Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIOSC 0370
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This 35 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andin Fosam on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOSC 0370 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Walter Carson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biological Sciences at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Ecology Exam 1 Study Guide Dr Walter Carson EXAM 1 Tips READ THE PAPERS or Read my notes on the papers He will be pulling a good number of questions for the exam from these papers KNOW THE AUTHORS OF THE PAPERS Dr Carson said he will be referencing names when addressing certain studies and experiments so know who studiedworked on what Especially know which one he is a coauthor of If he said it in class it s fair game If you re referencing the book and he didn t go over a certain topic in class don t worry about it If the answer choices on the test have ALL OF THE ABOVE or NONE OF THE ABOVE there is a good chance that the answer is one of those there won t be many of these questions Look back at the graphs and charts from the Plant Physiology and Disease Ecology lectures SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES KEY POINTS I have also included answered study questions for the articles How to do Ecology Chapter 3 Focuses on how experiments are used to test hypotheses and what requisites are needed to undergo a successful experiment Appropriate Controls 0 De nition treatments against which manipulation are compared 0 Control sometimes but not always means no treatment Meaningful Treatments 0 Makes it clear why and how you are seeing certain results 0 Manipulations try to mimic biological processes and span a natural range on variation RepHcann o In an effort to separate effects of the treatment from background noise 0 Replication is not the same as subsampling o Replication implies multiple repetitions of each treatments in experiment 0 Treatments for replication much be randomly assigned and unbiased o Replicates must be spaced correctly to cancel out the noise associated each replicate is spread in each area Small Scale vs Large Scale manipulative experiment Optimal Experiment Environment 0 Lab microcosms provides experimental control 0 Greenhouse abiotic conditions are controlled can be made similar to naturally occurring conditions 0 Field naturally occurring environment Hard to control the noise Sexual Selection for Male Sacri ce in Aussie Redback Spider by Maydienne CB Andradre Latrodectus hasselti Theridiidae male redback spider Male spiders are seen to comply with and facilitate for sexual cannibalism by their female partner 0 Sexual cannibalism is favored by sexual selection for males They are able to copulate longer and in turn fertilize more eggs than males who are not consumed by the female Because of such a adaptive advantage for males they try to facilitate consumption by placing their abdomen over female spider s mouth parts 0 Males bene t reproductively Contribute their somatic nutrients to their offspring paternal effort Give female its nutrients when consumed can be used for offspring The disadvantages of death by being eaten and lost opportunity of the male mating multiple times is low because the male usually only mates once even if they survive the cannibalism o Males have a typically short life regardless o The tip of their reproductive organ breaks off inside female during copulation 0 Females are more likely to reject subsequent suitors after they have consumed a male 0 This sexual selection by consumption is the most extreme form of a mating gift 0 Male gives his life to ensure prosperity Mammalian lnsectivores Exert TopDown Effects on Azteca Ants by Ben T Hirsch Daniel Martinez Erin L Kurten Danielle D Brown Walter P Carson Tamandua Mexicana mammalian insectivore reduced population abundance of Azteca ant and Nasutitermes termites insect prey by the topdown effect 0 14 year animal exclusion in Barro Coloado Nature Monument Panama 0 Used 8 exclosure plots surrounded by 22 meter high fencing Azteca ant nests would not reach over a meter tall o Paired each exclosure plot with an adjacent control plot 0 Plots are randomly selected Tamandua would attack and destroy ant nest while eating as many as it could o Ants would repair damaged nest o Tamandua would revisit nests and redamage Hypothesized that tamandua abundance should be cause of change in ant abundance Tamandua abundance would have no real effect on termite abundance Hypothesis supported tamandua exerts topdown effect on Azteca Ant because of tamandua predation 0 Observed that tamanduas were 6x more frequent in control plots than in exclosure plot Ant nest size in control plots were signi cantly smaller than in exclosure plot Larger nests were also more abundant Meaning the larger nests had more ants o No effect on termites because of termite chemical and phenotypic defense against predator Tamanduas were seen to ignore termite nests Was not worth the risk From Tropics to Tubdra Global Convergence in Plant Functioning by Peter B Reich Michael B Walters David S Ellsworth 0 There are similar interspeci c relationships among leaf structure function and plant growth in all biomes despite the overwhelming diversity 0 These similar traits would demonstrate convergent evolution different organisms independently evolving similar traits Potential photosynthesis and respiration increase in similar proportion with decreasing leaf lifespan increasing leaf nitrogen concentration and increasing leaf area to mass ratio SLA Observations in interspeci c variations in plant traits represent a plant s adaption to the various environments 0 Hypothesis Variation in plant traits is highly constrained o Constrained meaning that all of the plant traits fall into some sort of established universal category 0 To test hypothesis quanti ed net photosynthesis and other traits and observed their interrelationships in the eld for 111 species of terrestrial higher plants in 6 biomes Used multiple regression to see if leaf traits are consistently quantitatively related among species 0 All 6 biomes dark respiration nitrogen concentration SLA all declined with increasing life span o 5 of 6 biomes net photosynthesis declined with leaf life span and leaf nitrogen content declined with SLA o Suggests that there is a single relationship among each pair of leaf traits that holds in and among all biomes 0 Evidence for functional convergence 0 Variation in leaf trait species strongly related to whole plant and ecosystem properties 0 How do the variations in leaf traits affect plant growth 0 Fundamental repeatable global patterns of variation 0 Understanding these traits help develop accurate models for vegetation productivity distribution and scalebased ecosystem models Interesting Open Questions in Disease Ecology and Evolution by Curtis Lively Jacobus Roode Meghan Duffy Andrea Graham Britt Koskella Question 1 Effect of host genetic diversity on spread of infectious disease 0 Genetic variation for selfnonself recognition system could reduce disease spread with variability in parasite infections 0 Have to think of disease resistance on a genetic basis With a more diversity genetic makeup host is able to build defenses against more parasite variations 0 Need more research in natural populations 0 Question 2 How is host andor parasite genetic diversity