma a park 1353 M934 brenic39qurm 92635 My 5355 i t I I I In 7 B Photographs of Granular Platy Blocky and Prismatic no notes necessary C Structureless Bench 2 Take notes on how they appear to you at Bench 2 39 39 a 1 as quot57quot 1 1 lug1 grain 3900 31 5E xiii I smya kwfilnikzi Libbey 6x934 WSW a 616th xamp e quot hc7 in21139w z n f39 2 massive l u 1quot 39 quot39 L 4 V u g Example 5 aw tiquot mm 3 imam Lkzavmi D Common Structures Bench 2 Take notes on how they appear to you 1 granulari maiiixm em lfbrk huhimm 2 platy R343 31 er IQ3CE 3 blocky I x a subangular veumk xswwhfh b ang Ill ar Colmfg at g I Ir m l f f f r 4 prismatic tJL skmfl wmewg 5 Beds soil structural units come in all sizes E Special structural cases not often found in Indiana Bench 2 1 Co l umna r In as 2 397 02 f lg e ieg anyy CQMJQA x F Observe the sequence of structure types in a soil profile ie smaller structure is found in the surface horizon Bench 2 BMW A swabs l I a J 9 m BE EB Flak U995 I w 39 I B Am ilhf filli l glli rf 5 w uWIm H Prbib mmi h l U7 r RETURN TO THE COMPUTER VI Soil Horizons p A Definitions Superficial surface layers Soium Eluvial zone illuvial zone Parent material A lA w 1 0i 0a ll BE 52 56 and Bench 2 Loose leaves and undecomposed organic debris Matted and decomposed organic material A mineral horizon containing Humus highly decomposed organic matter and consequently dark in color A layer lighter in color and lower in organic matter than the overlying A whose main feature is loss of silicate clay iron aluminum and leaving a concentration of sand and silt particles of quartz or other resistant minerals Transitional horizon llluvial or residual concentration of silicate clays sesquioxides humus etc andor development of structure if volume changes accompany changes in moisture content Transitional horizon This horizon may be considered to be similar to the original appearance of the solum where there are obviously no geologic nonconformities Bedrock A hypothetical soil pro le with all master horizons and some transitional horizons The thickness of the horizons varies as indicated Observe these horizons on the computer and make notes about their characteristics in the blanks below After looking at the computer images and taking notes you will go to Bench 2 to observe these horizons in the soil monoliths 1 Organic Horizons Oi Unip f w llp n 335 E3 fit f i I i Get more high decomposed organic matter 2 Mineral Horizons Examples from Selected Soil ProfilesBench 2 quot Well Drained Forest Soils Light colored soils k i l I 39u a x Warm 4 VA 695055 I kindquot 53013791 cati vgn i lmLQ ag391Ik Ap a A g f ckffmfg w gwwixmmymlgjh 36mm I if 39 knewquot I My 39 I I Wquot E maid w I fa23c gch rm L m amt I my 39 w BE Transition more like B EB Transition more like E V Bt Emmi mam fang liqm gga ilvp BhS mumuiai A1 kf lfsmrrih tgvf BS 10 UIWDS Migr D i mf a bradr Julia Chums55 a BC Transition more like B C pawnt mkmmi R Bedrock Prairie Soils and Poorly Drained Forest Soils Dark colored soils h h m A SI39 S 83quot 13301336 MQ39QNCJ Bihk z 1 l i 39 g gquot k 39 739 gmiiwg lms 31 PH s q ib squot AB OJTudyh x ff light 51a I 4371671 itsg 3391 may f B C no if aradhaa Caliban attiregirth twain 536 R Bedrock entire 3 Additional Horizon Nomenclature from the display on Bench 2 y Bg Bkm mwiwnfd Bx bd k Ei y Ck P39JHmfm W 0nf HHiUCJ h H g 51quot Most Common Subordinate Distinctions k Accumulation of carbonates within Master Horizons Lower case m Cementation or induration letters are used as suffixes to n Accumulation of sodium 2 designate specific kinds of master o Residual accumulation of horizons The symbols and their sesquioxides mainly oxides of g meanings are as follows iron and aluminum u I p Plow1ng or other disturbance a Highly decomposed organic material q Accumulation of silica contrast with e and i r Weathered or soft bedrock anuried genetic horizon s Illuvial accumulation of c Concretions or hard sesquioxides and iron oxides nonconcretionary nodules iron t Accumulation of silicate clay aluminum manganese or titanium v Plinthite subsoil material e Organic material of intermediate enriched with iron becoming hard decomposition or brick like due to repeated fFrozen soil permanent ice drying and wetting a g Strong gleying reduction of iron w Weak development of color or and other compounds and structure development of gray colors due to x Fragipan character brittle with poor drainage high bulk density h llluvial accumulation of organic y Accumulation of gypsum matter z Accumulation of salts more soluble i Slightly decomposed organic than gypsum material r soils and in dark colored prairie or forest soils are presented horizon changes in the monoliths and compare them to the sequences below Forest and Prairie Soils at north end of Bench 1 Light colored Well Drained Forest Soil VII VIII IX 10 C Horizon sequences that are commonly found in light colored forest Observe the See No notes necessary Dark Colored Well or Poorly Drained Prairie or Poorly Drained Forest Soils A A E AB Bt r Bt BC BC C may not be C may not be visible at depth of monolith visible at depth of monolith RETURN TO THE COMPUTER FOR FINAL INSTRUCTIONS Your handin exercise You will work on Bench 3 with soil cores 1 and 2 We have a repeat set on each half of the bench to make room for more students Turn it in upon completion by putting it in the slot for your discussion instructor in the box labeled quotHand In Boxquot Soil of the week Front Bench by checkin area Don39t memorize Look to be sure you can see the horizons and structural units What are the horizons observable and their ped structures horizon structure i structureless Computer Self