CMDS 460 Test 2 Study guide
CMDS 460 Test 2 Study guide CMDS 460
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dawn Kohler on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMDS 460 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Paula Cochran in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Language Development in Language at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
1262016 Implication Slide If children really learn through behaviorism see week 2 notes Is this how you learn do you just learn by imitation and feedback of good No Limitation Is this why You Learn There are natural consequences of pointing and language People should act on the message not judge it Only teachers and clinicians ask what things are if they already know This is an odd behavior because we only want to know if they know the word is suspicious to a child Have to come up with other ways of gaging what a kid knows ABA Applied Behavior Analysis services for a child on the Autism Spectrum is one of the approaches of treatment which insurance companies are asked to reimburse Widely used CMDS majors and education people know how to do this Video of typical ABA session look for Stimulus response reinforcement Had the child say they were looking for MampM asked to touch something they eat or where ask to look at them drink are rewarded after each correct behavior Reinforcement food verbal high ve token ve tokens a reward Stimuli verbal commands pictures drinks Responses pointing speaking eye contact Got imitation practical asked what questions teacher wants initiation A problem with ABA is initiation when ABA focuses on imitating and responding Ideally ABA is intensive and home based too Several hours a day Early intervention is important Volunteers and trained people Can be expensive One example of Autism intervention Used after Age of three After child is participating in ABA most of the time more natural language is the goal and ridged structure is taken away It is hard to grow out of ABA Predictability is important One person or a set of people has an advantage but they should be exposed to more people Fast paced to keep attention Kids need to move on to more pragmatically appropriate language to get sincere messages Other programs like PECS early intervention with pragmatics as its main idea all about initiation Limitations of the theory Reinforcement is inconsistent parents inforce content more than form Example cows vs horses instead of plural Imitation adults don39t model complete sentences we take short cuts like in text messages with abbreviations How do we explain things that kids say that they have never learned Limitations cont d Too much stuff to imitate to fast By the time they are three we can understand most of what a three year old says if they are developing language normally They are already part of a language community This doesn39t work for older people learning a second language Chomsky found it impossible to say that kids learned everything they learned about language in the three years without much apparent effort Noam Chomsky Theory of generative grammar Fun facts Professor at MIT political theorist Cited more often than any living scholar between 1980 1992 and 8th most overall SynthacticPsycholinguistic Challenged behaviorist worked with Lenneberg39s theory Eric Lenneberg Believed we were biologically predisposed to learn language Facts to Know Lenneberg Died at age of 53 Thinking had a big impact Credited with critical period for language development Still controversial Critical Period Theory Children are especially able to learn language between birth and adolescence After puberty less neurologically exible Harder to learn language later in life Brain injury language learning studies show that it is harder once you are older Unfortunately US teaches second language at puberty middle school high school and college Language Acquisition Device LAD Chomsky theorized on an innate capacity LAD was an un understood mechanism that was biologically based system triggered by the environment that needs to hear language with responses and consequences to trigger biologically innate function It is nature not nurture We will learn language no matter what The Case for LAD All human cultures have language and groups have language Language is learned without much effort or instruction in most cases Language learning is predictable though individual Patterns and course of development for children at each age group not just what parents reinforce Universal Grammar Chomsky was interested in universal grammar and syntax to prove language as a unique human trait Wondered if all languages had some feature or characteristic in common Do they have a base core idea Universal grammar Unique to humans TGG Transformational Generative Grammar basic parts of what native English speakers know Looking for linguistic universals Generative Once you know the rules you can generate an unlimited number of messages Chomsky knew language was generative Write a ten word sentence using red Red lions can39t keep up with me when lam wearing heals Dr Red ate his peanut butter and jelly sandwich between surgeries Chances of two of us coming up with the same sentence is impossible Deep Structure Underlying meaning Examples Chris painted the picture The picture was