maintained 0 Hosts try to change genetics to defend against a parasite rather expend the energy to build up the defense within their genetic makeup 0 Natural selection is expected to maintain the resistance allele in population despite the low fecundity it causes Costbene t ratio 0 Question 3 What are the effects of external biotic and abiotic factors and the virulence and risk of infection 0 Biotic and abiotic factors can alter the parasite transmission and host resistancetolerance 0 Just because an infection is virulent doesn t mean that it has a high tness in a population could be dependent on population density 0 Community effect on a hostparasite interaction occurs through both density and traitmediated effects 0 BioticAbiotic factors can change host andor parasite behavior both before and during infection 0 Geographic mosaic spread of more virulent forms of the disease 0 Question 4 Are lessons learned from single host parasite pairing generalizable to multihost multiparasite networks 0 Addition of diversity in a species plays a big role 0 Presence of multiple species will alter outcome of hostparasite interaction Impact to immune system due to multiple parasites Difference of adding species multi vs adding genotypes single 0 Studies prove initially unexpected outcomes in multihost parasites decreased parasite virulence with high host mortality 0 Hard to generalize because we expect parasites to specialize on different host species for multihost species 0 Either way parasites are still competing for resources and ghting against predation from the immune system 0 Question 5 What is the role of host microbiota in shaping disease ecology and evolution 0 Host microbiota communities of microorganisms living inon eukaryotic hosts 0 Microbioata are knows to in uence susceptibility to pathogens 0 Composition of microbiota can affect the outcome of the infection resistance or disease Genotype plays big role in shaping microbiota o Microbiota are speci c to certain organism so mis matching of microbiotta can have reverse effects on defending against disease 0 Host genetics in uence effectiveness of microbial communities 0 WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM LECTURE CONTENT Lecture 1 Ecology o What is it Ecology is the scienti c study of abundance distribution and diversity of organisms in relation to other organisms and environmental conditions The interactions among different species Explains how these interactions controlaffect organism abundance distribution and diversity 0 Ecosystem engineer an organism that changes the structure of the environment 0 Key stone organisms An organism in low abundance but has a huge impact on other organisms Observational study vs experiment An observational study involves no manipulation of a certain variable An experiment involves manipulation of a certain variable to test for a speci c hypothesis Lecture 2 Dr Jonathon Pruitt Scienti c Method 0 Observation how we see the natural world 0 Question why does something happen 0 Hypothesis ideas that potentially explain a repeated observation Proximate hypothesis Address the cause of immediate changes in individual phenotypes or interactions Ecological question What does change do How does it bene t the ecosystem Ultimate hypothesis Address the tness costs and bene ts of a response 0 Evolutionary scale thinking ex climate change Prediction Statements that arise logically from hypothesis 0 It s hard for hypotheses to be quotprovenquot Prediction is closest thing to it ABOVE ARE FROM LECTURE 4 0 Experiment Test What is the experimental design How do you get results Analysis What do the results mean Review Revise hypothesis If you end up being wrong 0 Conclusion What does your experiment mean on a larger scale What can it indicate about the future Hypothesis based science vs discovery based science 0 Hypothesis based is about a cause and effect A happened because of B Certain factors are seen because of certain factors 0 Discovery based is conclusions based on observations Not necessarily going in for a speci c goal 0 Experimental design How is the experiment set up 0 Randomize What is it Part of experimental design process to select samples for experiment 0 Random is NOT the same as haphazard or alternating OO How do you do it Use a random number generator Rerandomize is bias arises Bias Morality Patterns NO BIAS MORALITY OR PATTERNS WHEN SELECTING SAMPLES Including any of these can skew the results of yourtest o Replicate What is it How do you do it Replication should be thorough in each experiment or results will not be conclusive o Separates effect of treatment from background noise Increases validity to conclusion Perfect sample size Small or large Should have a large sample size to make experiment more conclusive 0 Each sample should undergo each treatment in eachIocann o Subsamping is NOT the same as replication Controls Treatments 0 Control a treatment that incudes all aspects of an experiment except the factors of interest Doesn t necessarily mean no treatment 0 Treatment The factor that we want to manipulate in a study what do we want to see the change in How much do you have to replicate It really depends on the experiment but have enough for statistical power 0 Manipulate What is it How do you do it Where a hypothesis is tested by altering a factor hypothesized to be the cause of a phenomenon 0 Can manipulate with the control group Natural vs Unintentional experiment 0 Natural Approach An approach to hypothesis testing that relies on natural variation in the environment to test a hypothesis Ex testing impact of deer on communities Observe the vegetation patterns shown by natural deer exclusion areas vs where deer frequent Hard because you don t necessarily know the history of test factors ex deer prevalence history o UnintentionalApproach Treatment See above Control See above Experimental Unit The object to which we apply a manipulation 0 Can be natural ex lake or arti cial ex lab and may vary in size by multiple degrees ABOVE ARE FROM LECTURE 4 Funnel web Spiders Susan Reichert What was the study Studying spiders in arid habitats vs riparian habitats o What happened in the arid habitat Because the spiders were low on food they will still prey on anything even if it s dangerous to the spider instead of running away Arid habitat spiders show aggression toward both predator and prey as well as each other 0 Fighting for living space food etc 0 Not afraid of predation o Riparian Habitat Spiders found food and shelter easily in the riparian habitats Lowshort duration aggression Afraid of predation o What happens when aridland spiders are in riparian habitats Both populations cannot survive Arid spiders would get eaten quickly by predator because of how aggressive they are Riparian spiders would starve in arid habitat because of how fearful of predation and non aggressive they are 0 What was the problem with the experiment The experiment was not replicated in multiple locations so conclusions are not solid She did not include the speci c differences from each environment type so she could not generalize her results in her study 0 Ocean Acidi cation by Maud Ferrari o What was the study She wanted to see how ocean acidi cation in uences the interaction between predator and prey o What were the treatments Included predator and prey in different pHs of water 0 What was the outcome There was a high number of prey death at lower pH s