Testing For practice on this week39s work use SELFTEST on the computers located at bottom of screen Check the bulletin board by the Study Center entrance for information on your discussion Day It Room Number 3VQQ Hour H m Instructor39s Name Wm yg amp Name F Lw39 ga AGRONOMY 255251 270 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS Physical properties are those characteristics of soils that you can see and feel or determine by simple measurements such as color texture structure density Objectives To be able to 1 Name and write the chemical formula for the oxidation states of iron in soil and identify the soil colors associated with each oxidation state 2 Recognize whether a soil is well drained poorly drained or somewhere in between moderately well or somewhat poorly and explain why and how this is indicated by color 3 Use the ISEE programs to investigate soil drainage 4 Explain the influence of texture on other physical properties and on soil management 5 List and explain the four steps in preparing a soil for texture analysis by the sedimentation hydrometer method 6 Given Stokes Law explain each factor in it and how each factor affects the settling velocity of particles covered in lecture Explain which variables are assumed to be constant and which ones are variable and thus influence the texture determination 7 Given either the percent sand silt and clay or the hydrometer readings for a soil taken at 40 seconds and 2 hours be able to use the textural triangle to determine textural class 8 Describe the importance of soil temperature and what management practices are useful in manipulating soil temperatures Be able to list some soil properties that influence soil temperature 9 Determine bulk density and explain the relationship it has to pore space and why it is an important soil property 10 Calculate percent pore space when bulk density and particle density are given 11 Assess the importance of macro biopores and micro pores in water retention soil aeration and plant growth and list three effects of poor aeration 12 Identify horizon boundaries in the soil of the week and describe the visible characteristics when you have the profile before you Reading Assignment Brady and Weil Chapter 4 pages 97 100 104 104 106 114 125 Chp 7 pages 202 204 207 208 218 222 224 225 229 232 Sprng 2011 STUDY GUIDE I Soil Color Soil Aeration or Drainage and the Oxidation State of Iron A Oxidation states of iron Fe Metallic iron Fe0 Iron oxides rusty iron Fezog g w 9 Oxides submerged withoutair 3 Reduction of FeB to Fe in soil by bacteria is favored if the soil is ampMW and htt39 low in 02 and has a supply of energy for organisms B Oxygen Supply POOR AERATION GOOD AERATION well drained iron is in more oxidized form Fe ferric bright colors yellow browns reds poorly drained iron is in a more reduced form FeH ferrous dull colors gray e w m H e m N H C Soil drainage classes 1 Soil Drainage Classes Soil Monoliths Center of Front Bench The depth at which gray colors appear is the important clue Mottles are N 1 small splotches of gray in a brownish soil or of brown in a gray soil Depth to grayness or gray mottles Drainage class Well drained 30quot or greater Moderately well drained 18 30quot Somewhat poorly drained 10 18quot predominantly brown Poorly drained 10 18quot predominantly grey On soils with a dark surface horizon A or Apthat extends into the 10 18quot zone judge the 6quot just below this dark horizon for somewhat poorly and poOrly drained soils 2 Look at color plates in text following p 94 Read pages 97 202 USE THIS SECTION AS YOU STUDY THE DISPLAYS ON39FRONT BENCH 3 Notes on soil reduction display Front Bench The Fe reduction equation a ha 3 lg Fe and Mn concretions h M V W 39139 a as quot quot Mania ear 5M9i1quot b 09W 439 MWHW 54quot mkfij yii39a I39 mitts Wr v wlii39jfl 333363 gu C YP rwe a n N am mmafwawgquot QQPCJ PUL wily Color indication of reduction 2 chroma or less R N x r 3 w gt El ugf fagfh MM 5 nrquot n ni1 tag xf4ra amp W33 7 44 Kquot 39 II A right end of Front Bench DRAINAGE CLAS S 51 39iwwmv g Vlmiyst ai nlg 5355 r a Identifying Soil Drainage Unknowns SOIL NAME i r 1 I fh i ariin icmm i m 2 MmLQI KKLQ Imam 53 21 C szyial djixiaiiai39 prrii w 39 x 3 him fag WWBX I 3913 i h 53 W39 it m k it A e A 4 Mfr19 Mt i m is WSW d f iquot gamma 0 V quot 41 5 051 14390 GNPGLIW i494 X Sigh MiniF sif kzk J w xi RETURN TO THE COMPUTER Texture and Structure Definitions 1 Texture N W V F 39 pmfmLz w u a Gamih l a xNfwi fj y g yrfrsi ws l wg w39 in 2 Structure C a ifquot quA V 1 n x 1 a I I 9 maul iquot ii 4 w 5 3 z 5 an 2 LN 51 e 6 i 33 r 3A 92v 1 i nv39x m V i 39 w armngemem 391 r r a 39 Mg M S e39rf v k 3 Notes from pages 104 106 on structure SFJAQ Eskimi 3 r i ng IK J fag ii11 CirPil ig rff 39r Pied 53941 r 0 4 Structureless Single grainedrpo g gonw w qm mmd 1 J 39 A r r r l quot v A MaSSlve Whisk firquot v fu ii M1 when nalizes r 3 i 39L 6 quot quot Efi 1 39 i ncgt mm5 akaW ePMme k 4 I 1 Importance of texture and structure See textural triangle attached to the study guide or page 101 in your text during discussion 1Water movement sfme if 32 H minquot V m ESEMA L Ly PM 3quot quot E E Tfsm a imri6f Wt x weir 9 u c39 a Ma v e sai 515 M p u 39 5 g rsxwan x3 quot 1 37 Equot a MA V 24 Mir x t i Ws lswf Wt um Li Yquot r i w 5 2 oot growth i cankerquot in i3 rzf i zk f7if i 3compaction 3 i w i 1 son 5mg afWiFJj39 n okra v m vzai39quotHwy 1 a I V J rlgklbiii 3 Squot I ml 573 quot 1v 39 Iquot 0quot 7 i y 39 quot 3 quot quot3 quot quot 55 Pawn Pam x 4Erosion I water39 QWAahhwiwwppm k a mewJ k wninNW AH 91Ni wv a wmg39E39V i 39 39 7 V i W 139 M be 3 39 51 I do ivch 39r n 7 39 A m39 a r V u is 