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Exam 1 & 2 Prep

by: Shelby Sellers
Shelby Sellers

Introduction to Communication Disorders

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About this Document

These notes cover the first and second exams. Relevant for cumulative final.
Introduction to Communication Disorders
Study Guide
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Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology

This page Study Guide was uploaded by Shelby Sellers on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2000001 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Sommerfeldt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication Disorders in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Colorado at Boulder.

Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology


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Date Created: 03/15/16
Chapter One Introduction Brain encodes decodes linguistic messages ASHA American SpeechLanguage Hearing Association NSSLHA National StudentSpeech Language Hearing Association AAA American Academy of Audiology Audiologists diagnose and treat individuals with hearing and balance problems Speech Language Pathologists assess and treat articulation language cognitive communication voice uency and swallowing disorders Work in schools hospitals clinics rehab centers government agencies research labs private practices Treatment Options drills exercises play activities storytelling computer programs headbody positioning muscle relaxationmanipulation counseling guidance Evidence Based Practice 1 Scienti c Evidence 2 Clinical Experience 3 Client Values Chapter Three Biology and Physics of Speech Speech is an overlaid function it uses structures that serve basic life purposes 3 Biological Subsystems of Speech respiratory phonological articulatory Respiratory System generates the air pressures and ows that provide the basic power of speech Rest breathing vs Speech breathing Larynx is mounted on trachea which divides into two bronchial tubes I many bronchioles and brings air into the lungs Muscles of the ribcage and the diaphragm expand contractinhae and compress relaxexhae the rib cage causing inhalationexhalation Air is exchanged at alveoli Aerodynamics the actions performed on a stream of air Lung Capacities Vital Max volume that can be moved voluntarily inout of lungs Tidal amount of air in normal respiration Expiratory additional air that can be breathed out after normal expiration Residual Volume volume that can t be exhaled prevents collapsed lung re exive Memorize Lung Capacity Chart on Slide Phonological System Laryngeal acts as a valve that controls the ow of air into and out of the respiratory system Vocal folds vibrate to create voiced speech sounds run from front to back of larynx attach at top of Adam s apple Close bottom to top open bottom to top The epiglottis is a cartilage that can close over the entry to the larynx during swallowing Subglottal Air Pressure builds beneath the folds and pushes them openclosedopenclosed l vibrations Medial compression force brings vocal folds back together balances w subglottal air pressure to produce volume Frequency Hz pitch Higher Hz Higher pitch i Structures Thyroid Cartilage Largest most prominent cartilage vocal folds attach to internal surface wings superiorinferior horns Cricoid Cartilage quotsignet ringquot sits over trachea Arytenoids Hidden inside thyroidcricoid assemblage posterior attachments of vocal folds Epiglottis attaches to inferior surface of thyroid part of laryngeal valve swallowing Hyoid Bone quot oatsquot larynx is suspended by hyoid bone supports root of tongue Vocal Folds adductioncloseVOlCED abductionopenNONVOICED Tensors elongate tighten vocal folds relaxers shorten relax vocal folds Phonation the process by which we make sound Memorize chartl cartilages bones 4 functions of laryngeal muscles 1 abductionl open 2 adductionl close 3 tensors elongate tighten 4 relaxers shorten relax Articulatory System used for chewing licking swallowing and conditioning inspired air Three Parts Pharynx naso oro laryngo Oral Cavity Nasal Cavity The Hard palate is an unmovable bony plate separating the oral and nasal cavities The Soft palate velum is a kind of muscular valve that can open and close the entrance to the nasal cavity Articulators lips jaw tongue pharyngeal walls soft palate MOBILE Alveolar ridge hard palate upper teeth IMMOBILE Changing shape of Vocal Tract alters voice Speech physiology How sounds are formed American English has about 45 phonemes Articulation of vowels described as quothigh front vs quotlow backquot Articulation of consonants described in 3 terms place manner voicing Places bilabial alveolar dental glottal palatal Manners Stops air ow ceases to ow through vocal tract brie y p b Fricatives air escapes through narrow constriction s z Affricates


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