because at lower pHs the prey started to become attracted to the predator o What were the problems 0 The experiment did not exactly match ocean conditions or magnitude o It was wrong to assume that the change in pH was the only thing that cause the increased prey death The experiment was only repeated on one island There was no control group 0 The experiment was set at an unrealistic pH for sh The sh had no time to adapt to the new pH would need generations which could have been a reason for sh death 0 Not enough samples for each treatment group 0 Scienti c Misconduct Know what each of these are 0 Negligence Lost data Mismatched les unlabeled les no attention to detail 0 Plagiarism Stealing someone else s ideas without citing o Obfuscation Leaving a detailvariable out of report 0 Maybe certain variabledetail screwed up results To make your results support your hypothesis you just take out the variable that messes it up Fabrication Making up data or changing variables in data 0 Duplication Trying to actually publishing the same result conclusion twice 0 Con ict of Interest Failure to disclose information or data because of fear of reprimanding from employer lab etc Ex Working for a company nding aw in a product but not vocalizing problem because of potential punishment defunding etc that can result 0 Authorship Excluding people from research publications that deserve to be there give authorship to people who do not deserve it Lecture 3 Birds of Paradise by Dr Jonathon Pruitt Sexual Selection How males and females from speci c species choose to mate 0 Intersexual vs lntra sexual lntrasexual ghting with same sex for chance to mate with a female the female is usually observing MaleMale Combat two males of one species ghting for contested resources 0 Trying to prove who is the strongest biggest most able etc o Competing with males to secure territory for females The males know that a female will mate with them if males have their own space 0 Males will ght for a group of resident females Sometimes females group 00 O together and a male will try to claim group as his 0 Impress females a male will ght harder when they know a female is watching Male limited because not all females want to mate when males want to Courting rituals and shrines Intersexual usually male trying to convince female to mate with them 0 Secondary Sexual Characteristics Traits you don t really need to mate extra that makes you seem THAT much better 0 Traits are an indicator of viability and wo h 0 Usually observed with males Leks Males meet in eld to ght before females arrive to choose their mates 0 A competition to see who gets to be in control of the center of the Lek The alpha male gets the middle the beta males surround the alpha then the gamma males are on the outside of the circle 0 Females will come and choose who they want to mate with alpha beta or gamma Gammas go to Lek because even though the chance of them mating is really low there is still a higher chance than if they didn t go at all 0 Even though the females usually only mate with the alpha and beta males there is still genetic diversity because of low nutrition disease and bad experience 0 Investment and Sex Ratios 0 Alternative Mating Tactics Secondary Sexual Characteristics 0 Coercive Mating Tactics How do you get potential mate to mate with you Choosy females Why The cost associated with mating is much higher for females than it is for males 0 A female s eggs is worth much more than a male s sperm 0 Gravidity The psychological and mechanical stress associated with childbirth continuous fatigue slowness less nutrients 0 Parental Care Responsibility continues after childbirth ex defense for young 0 Eggs are precious Females contribute a much bigger gamete than males more nutrients in eggs 0 Females can only be inseminated once so they have to be extremely selective with who fertilizes their eggs 0 Females are a limited resource within sexual selection because they are so choosy and because they are NOT ALWAYS RECEPTIVE Female receptivity can skew sex ratios because only a percentage of viable females actually want to mate On the other hand males always want to mate 0 Males have it easier because they don t have to do much after mating quotGreen Pornoquot Isabella Rossellini Female Preference 0 Good Parent Theory Female will pick a male if they think that the male will be a good father If the male comes baring gifts and has good secondary selection traits Male will re ect ability to provide maternal benefits to female with the gifts 0 Good Gene Theory Females will select males based on honest signals of viability conferring genes Ex Gemsbok species its length of horns is its viability genes Longer horns means higher quality offspring o Handicap Principle When a male has a bad trait ex physical deformity but proves his worth by overcoming bad trait and succeeding in life Males will work their way up dominance rank Subordinate helper of offspring to feeder Females will mate with males who are good at helping with her offspring 0 Healthy Mate Theory Females will not mate with male if they are diseased This means that they may have bad genes Male ornamentation will inform females of their heath This is usually a physical characteristic 0 Sexy Sons Theory Females choose males to maximize reproductive success of male offspring Because males have a higher reproductive potential a female s partner choice can be at the expense of her overall offspring number Females want healthy and attractive sons because males can mate with more females and spread their genes further than females can 0 Runaway Selection Theory Every offspring gets two sets of genes 1 set of genes in uence the male trait secondary sexual selection traits other set of genes in uence female preference how selective females are about who they mate with Females want to mate with a male who has genes that imbue daughter to prefer attractive males and imbue sons with attributes that are preferred by females attributes re ect male viability The son would bene t because they would be more attractive in the population and their attractive choosy gene is now in higher frequency in the population The daughter would bene t because they will be extremely selective with who they mate with So they will only produce attractive offspring Multimodal Signaling takes a combination of these to be successful 0 Visual physical traits coloration o Auditory mating call 0 Tactile Lecture 4 Dr Carson Ecological system 0 What is it Biological entities that have their own internal processes and interact with their external surroundings Climate Change 0 Why is it hard to study Climate is never that same in one place so you cannot generalize lts constantly changing The biosphere is so big Studies on climate change would have to be at such an inconceivable high scale Society doesn t want to fund research because of fear of results Would take too long to record overall change ex ice age to now We don t have info from the past to support our data o Misnomer Climate change is a misnomer because we really don t know what is going on Individuals Most fundamental unit of ecology 0 Individual approach How adaptions or characteristics of an individual s physiology morphology and behavior enable it to survive in an environment Species Individuals that are capable of interbreeding genetically very similar or recognize each other as viable mates mate recognition de nition of a species 0 