39 39 7 Via IO AREE 5 439 wind I 39 M A y r in iii g 95139sz 2315 Q 3 titling 1 J iaaizzg we Mama s r I J Importance of texture and structure cont 5Tillage v ifr ii ii firm ii ux g 7 t H r R Vii963219 g wtl rrggmxi11 ii WbJ iczer39 4w tyi m i2 i ii f 2117334 Mfg War3 In quota 6Water retention and storage fmmsi amp A v Qp r frf39 6W 5 23 quot 7 iimn 1 quoti ii 39 N H 53 i quotl quot39 x gaming Mair Meierquot i quot US031 0525579 394 5 1719 3lt vqh Eff aim 159in 7Plant nutrition soil fertility f0 I w 5 gin13 tui13e3 f s i g 96gt Hoke W 3 H 71 3quot Cfb 31 413 397 quotha gar guag rggg mam iigul gi gg Notes from pictures on texture and structure 1 Crusting p kgj rgg git c i g s w iaafgti3rnl i u M 5 V 1 1 he Maria3w 0er meat1 s 3 V quotJt i v Angeliquot 2 Distribution of air Texture Solids Hg Air s31 7 7 r39 r quot a F n Silt loam lhK gt p amp3 2252 sand leave the computer Go to Bench 1 to study displays Notes from demonstration on Bench 1 1 0 D Articles on texture and structure af x SHi a 1m 5 nec39y ft 42 mg Texture Versus percolation rate jflagngy was 3323259633 5quot mks 1513 kaiag fw x no 5 m Ell1193quot 53ka wag 53 I 5 itmrauki may t Jugm Structure versus percolation rateI Hm Mthhxg thermal fgt1 5iquot 2 4 S Oxan SMIAHQF HEP xPrx J 2 quot 39 J 39quotquotquotquotquotquot Fragipan x 54iquot HLali kw fit331 41mm 33 1 3 theirquot our r8531 Nair miquot lh li i Texture versus water retention milliliters water stored in Clay Loam 3973 quot Silt Loam Smi n S and Vii Physical property effects on herbicides u n p WM 1 w 39h cknnems aimw mh3 mnm nmiamphwanuul w Potting mix materials Mainly used to provide 1 2 3 large pore spaces for looseness and aeration fine pores to hold water nutrients and nutrient holding capacity v P yuckyJ 1 water amp solid space in sand vs med texture 3 t 02 Wquot vu MEXl 3quoter 33quot 39 r Zulu if r it t quot m Ma a quot lily Mm ak i lffaWtziZ uiamp MilWIN wenaft arkV Gamer myth rm r wwq 391 mm Litquot was nir 39r r III Water Nutrient Product Put a V on the line that Holding Holding relates to Aeration 17 soil sand vermiculite le perlite dialoam peat Isl his H lal lxlalal ls potting soil mix v PICK UP YOUR HANDIN TO WORK ON WHEN YOU REACH STEP 6 GO TO BENCH 2 TO COMPLETE THE NOTES THAT FOLLOW Texture by Mechanical Analysis Boyoucous method of particle size analysis by sedimentation rate Bench 2 Observe and take notes in the blanks for Steps 1 thru 5 these have been done for you Perform steps 6 and beyond Step 1 Sample size E g Step 2 Remove organic matter with Hang in order to get ggml xu kulfm a 512 Ruin 39 39jvL1f39f Step 3 Chemical dispersion of the samples with AHW The Na replaces the Ca39H on the negatively charged clay particles while the phosphates form a complex with the calcium V NaP036 033PO36 Na Saturated Clay Ca Saturated Clay 39 flocculated dispersed Step 4 Next mechanically disperse the sample in a blender Suspend the dispersed soil in a cylinder of water shake and then allow the particles to settle The amount of silt and clay in suspension is measured after sand settles in 0 seconds The amount of clay in suspension is measured after sand and silt settle in El hours Step 5 Step 6The hydrometer measures the density of the suspension water plus suspended solids The hydrometer is calibrated to read in quotgrams of soil particles remaining in suspension per literquot Shake cylinder to suspend the soil Then immediately put the hydrometer in gently and wait 40 seconds for the first reading grams silt plus clay RECORD THE FORTY SECOND HYDROMETER READING FOR THEB HORIZON HERE IEgt g L ALSO RECORD IT ON THE HAND IN Use this and the other information given there to complete part 1 of the HANDIN R X Step 7 Gently replace hydrometer at 2 hours when only the clay is left and read grams clay You need not wait we have performed the 2 hr reading for you Temperature Correction If the suspension temperature is not standard 20 C adjust the hydrometer readings to compensate 1 Add 4 g L4 to readings for each degree C above 20 2 Deduct 4 g Lq39for each degree C below 20 Step 8Calculate percent sand Example of calculation sample 50 g suspension temperature 21 40 second hydrometer reading 346 g L4L 2 hour hydrometer reading 156 Temperature correction of 04 we have 35 g of material have settled out corrected 2 hour reading is 16 After subtracting clay and silt Thus there silt and clay to determine textural class 9 U1 makes 40 second reading 350 g Li Therefore plus clay still in suspension Fifteen grams must be 15 g of sand 30 sand The g L31 which indicates 16 g of clay 32 clay sand the remainder must be silt 100 32 clay 30 sand 38 silt Right end of Bench 2 Complete the table below using the information provided for the soil profile You will use the textural triangle to determine the texture classes and check your answers by lifting the tab on the display The information for one of the horizons is missing Use the data and textural class you just determined for your handin to fill in the missing data Horizon A Ap Bu 365 BL Plot the Depth of Sample Clay Textural Class 5quot 5 gt WMH yfl ai39lc 94 2 I 4qu as 3293 5k wq Use the value and W textural class you N rtr 54min WW 1 as 43 gfampv just determined for Q 8 loamqsawk the hand in to complete the table to the left percent clay versus depth on the graph on the next page Graph for change in clay percentage with depth in a mature soil in Indiana 7 CLAY O 10 2O 30 40 10 a r Depth 20 L inches 30 40 a Stokes Law Settling times of 40 seconds and 2 hours used in the Boyoucos Hydrometer Method are based on Stoke39s Law which says that settling rate of solids in a liquid is a function of particle size and other characteristics of