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diversity study guide

by: MadsSwart

diversity study guide SOCIAL WORK 3503

GPA 3.54

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About this Document

review of material; cultural competance
Practice With Diverse Populations
Kelley Breidigan
Study Guide
racism, Biases, Culture, afrian american, Native American, asian american, somali, clients, ohio state, OSU, buckeyes, Social Work, change
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by MadsSwart on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCIAL WORK 3503 at Ohio State University taught by Kelley Breidigan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Practice With Diverse Populations in Social Work at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 03/15/16
Diversity Study Guide Cultural Difference in the US Today Politics - Ethnic perceptions in post-9/11 United States - election of Barack Obama Economy - Worst economic downturn since the Great Depression - recession’s effect worse for communities of color - Disproportionate economic harm to minority populations Financial Discrimination - Predatory lending practices - Discrimination of mortgage lenders - Redlining’s (refuse to loan in poor neighborhoods) disproportionate effect communities of color Community Facilities and Services - Consistently underutilized by culturally diverse clients o Agencies inadvertently make clients uncomfortable or unwelcome o Distrust of provider’s motives or abilities, informed by past experiences o Belief that client will not be understood culturally, or have their needs met helpfully o Unfamiliarity with services available, or different perception of available services Causes of discrimination - Providers unaware of: o communication of personal biases o Cultural differences that lead to miscommunication o Culture-bound importance of ideas and teachings o Traditional healing, cultural definitions of health and illness o Need for matching treatment and practices to specific cultural needs Discrimination beyond refusal of service • engaging clients with norms of dominant culture • Educating clients to alternatives and consequences of services • creating dependence on provider to navigate the system How providers can avoid discrimination • Empower clients to interact with the system from their own cultural perspective • React personally and defensively to projection of cultural stereotypes on the client • Acknowledge existence of cultural stereotypes and accordant reactions in the working alliance Cultural diversity – differences among groups with unique culture; communication difficult Culture: the lens through which life is perceived People of color and clients of color refer to non-white people Communities of color non-whites sharing origin/feature [physical, cultural, verbal, geography] Whites members of the dominant or majority group whose origins are Northern European White ethnics dominant or majority group members whose origins are not Northern European Common Characteristics of Diverse Clients - belong to socially stigmatized group; being object of discrimination - Psychological harm/stress of status; adaptations made in order to survive Process of Ethnic or Racial Identification - Attachment felt toward cultural group of origin - Awareness individuals have of the impact of race or ethnicity on their lives Diversity Within and Across Ethnic Groups - Each ethnic group has a unique history and problems - AVOID Cultural myopia attribute characteristics/circumstances to all members of ethnic group - Stress/harm from problems associated with prejudice/racism - Problems in ethnic or racial identification evident in clients who are non-white or white ethnic - To uncover cultural influences or identity dimensions, providers should: o Assess the client’s individual demographic and cultural situation o Become aware of the possible meaning for the individual client Changing Population Demographics in US - increase in non-white populations, and significant decline in the relative percentage of whites - Trend is referred to as the “diversification” of America - 2050, the U.S. “majority minority”, non-Hispanic whites make up < 50% of U.S. population. o By 2010, 7 states and DC already had a “majority minority” population  California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, Hawaii, and New Mexico Factors Leading to Demographic Changes - Unprecedented increases in immigration, particularly from South and Central America and Asia - Comparatively higher birthrates within Hispanic (1.7x whites) and Asian populations (3-7x) Reactions to Changing Demographics in U.S. - Political backlash o Anti-immigrant sentiment and legislation o Push to repeal affirmative action practices - Polarized society o Growth in number of white supremacist, militia, and anti-government groups o Frustration directed at non-white newcomers Implications for Helping Professions - A more culturally diverse client-base - Bilingual and bicultural professionals preferred - A new conceptualization of effective helping, with cultural competence at its center Cultural Competence and Cognitive Changes - Ethnocentrism: diverse behavior is understood in terms of comparison to one’s own culture - Ethnorelativism: Cultures within own context; diverse behavior not good or bad, only different - Self-honesty: hiding from negative feelings about race, ethnicity and culture keeps us in dark - Sustained commitment: Cultural competence is a developmental process that takes time Model for Cultural Competence - duties of a culturally competent care system: o Culture shapes behavior o Use family as primary point of intervention; crucial for knowing individual o Maintain dignity of culture = maintain own dignity - Cultural destructiveness: Practices that are actively destructive to clients and their culture - Cultural incapacity: lack experience/capacity to help people of color/their communities  Unintentionally perpetuate societal biases and destructive - Cultural blindness: attempt to be unbiased by asserting that race and culture make no difference in how service is provided, applying a dominant cultural approach to all - Cultural pre-competence: recognize problems serving diverse clients, but don’t know how to