painted by Chris Share deep structure surface structure is different Did Chris Paint the picture Still has the same deep structure TGGPSRTR Developed 2 sets of rules to describe surfese structure Phrase structure rules basic Transformational rules let you change it Phase Structures Rules Chomsky thought these would be universal but they aren39t Codes on second slide Sgt NPVP VerbNP Det Activity Syntax Class Exercise 1282016 Phrase Structure Rules recap Chomsky39s search for linguistic universals resulted in transformational generative grammar How to translate PSR In uenced language and practitioners Implications At least as in uential as the behaviorist rule Still powerful not as obivious Old language arts programs based on theory not research Views were so popular were adopted even though they had nothing to do with language development Old methods were werid Teaching Examples lnteractive Language Development Teaching book with Fun at School lesson Syntaxed based approach to language development concepts vocab annel board materials examples bobby and his school elicited structures kids are supposed to learn inde nite and personal pronouns main verbs and the conjunction and In this method you would use a script for the teacher and student with point values The kids would have to make a complete sentence to get the full points and practice is In real conversation leaving out redundant information is usually okay in classrooms we sometimes make kids do this Teachers are concerned about state standards Need to be sensitive to kids who are in transition between oral and written language Can be troublesome for elementary school kids In this method you have to make complete sentences it is to structured and long heritage is Chomsky and syntactic theory After you learn that transformations Current example from quiacom Type in missing word to get point Not teaching just prompting for morphology You have to say the exact words form focused grammar test Drill and practice No instruction but does give correct answer Limitations of syntactic theory Can39t explain the quotColorless green ideasquot sentence Weren t dealing with real kids Just theory not real children learning language PSR TR don39t match up with how children learn language but may describe what adults know about language One example the idea that question formation is made by transformational rules young children ask questions with just one word quotmorequot Doesn39t describe developmental process Ignores semantics and pragmatics Next Powerpoint CognitiveSemantic Theory Language development and cognitive development are related to each other Piaget and cognitive development in chapter 4 Experience determines language not innate rules Look at meaning more than structure semantics Fillmore Founded cognitive linguistics at Berkley Case Grammer Sentence with Case grammar The boy used the screwdriver to open the door Agentive boy lnstramnetalused the screwdriver to open Objective the door How words relate in meaning not syntactic nvprep phrase Agent Action Location semantic Lois Bloom Revolution in child language Form content and use model Applied Fillmore s work to real child language from a semantic perspective Mommy Sock At age two kids say two words at a time What would a child mean by quotMommy Sockquot Syntactic not very informative Semantic what do they mean Mommy I want my sock That39s mommy39s sock Mommy take my sock off Mommy my sock came off There is my sock She wanted an analysis system to show what a child could mean Semantic Relations Better explaining meaning than syntax to analysis two word utterances still used today AgentThe actor who is doing something Action moving activity Attribute characteristicsize condition color LocativeLocation up in the house Entity Thing cookie dog not doing anything and nothing is happing to it Object thing with something happing to it Negation no powerful step in Lang Devel Which meaning is right Need to look at Pragmatics to gain context to gure out which semantics relation explanation is right Our language ability doesn39t help us know what quotmommy sockquot means with out context Excersize Semantics Analysis Know the difference between Agent object and Entity Eat Cookie Drink Milk Doggie Big MybaH Baby Up Juice good Me Cookie Mommy sock Truck go Th row ball Mommy here Me eat Doggie bark Daddy juice Implications for instruction Only useful until they say 34 word sentences Semantic relations used in goals types agent object agentobjectaction Gradual build up Don t work on word combinations until a child has a fty word vocabulary Used instruction Variety of word combination encourage two word combinations that make more Want the kid to convey more ranges of meaning to and empower them to express more meaning it is important to write goals this way Online Language activity example Dora s Puppy on nickjr website Perrito roll over agent action Eat bone Perrito eat bone Perrito fetch Perrito fetch the ball Theory limitation Doesn39t take into account preverbal communication such as early caregiver interaction Link between cognitive abilities and language acquisition is not adequately explained how is language acquired Model what you want the child to say use as many good models say what is at the level and elaborate Pop bubbles pop bubbles We are going