the liquid and solid Complete the equation and define the factors from i Bench 2 Also on Bench 3 by hand ins af x at 6quot 98 where 39V Velocity of fall in cm per second Hp k f ml 315335L111 V1341 OE v cwghy CH get I 3 i r eqvv voxi anh mskussii IranSig gu kfgn d1 dem hyogwwghwn3nimcnr 3 ds Jerks 1quot3 a E ai 3 mm cmquot 3 k l WisrtwgiaMB a39gtyvgi91 g11lt03le 50 27M 33 If d1 dS g and n are constants putting in their values gives the simplified equation Velocity of fall in cm secd 34700 r2 Solving for the radius of the particles at the sand silt size and the silt clay size boundary we find that after 40 seconds the sand will have settled beyond the hydrometer so silt clay can be read after two hours the silt will be gone and clay can be read RETURN 29 THE COMPUTER M Comments on the Bouyoucous hydrometer method N Run the quotSOIL TEXTUREquot program It is practice in doing mechanical analysis problems and helps you learn to read the textural triangle Fill in Section 2 of your HAND IN with the values you obtained from running quotTEXTUREquot IV Soil Temperature slides and text f A Introductory comments 1 Importance of temperature effects p 218 223 a All biologic activity b Freezing and thawing 2 Soil factors determining natural soil temperatures p 224226 a solar absorption influenced by a yf39 mnampm t o p 224 226 b soil specific heat and conductivity influenced by andsquot content 3 Frost heaving 19 thingy an W53 e 3 Ehlxn ffnii N am 9in Howl39s Mquot eserfieim65gt quot1355215 Airn 525 4 Effect of extra heat on turf V Ide z MW i 1745 4393 taiu lzzlms n gx 95ers ru wwvij ver B Management of soil temperature p 229 232 1 Soil moisture content unmnnww hmtdhuvw kmf wsmdiseinerinsf nimmksgij g 2 Mulches Vm V gt 351 In 33 Emma CLOva 3 Plot the temperature changes in 3 soils Bench 3 Soils are quotBare amp Dryquot quotBare amp Wetquot amp quotMulched amp Wetquot Compare this semester39s results with the past semester You may need to come back later in the week 30 r 20 T 3 100 0 10 20 L 9am I 1 am 1pm 3pm Time Day 1 RETURN TO COMPUTER V Soil Compaction j A Soil compaction by wheel traffic r N r 115 aim quot9 3 NltJMl 9 3 ll375quot gyquot 39 has 7 B Turf soil compaction and aeration technique 391 n a r M n 3 f5 of Magquot Carmina SmIi a xp gi w tt w r532quot Romb mimini 5339 mum ht zmt39r 393 39 lt 091mng of 42411 it li Li i 39i 3 713153 Aea 67 quot WM r 9i523931 C Damage from compaction due to increased soil strength resistance to roots and loss of wn mmm a a VI Soil Density Bench 3 amp text p 114 123 A General H Density is a measure of compactness mass per unit volume Particle density is the average compactness of the soil particles Bulk density is the compactness of the whole soil bulk soil B Definitions 1 Bulk Density B D oven dry soilweight 33 M 39 39 total soilvolume 2 Particle Density oven dry soil weight volume of soil solids PD PD is fairly constant for most mineral soils at about 26 g cmquot3 Note Do parts 3 to 5 of your handin exercise Bench 3 C Relation of bulk density and pore space PS 100 Solids o BD lOO lOO PD X If the bulk density were 12 g cm in the A horizon of a soil what would be the pore space in its A Computer Slides 10 12 14 25 26 28 and 29 will help you understand D E and F D What is the impact of bulk density on plant growth E What is the relationship of texture and bulk density E2 What is the relationship of structure and bulk density quot G Cores taken from the various horizons of soil are located on Bench 3 the depth and bulk density for each horizon and then plot BD vs Depth Horizon Depth A E BE BC H Compaction Literature BD Bench 3 Depth in inches 10 20 30 40 What are some causes of compaction VII Soil Aeration p 202 10 Record BD g cm 13 16 19 Ad In a well aerated soil gases needed for rapid growth of plants are present 1 There must be sufficient space devoid of solids and water 2 Exchange of the gases must be rapid to prevent a deficiency of 02 or a build up of C02 B Most cases of poor soil aeration are due to war i w new 1 5 Therefore poorly drained soils are poorly aerated soils C Effects of poor aeration l Decreases the rate of i ohwhmi or w wg a OM decay is slowed Poorly drained soils tend to be high in CV4 b The symbiotic and some nonsymbiotic N fixing bacteria don39t function they don39t convert atmospheric N2 into forms available to plants b Anerobic bacteria continue to grow using combined forms of oxygen and leaving reduced forms of such elements as Fe and Mn Loss of oxidized iron and presence of reduced Mn contribute to the gray and mottled colors of poorly drained soils 2 Root growth of most plants is curtailed 3 Absorption of nutrients and water is lessened 4 Factors affecting soil aeration pp 207 208 Com af nn O W IIKHfo39E y 11 VIII Macropores and Micropores IX From comments in lecture or from discussion with a tutor mind what we mean by quotmacroquot biopores 123 clarify in your own and quotmicroquot pores in soil p 121 Macro vs micro pores Textural triangle for your review Fill in textural class names 100 g Percentsand Soil of the week No need to memorize anything about the soil of the week Be able to recognize its features if asked to discuss it TJanle I x 5 39 x v 39 th W quot5539439L quot 391 39I 39339 quot 39 39quot7quot quotquot 3 39 39v r quot39 quot39139 v quot A 39 V quotV 7 I39 r wl r39 39 35 quot r 4 V N a 39939 r39 1 3 w v l 4 4quot an 4 39 n H t M o r 1 0 40 3 4quot I t r p aw L 2 New AGRONOMY 255 251 270 SOIL FORMATION Objectives To be able to l 2 10 11 12 13 a 14 Explain clay iron and aluminum oxides movement in a soil Understand TIME as a factor in soil formation Be able to list the changes that usually take place in soil