Not a universal de nition Populations Individuals of same species living in a particular area 0 Boundaries can be natural ex forest edges or gradual ex elevation or sharp ex lake edges 0 Geographical range the extent of land or water within which a populations of same species live Abundance Total number of individuals Density Total number of individuals per unit area 0 Structure Makeup in terms of age gender andor genetics Behavior Ex gender ratios determine interactions 0 Population approach Examines variation in number density and composition of individuals over time and space Communities Populations of many species living together in a particular area Who is there Who gets to persist and coexist What is the trophic complexity Food chain Specializations Community approach Understands the diversity and interactions of organisms living together in the same place Natural Patterns 0 Maple Trees in Ohio Indiana Southern Michigan The maple trees are very resistant to being eaten or bothered They are the most shade tolerant species young and can still grow in a deep forest 0 Do not need a lot of sunlight to be productive Ecosystems More than one community of living organisms interacting with nonliving physical and chemical environment 0 Less of a focus on species and more about the ow of elements Nitrogen and Phosphorus and Carbon in a system 0 Research focused on movement of energy and matter between physical and biological components 0 C02 abundance 00 0 OOO 0 Climate change Climate change affects the ow of nitrogen and phosphorus Also increases the carbon storage 0 Ecosystem approach Describes the storage and transfer of energy and matter Biosphere All ecosystems on Earth 0 How are all ecosystems linked By exchanges of wind and water by movement of organism o Biosphere approach Examines movements of energy and chemicals over the Earth s surface Matter and Energy Matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed but it can change form 0 Law of Conservation of Matter First Law of Thermodynamics Dynamic steady state Occurs when gains and loses are in balance 0 Ecosystem example Food is a gain and the energy expended through waste is a loss Birth and death immigration and emigration colonization and extinction 0 Evolution A change in the genetic composition of a population over time o Genotype The set of genes an organism carries Determines an organism s phenotype o Phenotype An attribute of an organism behavior morphology How does it lookbehave Physical traits 0 Natural Selection A change in frequency of genes in a population through differential survival and reproduction fecundity of individuals that possess certain favorable phenotypes Requirements 0 Individuals vary in traits genetic variation Traits are heritable can be passed through generations 0 Variations in traits causes some individuals to experience a higher tness able to survive and reproduce Individuals in higher tness will pass more copies of their genes though the gene pool 0 Phenotype will then be more common and will dominate o Evolutionary Patterns 0 Prokaryote l Eukaryotes Single cell organisms vs multicellular Protists plants fungi animals Eukaryotes Roles they play Nutrient cycling and focusing population control food source etc Trophic Concept Categorizing species based on energy source Where do organisms get their food 0 O O O O 0 Producer Autotrophs make their own food Convert chemical energy into resources Consumer heterotroph Obtain their energy from other organisms ex animals humans Mixotroph Can switch between being both a producer and consumer or be both simultaneously Scavenger Consume dead animals ex vulture Detritivore Break down dead organic matter detritus into smaller particles ex fungi Decomposer Break down detritus into simpler elements that can be recycled ex bacteria 0 Species Interaction Who bene ts Who doesn t O Predation When an organism kills and consumes an individual ex Anteater and ants One species bene ts and the other does not Parasitism When one organism lives in or on another organism ex Fleas on a dog One species bene ts and the other does not Herbivory When one organism consumes a producer ex Eating Plants One species bene ts and the other does not Competition When organisms that depend on the same resource have a negative effect on each other Ex Cheetahs and lions feeding on same prey Who gets it Both species DO NOT bene t Mutualism When two species bene t from their interaction Ex Bee and a ower Both species bene t Commensalism When two species live in close association and one receives a bene t and the other in unaffected EX A mite attaches onto a waspbee y for transportation but does not affect 0 Habitat The place physical setting where an organism lives 0 O Distinguished by physical features ex dominant plant type Habitat types overlap and absolute distinctions RARELY exists Niche The range of abiotic and biotic conditions an organism can tolerate 0 Split into fundamental full range and realized after competition 0 No two species have the same exact niche because each has a unique phenotype that determines tolerable conditions 0 Mathematical Model Representations of a system with a set of equations that correspond to hypothesized relationships among the system s components Lecture 5 Plant Physiology Sarah Pasquini Very visual lecture Look back on notes for graphs and charts 0 Goal of plant physiology ecology Seeks to understand the physiological mechanisms that underlie ecoogica observations 0 Physiological mechanisms Includes photosynthesis and respiration Distribution of Organisms 0 Starts with a potential species pool 0 Filters though a historical lter How does the organism arrive Does it have the opportunity to arrive o Goes through physiological lter Can it grow and survive Are environmental conditions suitable o Goes through biotic lter Does it successfully compete and defend itself 0 Ends with the observed vegetation 0 Plant Response to Environmental Stress o What do the points on the graph mean Know how the photosynthetic rate is initially high but then substantially drops after the perturbance The photosynthetic rate sowy starts to increase during acclimation and adaption This occurs through generations During homeostatic compensation the new generations return to original photosynthetic rate with the new adaptions to stress 0 World biomes Different biomes occur under certain conditions in relation to mean average rainfall vs mean average temperature 0 Relation to mean average rainfall and mean average temp Low rainfall and low temps is the tundra Mid rainfall and mid temps is the temperate forest High rainfall and high temps is the tropical rainforest o What can we predict This can help predict what kind of vegetation we can expect to nd in a particular biome Vegetation in areas with high annual rainfall will feel less drought stress Vegetation in areas with high annual temps will feel less low temperature stress Global Mean Temp Has Graph 0 Patterns hottest mean temperatures are closer to the equator and gradually get colder as you spread from equator Global Mean Precipitation Has Graph 0 Patterns Most precipitation happens close to the equator excluding desert regions and spreads into the temperate zones Global Vegetation 0 Patterns Follows expected pattern in relation to Global temp and precipiration Higher near equator and lower near poles Calculated by invisible infared light given off by vegetation High rainfall