to pop the bubbles Give a lot of examples Sociolinguistic theory newest of the four Prim principles lots of people involved in research and theory Importance between interaction of child and child39s caregiver That is why it is sociolinguistic Importance of preverbal Importance of How why of infants Talks about importance of pre verbal communication an interaction Kids develop language before they talk Gestures vocalizations pointing nodding Form follows function Function comes rst then kids learn the form or structure they need to communicate more effectively Kids express needs and functions before language catches up 222016 For test know stuff from class notes and class discussion Thursday will be a hands on activity Discussion board each topic is worth 5 points participate in your group only Make meaningful contributions and log on and respond multiple times don39t just say I agree Participate at least 3 times in each topic Less than three times won t be graded Week goes from Thursday to Thursday We will meet our discussion group after the test Sociolinguistic theory Newest theory lots of compents Focuses on social interaction Interaction between the child and caregiver Form follows function Kids express ideas and feeling before they have the words Deals with the communication that comes before spoken language Children learn language because and if they have a reason to talk So they have a reason to talk a need Children learn language while interacting with competent language users there is no practice you learn language as you go While grandma reads a story while watching tv with dad It is the real thing all the time Until the child gets old enough to understand they are practicing As a toddler it is all for real Kids lean language to express communicative functions they already convey non verbally Implications Reason to talk give the child information the teacher doesn39t have kids will try harder When learning language the more concrete you can make the lesson the better Use pictures or objects Acknowledging nonverbal communication attempts Importance of turn taking and social interaction real discussion or structure the situation more You rst want to use socially typical information How why rubric Toddler and mom talk Examples Toddler and mom speaking French notjust words interaction expression conversational style gestures Language learning social interaction strategies Concept development pointing to pictures of parents and saying mommy and daddy asking where an object is Naming modeling joint attention rich language environment expansion not much worrying about correctness or speci c response Point out and name things that they pay attention too Follow the child39s lead Use language to ll ln gaps with language and meaning Teach sounds of animals or vehicles Speak slowly and clearly and make it socially rewarding How are the theories related Theorys help us organize facts and make sense of them The best theory explains the most observations and the most facts which one matches what we see We should test or examine theory Doesn39t make old theories wrong just not as powerful Often pieces of knowledge survive the theory Major developmental theory Behaviorist Syntacticpsycholinguistic Cognitive semantic theory Socialinguistic The tests will talk about these theories the way we have in class as far as labels also know nature vs nurture Key idea is the relationship between cognitive development and language development Psyc and child development classes as this area show the way you think and your maturity with the development of language Piaget39s theory of cognitive development He was a Swiss naturalist in 18961980 who studied mollusks directory of the institute of educational science in Geneva asd professor of experimental psyc He changed the way we think about children they are not just copying what adults know and due Children gradually construct and understand until they can think like adults Reality is developmentally realitive combination of a child39s mental abilities and their experiences Children in royal paintings were made to look like small adults Developmental stages Sensory motor 02 Touch feel taste Object permence and use of words become known to a child at the same time A not B error look at the last place they see it Preoperational stage 27 Memory and imagination Make believe understand time concepts Egocentric self oriented see things from their perspective only Three mountain problem illustrates that children have trouble seeing things from others persctive children can39t imagine what the doll sees the cross is only on the child s side Preoperational lack of conservation two glasses shape changes amount Quarters and spacing 242016 Activity day Concept teaching strategy excersize Introduce concepts follow directions to make identity statements respond to yes or no questions respond to WH questions How to teach someone a word that is new to them Don39t assume we don39t know how there is a process and tried and true methods Concept approach works well Use strategies don39t just make it up as you go This is an applied concept From 30yrs ago for early childhood educators and SLPS Teaches preparations and directions words Around under between over How do we teach kids new concepts Introductory phase of the strategy give examples