as it ages Describe how CLIMATE temperature and precipitation affects the a humus content and depth b depth of weathering c presence of an argillic clay horizon and d exchangeable cation Ca Mg K composition of soils Be able to a Explain what nutrient recycling by the plants does to a soil during soil formation b explain how marsh grass prairie grass deciduous trees and coniferous trees as vegetation types each produce a different soil and C identify the most probable NATIVE VEGETATION by looking at the soil Assess the effect of TOPOGRAPHY slope and drainage on soil development Given a description or sketch of a landscape be able to predict where well drained and poorly drained soils will occur and where the deepest and darkest soils will occur Define the term CATENA as used in soils Distinguish the soil drainage classes well moderately well somewhat poorly and poorly drained soils from the colors in the soil profile Identify and describe the residual PARENT MATERIALS common to Indiana and to locate the areas of their prevalence on a map Identify and explain the differences between glacial till and glacial outwash and locate the areas of Wisconsin and Illinoian glacial PARENT MATERIALS on an Indiana map Define and identify loess and explain its mode of deposition and its areas of prevalence as a PARENT MATERIAL in Indiana Explain the nature of alluvial marine and colluvial PARENT MATERIAL Review the horizon descriptions and learn the additional notations used to describe soils Given a soil profile or a detailed description be able to label the horizons using the additional notations or vice versa to explain the notation on a given description Given a mineral sample be able to identify the common primary and secondary minerals found in soils quartz feldspars orthoclase and plagioclase micas biotite and muscovite calcite and pyrite Describe their relative composition and whether they are resistant to weathering or easily weathered Identify the common rocks granite gneiss quartzite sandstone shale and limestone and describe the factors that help you identify each Reading Assignment Brady and Weil pp 2752 Spring 2011 STUDY GUIDE The variability found among soils is a result of g SOIL FORMING FACTORS As each of these factors change the characteristics of the soil being formed also change The quotFactorsquot are 1 Emmi maiwr 39gai 2 Tomquapg bq 3 Malilk ii39A39ggatFB39 iWM quot 39 k l mg ml 4 JMVM 5 Processes that occur as soils develop 1 Additions m i andquot f i 1 I i A MIS IMAT L31 0g whipspk 17351 6616 39 f obffri uwi fiswa 34 U 1 I N 2 Translocation wmwmmmniuh 3 ElUViationJ inhz Aho szahq mamp w mek Qei 0min 9 Nj 5 0cquot j f k 911129 semi 39 39 x i b IlluViation Vnm LmHgMWQMWQ ihgchqcm nhmmkixw b aammdhh1 we a 3 Transformation v If 390 th fw igfw rifa Hahn h m gmv fFBI 39g mu n aria Y IV EF J Ff a TW x4 3 5 Lb 03970 30vL m by 121 kiwi quot0 Notes on the TIME factor x am wwkfa dvqu w it i g 21 3 Myquot I m my snviquot waz a y r Notes on the CLIMATE factor x 39 39 Eggiarth w with 9735 19 kiwiis tan751 g iyczf g7e39 s new 0056 3 t V A short chemistry lesson What is the Cation Exchange Capacity LWa6dhmf39 adkws hum t wkcokgi a v 39 M 1 I y 5 V 1 3111 5 1quotka A5 394 it31 fli quyfi H x What are the basic cations 39 k I L O S s e S Ramp If y Wig23 O by w r z39osxigk otw Zt MS Ma Cr Kquot 39 Warfaakbfiiaaigk WA NEW fly3m W and QM that I I a lammam ML Loi39lzwt it difi C l b l gg39mig Lyraa no 13 no amm qizi xf m ffi quot 80 ENE f y 1 V I i X A izequotwlt 9n 539JDt rmf w Um i nmma v quotob39em svmm u U 39 u i What is an acid cation 919m arti9 ruin Jim Hm i hmym alimg g g J as What do we mean by exchangeable bases JELkmhl h Jk v VLk kf p What do we mean by exchangeable H r Him lli39wwii 3 1115 i rw 39 o ifquot j irif l i 35 rm 395 L GO TO WORK ON BENCH 1 AND THE FRONT BENCH F Work on the Bench 1 1 Climate effect on a Organic matter content of soils 1 Temperature effects on soil OM 39 39 i t a 44 chrm e a Mt Mitchell 3011 Humept mwiymunnrmwmr 010 b Coastal Plain soil Goldsbofo aaqgtpm itin rmnltwwwnhwww b Depth of leaching Gothard loam K ta ggg j wdhwmk mw nllghxcw k nw Texas loam 2ON RWV F cndmm mgak g Miami 3 i it loam Ifquot9N ll CGWquotLgtfFT k g 55 929m MEL H I nm i imh 6Q m m nfg 2 Time and rainfall effects on profile development in Indiana Clay 10 I 20 30 40 Legend 0 M Russell l 15000 years depth K g old 20 Ni IVA 150000 years in old 40 What is the approximate depth of the Bt horizon in each soil 3 Eff 6O quot Mamp5 hwmk Russell in to inches knllnama IVA in to inches 80 C 1369 835 an allquot Ei39 l z f c 3 6 mad 39v nf39ei 3 Iron Movement Iron and Aluminum form oxides in a ratio of 1 12 oxygens to each metal atom thus they are quotsesquioxidesquot They are only slightly soluble Iron can be moved downward by acid conditions or when it is reduced to Fe2 Note the accumulation of Iron in the Bs horizon of the soil on display Also note the distinct E horizon the zone of iron loss 4 Notice the differences in horizon development between young mature and old soils A 3 Young 0054 in 022 th Ei quot39V w N u Mature 39 a lea pf ma a with doum39afwmk mommjr 0Q Jan gr maidsLS j ll ah g39 E3 ampcl ltF U Old HQquot 1quot tifo Mex Ema i b mjrdouh v oc fmckvf 5 a w 39 5 Horizon review Observe39monoliths at the end of Bench 1 Bg Camila 833 g mf wearing BC A Find E C k aCQB myth iquot Iquot Elucnll 2t9a EB 2 Bt gang WArare B i a z quoti a B S Bhs BW LV39C39 5 4132531 39 J BX Bug 37391 if Zln39r239j39af f f a RETURN TO THE COMPUTER V Go to left end of Bench 2 G Vegetation Biotic Factor Read Brady and Weil pp 44 46 for information There is a display on the left end of Bench 2 which you can study