and moderate temperatures results in higher vegetation abundance Photosynthesis o What is it Reaction that converts C02 into organic carbon compounds foodsugar Plant growth is equivalent to the net carbon gain amount of sugar made over time o How does it work It is a light catalyzed reaction mainly limited by C02 and light 0 Main processes Light reactions Absorption of photons by pigments Electron transport to reduce NaDPH to NADP and ATP to ADP Dark reactions Photosynthetic carbon reduction Calvin cycle 0 What is C3 Called C3 because rst product is a 3 carbon molecule 0 Oxygenation Photorespiration Rubisco catalyzes carboxylation and oxygenation of RuBP C02 compensation point Where C02 fixation respiration Oxygenation is detrimental to plant because it uses up too much energy Photosynthetic C02 Responses Includes a graph o What is the trend Photosynthesis rate initially increases quickly then it starts to taper off 0 C02 limited The rate of photosynthesis is limited by how much C02 there is or isn t The rate will increase if there is enough C02 0 Biochemically limited The rate is limited by internal processes The Calvin cycle cannot keep up with how much CO there is The rate decreases because there aren t enough enzymes to break down the carbon A plant does not want to make more enzymes because it takes too much energy Tapers off because its been over saturated 0 Compensation Point See above Photosynthetically Active Radiation Includes Graph 0 What does it show Shows photochemical efficiency of different pigments in plant Chlorophyll A Beta Carotene Chlorophyll B at different wavelengths Usually most effective within the visible spectrum 350700 Leaves are different colors in different areastemps in an effort to maximize the wavelength available to them want to get the most amount of energy from what they re given 0 Which pigments are most effective Chlorophyll A Photosynthetic Light Response 0 Encelia Californica California vs Encelia Farinosa desert 0 Light absorption EC absorbs way more light at the same wavelengths than EF 0 EC is not light limited at all so it is more adapted to absorbing more light EF absorbs less light because it is already adapted to the levels or radiation it usually receives to reduce water loss 0 An extra radiation means that the plant becomes biochemically limited 0 Keep its stomata closed mostly so that the H20 it does have will not escape Does not photosynthesize much 0 Photosynthesis rate vs respiration rate on curve 0 Below and above compensation point Below the compensation point the respiration rate is greater than the photosynthesis rate Breaking down much more C02 than taking in There is a net loss of sugar Above the compensation point the photosynthesis rate is greater than the respiration rate Curve starts to taper off You are taking in more and more C02 so the photosynthesis rate increases and more sugars will be broken down 0 Short term light responses 0 What is it What happens They are rapid adjustments to changes in light availability A plant will partially close its stomata until C02 becomes limiting again 0 Slow light changes Quick light changes sun ecks Stomata will open depending on light availability Follows a normal light response curve Sun ecks Stomata will respond slowly and now photosynthesis will become C02 limited 0 A plant will be able to get 90 of the energy it needs from these short bursts of light 0 Post illumination C02 xation 3060 seconds after light A plant will be able to use the left over C02 from the light after the sun eck is oven 0 Plant stuck in deep shade What can plant do A plant can kill its neighbor for their resources energy 0 Spread out sideways vines to reach the light Parasite another plant Plant will attach onto another plant and take its host s light energy straight from them Grow shade tolerance adapt to the lack of light availability could be for 2050 years 0 Long term light responses 0 What is it What happens Plants grow adaptions over generations to new light level Even plants used to low light levels will not increase rate of photosynthesis when moved to levels of high light because they are not used to the light and become oversaturated very quickly They do not have enough needed enzymes to keep up to new levels of light 0 Plant generational adaption Because even adaptions to new light levels will not optimize photosynthetic potential a plant will grow new leaves that are accustomed to high levels of light Sun leaves vs shade leaves 0 Sun leaves Thick includes more structures for photosynthesis o Shade leaves thin less structures inside leaf Less structures because they do not want to have to maintain them Photosynthetic temperature optima 0 At which temperature is photosynthesis most productive in a plant Photosynthetic productivity is dependent on speci c plant and adapted environment conditions Desert clone can adapt to higher temperature range because that is what it s used to Coastal clone cannot adapt to higher temperatures because it has only adapted to its speci c temperature Photosynthetic temperature responses 0 What is affected Enzymatic reactions and membrane processes Plants from different temperature regimes have different optimums 0 High temps Low temps Reaction rates are lower at low temperatures At high temps respiration is higher and enzymes can denature Acclimation of Photosynthesis to low temp o Adjustments There is a shift in photosynthetic optimum o Enzymes are created with a different optima than before adjustment Plant will require a higher concentration of enzymes since the temperature is lower things are moving slower more enzymes will maintain the reaction rate 0 More nitrogen and rubisco plants require more to maintain the processes Acclimation of photosynthesis to high temps o Adjustments There is a shift in photosynthetic optima 0 Thermal tolerance Enzymes will have a higher thermal tolerance Photosynthetic water response 0 Water irrigated plants vs Water stressed plants Water irrigated plants increase greatly in rate of photosynthesis because they are used to an abundance of water Water stressed plants never really increase rate of photosynthesis because they are used to keeping their stomata closed which lowers the rate no matter what the C02 levels are 0 These plants are not adapted to the increase in water Photosynthetic Nutrient Response 0 Linear increase in photosynthetic rate and nitrogen concentration 0 Plant ef ciency with nitrogen usage As nitrogen concentration increases ef ciency decreases A plant will not think it has to be stingy with its nitrogen if there is a good supply of nitrogen 0 Importance of fertilizer What are the main nutrients in fertilizer Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Magnesium Water C02 0 Which can all be limiting to plant processes Alternative Photosynthetic Pathways 0 C4 photosynthesis What is it Enhances C02 concentration at the site of carboxylation by rubisco Called C4 because the rst product is a 4 carbon compound 0 This reduces photorespiration Spatial separation if C02 assimilation Bundle sheath and mesophyll cells Krantz Anatomy 0 C02 is regenerated in bundle sheath cells Hotdry environments 0 There is a decrease in water availability 0 CAM photosynthesis Succulents Thick squishy leathery leaves 0 Adaption to low water levels Temporal separation C3 photosynthesis during the day and CAM at night 0 CAM at night because the environment is more humid so a plant can