and model Don t start lesson with asking questions You already know the student need to know this We mix up what is teaching and what is testing asking questions is not always teaching it is testing You need modeling and examples and counter examples rst Counter examplenot an example of what you are teaching Have the learner follow directions with the target word or concept Con rms comprehension which proceeds production Appropriate and meaning full production Have kids manipulate things give it to me put it under point to it Yes no questions the child is not using the target word we are just con rming comprehension Who what when where why how questions are the last step Ideally the kid can now use the new word correctly in the answer New word hutchie a windup toy that takes steps or walks after it is wound up Can look like shoes An air plane that moves is not a hutchie Clapping bear is Follow directions pick it up point to it give it to me give it to her Implications for teachers and clinicians how do you choose materials that match a child39s cognitive and symbolic level Cognitive distancing continuum Least distant is a real object example a real cow smell sound appearance low on the cognitive scale not any distance cognitively easy bring toys they have some of the perceptual features size are different can be misleading most distance written word cow Cognitive distance continuum Real object Toy 3D toy moveable can get realistic solid bright colored can be misleading Picture 2D real photo realistic drawings cartoons symbol Videos can be between 3d and 2D Spoken words sounds dag most distance symbols to the sound of the spoken words Written materials are the hardest way to teach a new concept If the person has problems back up Read chapters 79 Final week of discussion Sign up 223 at 10 am sign up for topic and date Team project overview online too Present on a stage or aspect of child language development 2025 minute presentation with handouts 1012 is powerpoint presentation overview deveop a lesson plan for teaching some aspect of language related to our topic Send lesson plan to Dr Cochran a week earlier for feedback demo the lesson for typical child of relevant age 35 minutes Lead a 58 minute discussion about your lesson with class post slides on blackboard earlier make a team representative 34 Teams 1 vocab and conversation preschool 2 speech sounds sequence and mastery ages 410 3 complex sentences and conjunctions school age Advanced morphology 4 vocab and pragmatics school age 5 slang idioms 6Black English Vernacular dialect see her Chapter 7 discussion First words Phonology of rst words what do they sound like Inventory supersegmentals With English are the most frequently occurring consonants Can typically produce all vowels they are easier Children hardly need to work on vowels when it is there rst language or are not hearing impaired By labial sounds like p b m are easy to see hear and imitate D t are easy to see as well Less motor skill Syllable structure CV VC CVCV ex baby wawa mama CVCgt mom is harder Kids will try to say words that have other sounds but often stick in these sounds p d b t m h Kinds of words ten most common labels for important things in environment like names of object sibling or pet Others are power words no more up byebye go eat Can be used to make powerful combinations later Over generalization over extension of a word to include a category Under extension ex cookie only means oreo First vocab percentages for parts of speechsyntax At 18months 50 words Nouns5060 labels names Action wordsverbs 20 Go drink 10 modi ers adjectives big dirty 10 personal or social bye bye no please lt 5 functional this for ect Semantics meaning of new words Schemarede ne concepts as they develop schemas with shared attributes that will allow you to communicate with others using that word Shared and individual schema Example the word petroglyph Think of similar words like hieroglyphics picture writing glyphic Petrapetri edstone Rock writing is a petroglyph stone stone carving team contribution assessment At least 2 journal articles with text book and websites can use stuff from other disciplines note articles and studies in presentation Check CMDS library website Carol Lockhart Need APA references 223 amp 225 Morphology Development Focus on chapters 789 First sounds words and preschooler language 14 or 5 Previously early sounds and syllable structures nouns and constants types of words schema devevelopment is learned gradually Over and under generalization Pragmatics and rst words see summary in lecture note hand out lntent why they communicate Performative how word gesture action Discourse rule conversation ruleroe in conversation turn taking changing topics closing topic ending topics How well or what kind of discourse rule is the child using Taxonomy animals learning and types of learning are other types of taxonomy used here to catergorize child language utterances used for 40 years by John Dore Dore39s Taxonomy of primitive speech acts Based on his observations of children39s speech Is the basis of clinical and research tools Limits to Dore39s Taxonomy wasn39t thinking of language as intent performative and Discourse rules they are mixed in his taxonomy Look at page two of handout Morphology Morpheme unit of meaning that can be