the next time you are up 1 a Where is the organic matter concentrated in a prairie soil at Hm i621 cw 19131593 1 rig V Kv b Where is the organic matter concentrated in a forest soil ad 1119 rar cA MP 39 o 39 0 Explain why there is usually more humus in a soil under prairie vegetation than in a soil under forest vegetation 2 Comment on nutrient cycling Read Brady and weil section 25 p 44 46 a Forest vs Grassland Forest soils show a greater leaching of exchangeable calcium magnesium potassium and sodium and greater eluviation of clay from the A to B horizon Forest soils are more acid than grassland soils due to greater leaching of basic cations and types of tree litter b Spruce vs Hardwood 3 The campus soils see later when you are working at bench Fox Wea Continue with topography section on Bench 2 H TOPOGRAPHY Brady and Weil pp 47 49 1 Why does it affect soil l 9mm m5quot 57 u zf f ak nial 95253 gm 2 emo ak lfr 3 fzf 9if ga aeznfmt39hz 2 How does topography drainage affect color haghfh mwm wquot b H V v v I I 39 n I frzarav Pamu ciw r39mi 5 AS imam water 1W 0195591 mungMg panMu 5 mom mam 5quotquot763505 1 CQ84M I m3 3 at u as 39 m 3 The Catena When all the soils in a field have the same PM Veg Climate and 39 Time but differ only in topography then they are members of a Catena a chain of soils Usually referred to by the name of the well drained member BREAK TO STUDY THE LEFT 12 OF BENCH 2 AFTER VEGETATION a Under Forest Write the names of the soils displayed in the appropriate drainage class below Topographic or 63 Landscape gt 392 053395 J Position Well drained namtkv Somewhat poorly gt drained r Eymghh l Poorly drained b Under Prairie Write the names of the soils displayed in the appropriate drainage class below Topographic or Landscape Position Pew Well drained Raul Somewhat dblmfga poorly Poorly drained drained RETURN TO THE COMPUTER 6 I Parent Material Factor Brady and Weil pp 33 43 second half of Bench 2 and Bench 3 1 Residual a a Limestone am tmd a L u l a amp m 9 2L3 35 39i0 0139quot galugg HHELH39Hi15 Fn l l 0i 14x Ulnar K quot l w IL 7 b 39 sandStone Hamy iidmam39g Fi quot n a e ilJquotquot r PO S qukzmm inn39 wy mm V6 UV 1 gt 03031 l li39zi iquot lMR Vii w g x V C Shale 639d 39llc vquott539vE incIa kuv7 gt s 39i7quotr a frm mmmien OiVera 4 Mch t iquot V V v A 2 Glacial transported by ice and its associated melt water a Pleistocene ages and boundaries of glacial deposition in Indiana Kansan period Illinoian period Wisconsin period b Glacial till Au w m f xlums 6 walk aidiz af 963 11 3yf amp i f2t i39i u 043 PM sfirh Sgarzriap g h wdicsi ca ubi M 1 c Glacial outwash Get clear in your mind how glacial till differs from glacial outwash quotSi iibmi j sgtan rnm t 39K 39 7fo g f 23 ckv wmi n am3meg0Mmf wLeua 0Q thhw 7 st 3 Lacustrine transported by water into lakes dim cri sofa E13651 1 H Sims Iin 4 Aeolian transported by wind a Dune sand b Loess Nature of the material Origin and mode of deposition quot 5 1 5 Alluvial transported by water to river flood plains etc 6 Marine sedimented in shallow margins of oceans 53631 i IlCRVQ deg39fv Szi quot afj if r Q39W C Jr 0113 th mariw g quot51U39L gVQJC Xg 39 z n39mgim lml mid WNWf3l fgttfiquotij 7 Volcanic v gar1594 View W313 KETRA PML Z 49 r Hmquot 3339 if M UMV VOE 1195 MW be iuifa 29fa mmvgh5 o g 8 Colluvial transported by gravity 5 A y v w mo h m Sh mmlw wimw Odev mM WWMhbm pf A EAMS 9 Marsh Plants MAJOR INDIANA SOIL PARENT MATERIALS STEUBEN IOSEPH ELKHART LAGRANGE Fill in the map from information on right end of Bench 3 Matching area numbers from the map with the parent materials below KOSCIUSKO WH ITLEY 53 Wisconsin glacial till 4 Illinoian glacial till P Limestone 2L Sandstone and shale 7 Thick loess Aeolian sands amp lacustrine deposits I Alluvial amp Outwash deposits PUTNAM Most Indiana soils invthe southern half of the state have at least a foot or more of loess over their C I O O D main parent material I 0 I I O MSG BW GLAOAL BOUN GARY 2 SPENCER l ILLINOIAN GLACIAL z x BOUNDARY RETURN TO THE COMPUTER K 2 g quotI W 59 quot Notes from the computer images n 1 I l 1 UN r i zaI MaleVb 39 95 my I K X my Hawaii afiair ziaaini MN an 90134 6W 90quot quot 4391quot MN 5 x quot A p V 1 39m 5 139 3913 WW MESW 179quot was called ww i 39ifzquotrif i 232739 a t If you don39t know your rocks and minerals study the displays on the front bench and texture table 1 Minerals display on Front Bench and table nearest study carrells l Quartz SiOZ a The sand in many soils is mostly quartz It resists weathering and stays on in soils as skeletal material b Identifying characteristics Nham vy mh nam m wmmmw 2 Feldspar K Ca or Na alumino silicates a Feldspars are very abundant in igneous rocks found in our glacial materials and weather to release K and Ca for plant nutrition They also reform into some of the clays found in soils b Identifying characteristics k I 6 9 my 1 3 1 14 mg ah cwjlfuyewr at detemyfzu ms39 s 971 4ii1 fs f a fl A r A 3 Calcite CaCO3 a Calcite crystals often form in cracks in limestone beds They are also ground up with the limestone by glaciers and mixed in to become part of the glacial till b Identifying characteristics 551 icf39 if39v w 355 4 Pyrite feS a Iron pyrite is also called quotfools goldquot It is found in and above the coal because the sulfur in organic compounds come off as H2S gas in anaerobic decomposition This then reacted with iron in the soil and pyrite formed In coal mine spoil it oxidizes and hydrolyzes to H2804 and thus is a problem b Identifying characteristics x mannagm Mei iiizacggg n 3 5 39 k a M I r f i Ntzx ll a gi v NIB 5 Muscovite and Biotite K Mg or Fe alumino silicates a These are the white and