open its stomata and not worry about losing too much water Not as effective Reducing water loss Helps a plant live in environment they usually wouldn t be able to Lecture 6 Nick Keiser Disease Ecology Disease Ecology o What is it How behavioral traits of host individuals predict how host interacts with microbial parasites 0 Related to medicine Pathology symptoms of infectious agents etiology who and why of disease epidemiology population level dynamics of disease Microparasite vs macroparasite o MicroParasite single cell parasite ex viruses fungi bacteria Giardia o Macroparasite parasite that is multicellular Live off of resources of other animal 0 Ex louses eat the tongue off of sh and when the sh eats the louse takes the food for itself The sh then starves Macroparasite life cycles 0 Single host vs multi host Single host parasite Complete their life cycle inside 1 host young mature reproduce o Endoparasite vs ectoparasite Endoparasite live inside he host s body Ectoparasite live onoutside of the host s body 0 Parasite vs parasitoid Parasite wants to keep their host alive so they can fully bene t from its resources 0 Also if they rely on the host to spread its genes Parasitoid They don t care about the host Once they have gotten what they want from the host reached the end of their life cycle they kill the host 0 Hyperparasitoid A parasite whose host is also a parasite Host will have preventive measures against a parasite in the form of being a parasite to that parasite Multihost parasite o Reproduction stage Only reproductive in its last stage of life Eggs would be excreted by the host species 0 De nitive host The last species a parasite wants to attack to complete its life cycle End goal for a multihost parasite 0 Intermediate host Where a parasite spends its middle life stages Ends up in intermediate host because of trophic interactions which species eat which A way to move from host to host 0 Dilution host Causes a parasite s rate of infection in a population to lower Kind of an obstacle in parasite s goal to reach a de nitive host Maybe the parasite is now in species that is very isolated or doesn t interact with its de nitive host 0 Ampli cation host The host is very active in the population A parasite is now more likely to get into the de nitive host and spread the infection within the population How do animals acquire disease 0 Vectors other organisms that carry disease 0 Sex 0 Genetic variation 0 Environment prevalence 0 Food contamination o Mutations 0 Stress o Maternal inheritance How do animals cope with disease 0 Adaptive responses Or parasite manipulation 0 Isolation 0 Change in behavioral patterns 0 Medication 0 Resistance tolerance o Immunity Parasite manipulations 0 Host behavior Alters host behavior by interfering with the host s neurophysiology o Facilitate parasite Parasite manipulate to cater to their needs Help complete their life cycle 0 Trophic transmission Manipulate how the parasite moves from one host to another quotLove potionquot parasite o Rodents that are infected with Toxoplasma gondii parasite exhibit neural activity in limbic brain associated with innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor The rats are not afraid of the cat odor They are more likely to get closer to the odor and spend more time around the odor The parasite increases the activity in the rodent s brain that deals with sexual attraction The cat odor turns the rodent on This is detrimental to the rodent because it make them more susceptible to being eaten by the cat New Zealand Cockles infected by trematodes parasite o The parasite cannot successfully manipulate the cockle 0 Intermediate host switching success and transmission rate are both extremely low 0 Host recycling rate is very high Parasite are just moving from host to host without really infecting anyone Parasite Coinfection o Amphipods quotscudsquot host of acantheocephalan parasite There are 2 types of this parasite and they each want to end up in a different de nitive host Parasite either infects mallard duck or the freshwater sh 0 The parasite wants the mallard duck to move toward the top of the water to be easily accessible to de nitive host 0 The parasite wants the freshwater sh to move toward the light surface of water toward its predator Each parasite uses manipulation to get what it wants 0 How does coinfection affect host phenotype When there are multiple parasites one may win overall and take over the manipulations of host The coinfection may produce an intermediate host phenotype Both parasites are involved in the manipulation This could be detrimental to both parasites 0 Temporal order Research cannot conclude if the order of infection matters 0 lnfracommunities Multiple parasites living in one host 0 Which host manipulates Each parasite is trying to manipulate the host in its own way Strongest wins 0 Mutual interests There are no mutual interests Each wants to push the host toward its own de nitive host Parasite lnduced Trophic Transmissions PI39IT 0 Kevin Lafferty thought experiment 0 What was the experiment Three parasite A a and B are in an intermediate host How will they interact in speci c pairs of parasite 0 Variables A a and B A and B are manipulators a is nonmanipulative usually looks to infect already infected host A and a want to go to the same de nitive host B wants to go to a different de nitive host 0 Outcomes Interaction between A and a Both want to go to the same de nitive host A does the manipulations and a just goes along for the ride a got lucky when it entered host Interaction between A and A or B and B Each is a copilot when it comes to manipulations They are both manipulating in an effort of the same cause Same de nitive host Interaction between B and a a is an unlikely passenger Since a cannot manipulate it is stuck going to B s de nitive host 0 Either a can try to go solo or in the future a can adapt to be able to recognize which host they should enter Interaction between A and B Whichever is stronger becomes the pilot The weaker parasite will become the backseat driver ghting for control of manipulations The weaker can attempt to go solo or hijack the host from the stronger parasite Transmission between same species hosts Species are high in contact and usually closely related 0 Rabbits with myxomatosis virus 0 Symptoms swollen and moist eyes mouth nose and genitals Milky ocular discharge anorexia fever death 0 Outcome In acute breakouts some rabbits die within 48 hours 0 Direct Transmission Between the infected and potentially infection Through aerosol route ex sneezing 0 Indirect transmission Something else facilitates the spread of infection ex a vector like a mosquito Transmission between multiple host species 0 Parasite that moves from host to host Would move between intermediate hosts in hopes of ending up in de nitive host Would usually transport by ingestion Enzootic Disease dynamic The parasite is maintained within the host population over seasons 0 There is a constant rate of infection nothing outstanding 0 There are always cases of infection no matter the time 0 Number of organisms infected over a season or time period can be predicted o Sylvatic Plague Bacterial disease transmitted by eas in 1899 76 species of mammals carry the plague primarily black tailed prairie dogs Hostpathogen system exhibits consistent dynamics and is maintained without external pathogen input Disease creates no population blips over time