part of a word or a word on its own Free morphemes are unattached and can stand on their own in on table Bound morphemes are attached Develops at age two kids add ending to words to adapt the meaning of words Brown39s 14 gramatical morphemes developed by Roger Brown a psychologist and linguist and MIT and Harvard he wrote Words and Things in 1957 He looked at real children during language development and wrote a book called a First Language calling the children Adam Eve and Sarah as experimental names These were the children of his colleges A lot more research and cross cultural studies have been done since then Brown was the rst to document the sequence of morphological development that most children use There are individual variations between kids due to their variation and input but language development is predictable for normal development in typical children We look at bench marks and give activities to see if we can see progress and get early intervention Error on the side of early intervention Morphology is the most predictable and most studied aspects of language development We know what to expect Brown39s 14 grammatical morphemes are still widely studied and assessed in children under the age of ve Table in the text 91 Recognize morphemes and lable the examples plural markers third person singular 5 older children with special needs also have dif culty in these 14 areas across there use of language 1 Present progressive aux ing Running walking eating The girl is running We were going to the store 2 The preposition quotinquot 3 The preposition quotonquot 4 Plural in ections eg quotesquot Catgt Cats Spelling rule with voiceless sounds Bushgt bushes Spelling rule with fricatives use es Show kids the sound pattern 5 Past in ection on irregular verbs came ran Kids don39t always understand that these are past tense originally use them ate age two 6 Possessive in ections Dog39s ball 7 uncontactable copula is am are Form of the verb be that is the main verb of the sentence not a helping verb He is We are To be cogitation singular present tense I am we are You are you are Hesheit is they are Pasttense l was we were You were you were He she it was they were Contractible can be made into I m or He39s They39re Uncontactable they were happy 8 articles A an the 9 regular past tense morphemes ed Walked talked and begged 10 regular third person forms singular 5 used only in the third person singular form of regular words Kids with language problems don39t understand this Should be mastered before the age of ve 11 irregular third person forms be has does 12 uncontactable auxiliary formsdid Auxiliaryhelping verbs used to code tense He did We were shopping 13 contractible copula The verb to be that is contractible The verb be is the only verb I m happy She39s clever 14 Contractible auxiliary forms Auxiliary be verb other verb I m studying She d Eaten Should master browns 14 between age of 2 and 5 By age three should have 14 and use the others some of the time Mastered correct 90 of the time or more Look for omission of articles copula axillary kids don39t see why it matters Something that happened earlier this week we know that using the dog we have shared the topic before A not talked about before 225 due the last week of class Think about language in different concepts Try to do interesting and new things Ten choices choose two and write a brief essay 2 pages on language of each directions on blackboard written more like a journal entry write very soon after your experience Turn them in together on April 26th Format typed double spaced 2pg 12pt see attached format to get full points Activity choices choose two Use consent form if needed keep con dently 1 watch a foreign lm with subtitles can be a surprising language experience chose from list or pick a great foreign lm Can39t use a Shakespeare play or bible story Re ect on how involved I get without knowing what they are saying Don39t choose a lm in a language I have studied because I will try to translate 2 International events international idol 3 watch an episode of sesame street and look at it from a language development perspective 4 Watch Still Alice or My Left Foot re ect on how they portrayed a person with a disability accurately Don t just watch movies 5 Language and Literacy conference April 22nCI costs 20 for at least half the day 6 Interview a fellow student who speaks English as a second Language think about dif culty for you and them 7 Interview a senior citizen over the age of 70 about change of language 8 child of 810 to tell you about their favorite video game Write about how the child explains the game 9 read a book to a child 48 and ask them to tell the story back 10 observe 2 or more language therapy sessions in the Speech and Hearing Clinic Keep con dentiality 5 6 7 8 9 obtain inform consent from the individual or parent turn in with essay no name or initials used in essays Use sample format think about communication comparing conversation No plot summary write about observation of language Did you enjoy the movie Browns 14 appear at age two but take until about age 5 to be completely mastered How do we use Brown39s 14 Use as an index to see if kids are on track Count morphemes present in what the child said Measure of morpheme how many long We also look at other things is about a