black micas found especially in igneous and metamorphic rocks which are so abundant in our glacial material b Identifying characteristics w 255053 f y ra if grin 396163 5LTTTC3 L 2 Rocks 1 la Sedimentary Granite quartz feldsparmica a Igneous rock brought to Indiana in the glacial ice b Identifying characteristics FM I 1 1quot F em xmr e Ku 9 imf7z Mquot iii MMKAS 393 I V39 Q l MiM m39amm Nur wnsas a Quartzite fused sandstone ad Metamorphic brought from northern regions by glacier b Identifying characteristics wmwme woggxu mm q k Cramh t f l r ifi tf ff mfg433 Gneiss quartz feldsparmica a Metamorphic granitelike but heat and pressure effects have caused it to be striated or striped in appearance Brought to Indiana bnglaciers from northern States and Canada b Identifying characteristics e 040641554 aha M P6464395 grawaiy Limestone CaCO3 and MgCO3 underlies most of Indiana b Identifying characteristics v SVng Mg a c x f mma Kym m lawririvrvaexw h 3 Shale cemented clays a Sedimentary underlies most of Indiana b Identifying characteristics 39 w 4 L I u quot m Mm 955 gym ff ag Ekwmw 3 VPMMampCsM Sandstone cemented sands a Sedimentary underlies most of Indiana b Identifying characteristics aquot quot 935313 fivem a3qvrig 1 quotub x JAM1m 1 n w 1 V 4 37 mun 39quot F7 6 361 Hui 1 45 wquot 3 if I Do your HAND IN using the monoliths on the quotFront Bench Name 1 AGRONOMY 255 251 270 SOIL CLASSIFICATION Objectives To be able to 1 Employ the system of quotRectangular Survey a describe land locations and acreages b locate the land areas on soil survey or topographic maps when given the legal land description 2 Use the county soil survey reports including knowing a what kind of information is present and how to find it in a published survey report b where unpublished soil information of the type found in a survey report can be found in a county 3 List 2 advantages in having a workable system for classifying soils 4 Discuss the criteria used and the purpose for classifying soils in Soil Taxonomy 5 List the 7 levels of classification in Soil Taxonomy the US system of soil classification and put them in order 6 Given the classification of a soil eg Mollic Haplaqualfs identify the Soil Order Suborder Great Group and Subgroup names 7 Name the 12 orders and some distinguishing features of each and be able to identify the order when given a soil monolith with sufficient auxiliary information about it 8 Organize the following five soil orders into the most probable development sequences Entisol Inceptisol Alfisol Ultisol and Oxisol 9 Describe 4 surface and 5 subsurface diagnostic horizons 10 Explain criteria used and purpose for classifying soils in the Land Capability Class System 11 Choose the Land Capability Class for a soil given the soil39s description landscape position and some of its limitations 12 Describe how soil mapping is performed Reading Assignment Brady and Weil Chap 3 and pages 528 529 Spring 2011 y 2 CLASSIFICATION OF INDIANA SOILS Indiana has 400 soil series They range from the coarse textured sandy soils of the Dunes near Lake Michigan to clayey lake plains near the Ohio River Some are suited to a wide variety of crops others are notably limited The characteristics of soils as well as the factors responsible for their formation are basic to their classification I Soil Classification A Why I 3 1 ofylxmg tanninng my MCMMEM atquot I 39k 2 ailcaw i 0hr rearusy mi39s at Sl39su fs v nES eaci me 39 quot39 5 t u iusi Sm 05 u u 5quot 39 quot Example of soil info for home sites B How Kw g 5 7 v DS 1 Cgrbu i 43 30 L Lu 2 567m new 993 1W6 Pinkie mud a quotSign Joxgonmmx 395 II Soil Taxonomy A basic system of soil classification used in mapping soils p 64 65 39 Levels of A Classification Example names in each category l Order Alfisol 2 Udalf 3 rer E7 Hapludalf 394 g mwp Aquic Hapludalf 5 meH Fine loamy mixed mesic Aquic Hapludalf 6 QWM 7 Phase Crosby silt loameroded 2 6 slope 60 63 Figure 34 B Diagnostic Horizons pp Surface Horizons MOlliC 0 6WJK hin 03 gs9 cam when 61 I an Umbric Same as mollic except low base saturation Ochric g3iva gm thin kw L qh I M my me In give a MoiHagquot angina Q HiStiC 13 w m a Bryan s 5 agJCzfi aig Gmf binj Kit 1 5793 Subsurface Horizons Argillic go Ca iZzqf aggui iwiu w 5391 112043963 fimf Wote222 4311910 quotNH L ri m Oxic 525 igm k in E wkwg If fist II Nun s SpOdiC iuwhi grif f p 0m cmfiw oial 0 quot and M 09638 10957c39v i39g f ig39 Albic 125M animal wva a Wr furrquot 7 mm Iquot 61 mad Earl4 akin MA CalCiC Presence of carbonates primarily CaCO IJZ 5E E i L Ea Pk L bk ddjl hi of h gl Low 9 E5123 locuef39f ivi DUNquot Mme wemvl39xcxma w nq r C Soil Orders Described We have shown you the 7 categories of classification We will discuss each of f the 12 Soil Orders The highest category of classification Following that go to the front bench and observe the characteristics of each order and then return to your seat and look at pp 60 82 in your text Just look at heading for most but read entire sections on Alfisols Ultisols Mollisols Entisols and Histosols our most common orders in the eastern US pp6982 section 35 through 316 For pictures of the soil orders look at the color plates between pp 94 and 95 of the text 1 Young Soils Entisols iLnrarii qgruegpa f ft I HM Fragae39 Je39vel bpn mn wp Whiz Amiaw quot Gkif39mM lli Aiming a WM 39a lti39ie zw39 CuminHEW aller Hun Idar quotL VA QV W gr mf j g fg i e 13quot MS isn tf Mquot 09 Sm 5quotquot gt Inceptisols k ha icsavgver g I nirJETW39LWI39eV aquot 03 gsnxriirewwia V39OW N 7 a quotF 91hr m r we 35Jar 50339s 03m mix slight Frame3 13121zquot lamp395m quot arcvquotquotquot g Arm nyu 39 m U A 39 H 39 J V I I n A quot1171 