The likelihood of the disease spreading in is constant Epizootic disease dynamic A disease that increases at a rate which substantially exceeds what is expected animal version of an epidemic 0 New castle disease Double crested cormorants bird Clinical signs of infection twisting of head and neck torticollis wing droop abnormal posture 1990 epizootic killed more than 10000 birds in Canada Population mortality ranges from 290 3 global panzootics epidemic 1926 1960 and 1990 Infectious ranges spread throughout time Cliff swallows in Yellowstone National Park 0 Swallow bugs parasite Ectoparasite goes into cliff swallow nest Causes infections in the swallows 0 Larger densities Larger and higher densities of colonies means there are greater incidences of parasite infections The whole colony of swallows live so close together that they all get infected Density dependent transmission Likelihood of getting or giving a disease increases proportionally to how dense the potentially infected group is o A group of 20 is 2 times more likely to get a disease than a group of 10 Frequency dependent transmission The infected is actively seeking an individual to infect 0 Rate of transmission is only as high as the frequency of contact between the infected and the potentially infected individual Deterministic disease modeling Individuals move reliably between compartments 0 Can be either density or frequency depended and still follow model o SIR model 5 susceptible l infected R removed immune to infection or died 0 Initially number of susceptible individuals in a population will be highest as the number of infected individuals increases the number of susceptible individuals decreases 0 As more individuals become immune to or die from the disease the number of susceptible and infected individuals decrease 0 Developer were knighted Tasmanian Devil facial tumor disease 0 What is it The disease is a transmissible nonviral cancer 0 Aggression The disease is transmitted by aggression and aggressive interaction The more aggressive the devil is the higher the chance of contracting the disease 0 Ex an aggressive individual will attack an infected individual preying on its food 0 Would bite a face sore on an infected individual 0 R0 Basic Reproductive number 0 What does it represent It is used to measure the transmission of a certain disease The number of secondary infections produced by a typical case of an infection in a population that is totally susceptible R0 TCD o Ttransparameter C Contact Rate 0 DLength in time R0 is greater than 1 rate of disease transmission will rise epidemic R0 equals 1 Equilibrium like the Slyvatic Plague R0 is less that 1 a decline in the disease 0 George MacDonald lst described by him 0 Stochastic modeling 0 Uses probability distributions 0 Would set up parameters to run millions of times in an effort to mimic naturally occurring phenomenon Would plot those points and make predictions from trends 0 Foot and Mouth Disease 0 What is it Disease that would spread through farms infecting all of the livestock Farmers would have to burn all of their susceptible and infected livestock because oaf the disease o Detriments Extremely costly for farmers because now they don t have a livestock PTSD emotional effect of burning your livelihood 0 Prevention Method Create a stochastic model of disease and back track to see what could have been done to variables to prevent spread of disease and killing of all of the livestock Would adjust the stochastic model to determine what could be done prior to epidemic level to reduce 0 Neighborhood killing Killing all of the susceptible and infected animals within a 3 mile radius of disease 0 Reduces the duration of the epidemic from years to months Zoonotic Disease diseases humans acquire from animals 0 Have to understand animal biology to understand more about the disease Study Questions for Andrade 1996 1 Identify the major hypothesis or hypotheses addressed by this author The major hypothesis addressed by this author is that sexual cannibalism is an adaptive male strategy for advantageous sexual selection Males welcome and facilitate this female cannibalism because of the adaptive bene ts 2 Provide four possible reasons as to why the male sacri ces himself to the female during copulation come up with one reason besides the author s three reasons 1 The male will be able to copulate for a longer amount of time and therefore be able to fertilize more eggs More eggs that are fertilized more chance of fertilization success from that male 2 The pros outweigh the cons Even though the male is dying there is little to no chance he would have had another sexual partner and he would rather expend his paternal effort in one reproductively promising female that multiple 3 Ensure prosperity The male will know that his nutrients and genes will be transferred to his offspring even though he is not around 4 Mating gift A female who knows that a male is willing to sacri ce his life to be able to mate with her is more likely to mate with him 3 How does the sacri cial event increase the male s fecundity the number of offspring The sacri cial event increases the male s fecundity because copulation time for a male being eaten is noticeably longer than the copulation time for a male who is not being eaten A female is actually actively consuming the male during copulation which extends the time of the actual sexual act A male who is being consumed is able to mate with the female for longer and thus has a better chance of fertilizing more of the female s eggs The more eggs that are fertilized means the greater number of offspring from that male How did female attack rate of prey affect sexual cannibalization of the male Female attack rate does not affect sexual cannibalization of the male because the females did not attack the male Sexual cannibalization of males is completely male facilitated The males place their bodies over the females jaws as a sacri ce to increase their fecundity The sexual cannibalization is more of a transfer of nutrients from the father to the offspring through the female rather than a predatorprey scenario Was there any relation between cannibalism and food depnva on There is no relation between cannibalism and food deprivation Cannibalism is only an act within sexual selection which males facilitate to increase their paternal effort Female redback spiders do not feed on their male counterparts for nutrition They only receive nutrition from the male when they are presented with food gifts or when the male offers himself as a sacri ce to mate Provide two possible reasons for why cannibalistic females have an increased hatching rate the paper suggests one come up with another potential explanation as well Cannibalistic females have an increased hatching rate because they are willing to copulate for a longer duration of time Longer copulation means that more of her eggs will fertilize than a female who is noncannibalistic A cannibalistic female also has the added nutrients from the male she consumed to help increase the hatching viability of the offspring Clearly identify the author s most important conclusions Where was this conclusion most clearly articulated in the paper The author is clearly articulating that male copulatory suicide within the redback spider species is a male facilitated adapted behavior in an effort to reap the reproductive bene ts of this cannibalized sexual selection This is mst clearly