child39s age Is calculated when there is a language delay used in IEP Practice nding MLU rules what is a morpheme when do we count them Still use Brown39s basic procedures and conventions don39t use his stages and norms Compare to peers using other norms See hand out for rules and activity MLU exercise Morphology Review rules of calculating MLU and exercise Don39t forget that MLU should be about the same as a child39s age from age 1 to 5 After age 5 MLU continues to increase at least through adolescence and is looked at by clinicians but it is not as important as with preschoolers Good developmental snapshot for toddlers and preschoolers After an MLU of 5 longer utterances aren39t necessarily more complex and are not always better For example run on sentences aren39t better We are also interested in structures of syntax in grammar like subordinating conjunctions in adolescence MLU Not as predictive after age 5 Use with people over the age of 5 there are norms which we can compare language samples to Narrative and story play based conversation We still use Brown39s procedures but not his stages When reporting MLU include how many utterances were there should be at least 25 Age of the child What was the context Who was the conversation with Know the acronym MLU morphemes or words for other kids and adults we use words not morphemes MLU is an average so we need range Measure dispersion with range and standard deviation For MLU look at the range Look at the upper bound and the number of long and short utterances MLU of 34 has an upper bound of 910 Know if the MLU is typical Look at report sample slide MLU age rule of thumb Longer isn39t always better Brown39s 14 appear around 2 Copula verb a form of the verb to be when it is the main verb Brown39s 14 mastered by 4 or 5 Mastery correct 90 of the time or more Preschoolers are just beginning to use gurative language don39t use it with them jokes idioms puns Don39t penalize if they don39t understand what you mean and miss behave Sloppy joe joke knock knockjoke format Sarcasm Mismatch between saying and meaning message Tone of voice and facial cues are different Hard to pick up on for children Don39t use sarcastic compliments and directions be explicit with younger kids Also a problem for adults on the autism spectrum lack of social awareness can39t take the other persons perspective ldioms group of words that carry a meaning not implied by understanding the words alone Culturally based You39re pulling my leg Time to hit the road We learn these by hearing them used in context by other people Indirect requests polite form that is intended to be a request Often a question used to politely ask someone to do something in an indirect way Kids interpret literally and often don39t do the action request Say quotBilly sit downquot instead of quotWill you sit down please Billyquot Make sure you communicate appropriately Politeness structures can get in the way Kids don39t understand on phone when you say quotIs your mom herequot tell a child quotSay keyquot quotDoquot Words with Multiple meanings blow your nose vs blow a horn or blow out a candle Ship a box or ship like boat Turn on the light light a re lite bear light as a feather Expose to different meanings in different situations Don t let kids thinkjust one meaning is right Other concepts Deixis noun of deictic linguistic phenomenon in which words have shifting refrents depending on who is speaking children usually aquire this as preschoolers Problematic for Autistic and other children with special needs This That My Your Here There Different place and different person This is my pen That is your pen Pronouns are Deictic Kids on the Autism spectrum don39t use pronouns for anyone including themselves until they are taught sometimes I vs You is very confusing for many children with special needs With typical development this is developed before kindergarten To teach this use a third person or a puppet Problems with Point of view is hard with Deixis Ellipsis leave out redundant information that the listener knows or the speaker has already said Forming a list leaving out repeating information More grammatically correct and sophisticated with Ellipsis marks language maturity Don t confuse with MLU Sometimes in school settings restating the question is required It is pragmatically weird 33 Wrap up 789 continue Five ways adults say No Not 39nt Negative words nobody nothing The word no Never nowhere negative adverbs Un dis non negative pre xes How do kids say no At rst they don39t know the code of body language or words Often headshaking and crying Shake head use the word no maybe mumbled Learning the code No sentence No daddy go No me nap No like peas Then moves closer to the verb Daddy No go Then later contractions Daddy don39t go Should have it by age 5 or 6 Sequence of negation development in owen s book We should know that idoms sarcasm and indirect requests are hard for kids Ellipsis is a sign of maturing language form and use by leaving out redundant information And use pronouns instead of using a name all the time Often called upon to write complete sentences for achievement tests Explain why we want them to do it Deixis shifted referent with pronouns and this or that Hard with children on the Autism spectrum
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