r ruh 39 39 17 Gelisols a t m 7 quI haw39 fi AOJ Irz 22 r S mo H s 6325 39 ml m s 339 A B153fquot3 gt131 f51 w Mowing 5733 gn 5g a q 151quot c 3 A39wl y y 4 IIJUH CAquot gh 592g Piaf ltfa f 3 t m lat Jaixiwiirlmb QR M 5quot J 2 Mature Soils Alfisols r VJvar 5 s w w 39 USITJCS mmM33 west tatkm devaiwp Miler rialRm Jami ucws Forays r 39 3 3917 v quot 039453 a g39 E quot Raw5 094 summzrs meow 021335 2 WOW5 110M133 H v A amia Jamfw mz B kgr2 1 Mollisols v Alba g DIM hgwgg gg v 61310 Us quotlib quot US325 KNEWAra t 0m t l e96 lt qrbq be widow 3 IE39Equot gural r relJon s ca39lc raou39q X6me cm 0w3r w 9mm quot tkf k 1591quot quotW H39Z f s39 f rl subunits o aa sglui timer 3ch 3 N13 aquana oh mv stula Ti 54g Mm iw 2 w I a Aqvons we Lm 5 nice72 r 39 I 239 lt whim 52me AEGPsd aricz Liar Y i39x is SpodosolsCk a Rmm m kngNEMW s I quotIn ACiWG m V uumc h pghumw comf WWA at M adh slimline u u h n F V f h r 139 rah 53m Jam igfzwis Chunks m 39qu 39 m i 2 p nfs 5 Pn ncr yst gmtn l39c a q pv Prwce gg quot manta nmk B car 3 Eizbf g 3 m lt1 I kac s Wj3 g m dS Dig Eltisols loot u 1 1 0quot bimq yfi fm rigmn Io aguzjf aampywf7 r 1291 C0 IOFCUK A 99572227 if Oxisols x x a f quotWPAM 03M LEFHSEI nco myth hangar Liam oien i iz t erquot 4 ka quot3 L3 WEE A s l N x s 39 n quot253 Aquot 1 JP Mar ansz 4quotQ sg i gga Ve i S S A afld PIK Md Craus n quotA MM 3 i 5 c G at 339 Owlsml 3 J4quot A quot36 a r UN 3 m mrli gh jgvg fja WC 5 5 Wh Wining 39 Xena CLQVJ Swmmr 51192257 MW 4 r 6 quot Wtcu n ml 5 ch I l39dfv si I25 SkiMining our atly 9 423 4503 H WX it 3 quot ngiquot J 3 39 a urlc if 1 M Grif n ush With zr quot39 E39 a wimgmmgrmza m y W Ck Param Wigsquot Aridisolsgyxrfk v 1 Wm J a E a A m I g nw k wimg Ant fgkfki rrutkcOki w ea usfkahg nnalsw hu s fgmvh39bglnal ul jg S syUJ quot lt Lquot r 4 i r 739 w e Cthi f39XE frivrltal m 3 quot 1 Shi u EraJr If 397 uyam ktgvgfckv qu n 39 rs 7 ma a 30th v G 39 fgt 7 G atgg m gt13 39 k k quot q V c I Histosols Qmwnksm sumqmmmM gt bar ma x w h 77 r 39 i s i i v I s 39n 7rl 393 OLVQS39QS pins09quot k dw gr hlgg zh9g igtrquotg3 33 I 737 39IJWC L CKVs fft kg 25331911151 uf sge E sS PPM5 Lquot I M mX k u 2 m p n J a E I sl39s 16295 Mag Saf ri sf Plaza 042 verxgvwaf l i39m quot f t a a QKV IE F L W AndiSOlS Volcanic 9535 EA 631317LJ5 3 rlikmh 9 75 39 L l icky1101vaANN V E c hf Ac s v AK HK CVb gt 3 hw wl wmm www uhmswm wwwaw wwwmmi 39 39k h 0quotquotil quotit VI iv Ar quot quot5 V V T r frlyyr quotn Wink r Sh xnz n16 A 0 if M n P zglm W j 339 W qu rsmv g Voqmm lm F X s r F TENNquot Mid 33 Xr t lnvlg 3 FEM IO rtyg Jimmie PRACTICE KEY TO SOIL ORDERS W Now that you have studied the characteristics of the twelve Soil Orders most appropriate soil order name in each rectangle See tutor for correct answers A SOIL KEY Miniral Soils Cold climate I Dry Climate Moist Climate I Organic Soils 35 0 523 9 5 lai I m a 5 Ar Mo These may or may not contain much clay All others High enter the in shrink swell clays Vertical mixing in profile No B or weak B horizons l Light surface color gt Or shallow A SOILORDERS Entisols Lneeptisols Alfisols Mollisels Spedosole Gelisels No B horizon Weak B horizon Ultisels xisols Vertisols Aridisols Histesels Andisels Deep Dark Surface Volcanic very black Ash Anrlil bi 5 in smlg Tn ei ismig Vgr iur ig fu l Distinct horizons r Black Deep surface Mollic Distinct Bhs horizon Spar Sci S Spodic Clay accumulation in B Argillic High base saturation Al SIsz Clay accumulation in B Argillic Low base saturation 0 H530 Le Oldest most highly weathered accumulation of Fe and Al oxides Oxic Okfsoi D Probable development sequence of orders certainly not always followed very young I ENTISOLS A I 39 grass forests frigid slitdevelopment MOLLISOLS INCEPTISOLS GELISOLS l l l l quot mature H MOLLISOLS ALFISOLS SPODOSOLS prairie and hardwood forest coniferous forest poorly drained sandy forest l Old ULTISOLS very old highly weathered e OXISOLS v E Each of the soils below is displayed on Bench 1 Classify them into the correct order using the information which you have already collected in your Study guide notes also take a copy of the simplified keys stacked by the display rack When you39ve completed this check with the tutor for the correct answers 39 Soil Series Soil Order Plainfield g g39 lg j Houghton Udo Wauchula 39 ngng 5 Cyclone MJhm i Novgorod Fairmont 9 Qimis Gothard AkMan Dunmore Uumgg Parr quotmagma Lake Charles wmwmls Poas Andm Brazil kmwk Now check these with the tutor and then go back to the computer for further instructions I F Soil Taxonomy Naming System Phase Brookston silty clay loam O 2 slope Series Brookston WMMJ ewwmwrwm w 4eWP FamilyzFine loamy mixed super active mesic typic Arqiaquoll Subgroupz upmwAhmme Great GroupAr3mmuQ Suborder Agm Order mg g l G Discussion of Soils and Their Classification Naming system example of formative elements in name Plainfield sand a V6 u i fng39 EV quot 0110ng JV r s emf quot quot Psthnrglf enlfsal Brookston clay loam Mail 1 EFQWLghM deaf 10 iii Aquot k 7 quot57 2 quotb 10 st Cincinnati silt loam Fray If quotCDCiLQ v 545EMHT39W Arzsini c A f f hn 73 21quot Kw39m it damc huh was 5km 5132199 E quIST7 MRS6 We 32 Nab V Myakka Spodosol deficit quot gfgtacltxg 3szmi lt E kadw mem BL hows a 1 quot393quot 5 l 4 r539 Organic soil Peat F Ag c Herderaged m3 Wm ai mmpmgal pawM Malaria ta c HI s hymn P Ejbww pf DEST aae installation i r quot3 r c F i g39 7139 x Dry land soil and landscape Lia 0C AL K111 C f s g lt 39zi n kev C an gwr at omoi KI 5 3 J14 g Ethan l g Two Parent Materials Loess wind blown silt over limestone residuum Ir ir ngu madmrctfn m Q d quot 09313135 I Soil monoliths
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