articulated in the conclusion of the paper Paper 2 Azteca Ants Hirsch et al 2014 Explain in detail what a quottopdown effect is and discuss the impact it could have on the ecosystem Top down effect is the process where species of higher trophic levels predators apply a pressure or stress onto species of low trophic levels their prey and subsequently in uence the population size abundance of the prey species usually decline Species involved in the topdown effect have a huge impact on the structure function and biodiversity of the ecosystem Any change in one or more factors of this topdown process can change the overall balance of the ecosystem diversity Besides simply monitoring the ant population what is another experiment discussed in the article you could do to determine whether or not a topdown effect is occurring You could monitor ant nest size Ant nest size is directly correlated with population density so the bigger the next the greater the ant population density After the experiment if smaller ant nests are observed you know that the topdown effect has occurred Why might termites experience less pressure from the topdown effect compared to the Azteca ant Terminte experience less pressure from the topdown effect compared to the Azteca ant because their predation defenses are much stronger than the ant s predation defenses The termites have a chemical defense that they secrete through their rostrum that is toxic to the tamanduas They also have phenotypic defenses such as long sharp claws and a bad taste The termites overcome their slowness with these defenses Tamanduas are also more selective with which termite nest they attack because of these defenses What kind of design did the scientists use to test their hypothesis does not need to be detailed basic explanation only The scientists set up eight large exclosure plots with control plots adjacent to each exclosure plot Each plot was surrounded by a 22 meter tall fence The exclosure plots contained only the Azteca ant nests termite nests and any ground terrestrial animals these animals could not reach the ant nests so there was no concern about them skewing the experiment The control plots contained the tamandua predator the Azteca ant nests termite nests and any ground terrestrial animal What did the experiment demonstrate about how Tamanaduas affect Azteca ants and their nests The experiment demonstrated that tamandua abundance in a population is the cause of the change in ant abundance in that population Also tamandua visitation and revisitation is the reason for the observed ant nest damage Tamandua abundance is also inversely proportional to the ant nest size and density The more tamanduaant interaction the small and less dense ant nest Can the results of this study be applied to other animals in the area Why or why not The results study cannot be applied to other animals in the area when studying topdown effects The study speci cally deals with insectivorous mammals and their corresponding prey so it would be inaccurate to associate these results from other animals that are not insectivorous mammals Think about the experimental design Why can39t the termite populations be studied alongside the Azteca ants populations as far as Tamandua predation is concerned Based on the experimental design the termite populations cannot be studied alongside the Azteca ant populations because there is a physical spatial separation between the two populations Azteca ant nests rested about a meter about ground while the termite populations were on ground level While tamandua activity with the Azteca ants was carefully monitored the study said that tamanduas mainly ignored the termite nests So any change in termite population would have to be caused by factors other than tamandua predation What study method from this article can also be used in studying the migration patterns of the Canada Goose How The technology used in this study can be used in the study of Canada Goose migration patterns Hirsch used infared motion sensitive wildlife cameras as well as GPS receivers to track the movements of the tamanduas The same could be used for the Canadian Goose population to track duration and direction on movement Study Questions to accompany Reich et al 1997 What was conclusive about plant size and structure among all six biomes Among all six biomes there are fundamental and repeatable global patterns of variation regarding plant size and structure These differences are influenced by the multiple traits outlined in the paper Describe how SLA Amax and leaf lifespan are interconnected As leaf surface area to mass SLA and net photosynthesis Amax increase a leaf s life span decreases proportionally A leafs photosynthetic productivity changes in constant proportion to leaf life span and SLA ratio What was the hypothesis for this study Was their hypothesis supported or not Explain why or why not The hypothesis of this study was to prove that variation in plant traits is high constrained meaning that all of the traits can fall into some universal category despite convergent evolution The hypothesis was supported because plants from each biome evolved different variations of the same set of traits Because environmental conditions were so specific to each distinct biome the study can conclude that the variations of traits were adapted independently They claimed their results had implications for global scale modeling of vegetation atmosphere C02 exchange What were those implications They are implying that the there is convergent evolution occurring at a global scale It is also implying that there certain leaf trait relationships and patterns resulting from these relationships that can help measure and predict other ecological occurences What is stopping leaves from being the largest most productive leaves possible Give at least 3 reasons 1 Very large leaves density which are also very productive Nitrogen allocation will undergo within leaf shading The leaf shading will lead to less light being able to hit the chloroplasts with will ultimately decrease photosynthetic productivity 2 Since leaf productivity is so dependent on nitrogen concentration you would think that increasing the N concentration will make the leave more productive Every leaf allocates N in different ways and can only handle certain amounts of N so in the end having absurdly high levels of N in a leaf is selected against 3 Bigger more productive leaves will have higher levels of N concentration Because of this high nutrient concentration leaves are more susceptible to herbivory In a defense against this the plant will not try to have insanely big nutrient rich leaves Discuss the physical differences between fast and slow growing leaves Where in the forest might we see stratified differences in leaf size based on your reason What other parts of a plant have similar reactions based on your reason Fast growing leaves are usually much larger and denser than slower growing leaves Faster growing leaves also have a higher photosynthetic capacity Also faster growing leaves are usually Short lived in comparison to slower growing leaves We might see faster growing leaves which are larger at higher elevations in the forest and smaller slower growing plants near the ground The stem probably has similar reactions based on the fact that there is a higher photosynthetic capacity in faster growing plants
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