improve  Focus on single ethnic populations and succumb to tokenism in hiring practices. - Basic cultural competence: know skills for cultural competence; honest in short comings - Cultural proficiency: basic competence; advocate/participate for cultures and related research - Awareness and acceptance: Understanding cultural differences (e.g., values, communication) and how they manifest themselves  accept differences without comparison or judgment - Self-awareness: Understanding the ways one’s own culture impacts behavior, and understanding when and how one’s own cultural boundaries create conflict - Dynamics of difference: Understand dynamics of two cultures and level of miscommunication - Knowledge of client’s culture: know client’s culture to understand behavior in a cultural context - Adaptation of skills: adjust generic helping practices to accommodate cultural differences Characteristics of Culturally Skilled Counselors - Understand own worldviews and how their views are reflected in their work and interactions with racial and ethnic minorities - Understand, appreciate, and share the worldviews of culturally diverse clients - Define goals and use methods consistent with the experiences and cultural values of the clients 3 Dimensions of Professional Standards Counselor Awareness of worldview - Attitudes/beliefs: aware of reactions to cultural clients; can negatively impact relationship - Knowledge: about specific cultural group that you’re working with Counselor awareness of client’s worldview skills - Knowledge: research on latest findings for mental health in various ethnic/radical groups Counselor awareness of own cultural values and biases - Attitudes/beliefs: how own background/experiences etc. influence psychological processes - Knowledge: how oppression, racism, stereotyping etc. affect personally and in views Skills for intervention - seek experiences to improve understanding working with cultural populations - Culturally-appropriate intervention skills - respect indigenous helping practices and help-giving networks among communities of color - aware of barriers that prevent minorities from using mental health services - helping clients to determine whether a “problem” stems from racism or bias in others Fischer’s 3 related processes of multicultural competence - Multicultural Ethical Commitment: desire to understand how culture interacts with resolution of ethical problems, and a commitment to applying APA Ethics Code within a cultural context - Multicultural Ethical Awareness: Includes obtaining requisite knowledge of cultural differences and how they may affect the expression and solution of ethical problems - Goodness-of-fit ethics and multicultural ethical decision making: culturally-based ethical decisions unique, decision-making process changed for each Racism, Prejudice, and White Privilege - Racism: Subordination of racial groups with little power by group with more social power - Prejudice: negative feelings that are held by a person or group about another group o Individual racism: Beliefs an individual holds that support or perpetuate racism o Institutional racism: institutions manipulated to favor whites/restrict people of color o Cultural racism: belief that one culture’s way of doing things is superior to another’s - People deny, rationalize, and avoid discussion of race/ethnicity because of pain/anger involved - When this becomes overwhelming, people block emotions associated with race and ethnicity - Emotional blocking - minimizing, justifying, or rationalizing the stories of people of color - Traits/tendencies leading to development/retaining retain racial prejudices: o feel comfortable with those who are like them and suspicious of those who are different o have a tendency to categorize, generalize, and oversimplify o develop beliefs that support their values and avoid those that challenge them o have a tendency to scapegoat vulnerable people, and rationalize their behaviors o In-group” and “out-group” behavior  Sticking with one’s own kind, and separating from those who are different  Limits communication and increases misunderstanding o Categorical thinking: organize experiences into categories applied to people and groups  emotionally-charged, complex or simple, dictate behavior toward others o Stereotypes: simplistic judgment of traits/habits as applying to all members of a group  Used to provide justification for exploitation or mistreatment  tendency to avoid/reframe as exceptions to stereotypes or categorical thinking Psychological Theories of Prejudice, Abuse, and Discrimination - Frustration-aggression-displacement hypothesis: frustration creates aggression/hostility, which may be displaced onto accessible/vulnerable target; Displacement may be function of projection - Authoritarian personality type: Prejudice stems from personality type; personal insecurity and fear of difference; dichotomous, moralistic, nationalistic, and authoritarian thinking - Rankism: rooted in power differences within hierarchies; used to secure/improve own situation - Other theories attribute prejudice to: o promotion of economic and political objectives and ensuring justifications o desire to elevate one’s own self-esteem by regarding others as inferior o Compliance with social norms and traditions o Perceived differences in belief systems Microaggressions and Implicit Bias - Racial microaggressions: hostile/racial insults; not overt, hard-wired, unconscious - Implicit bias: subconscious Racial biases; amygdala reacts to faces of out- group members Implications for Providers - Individual racism is a common source or contributor to the problems of culturally diverse clients - Clients may suffer from issues related to direct experiences or indirect consequences of racism - Be aware of prejudices to avoid misguiding clients and ensure seeing the client as an individual Institutional Racism - Institutions: Societal networks that control the allocation of resources to individuals or groups o media, police, banks, schools, employers, healthcare, religious institutions, and gov o embedded in bylaws, practices, and organizational culture  effect is ability of individuals to disavow personal responsibility o can be objectively realized by comparing the frequency of a phenomenon within a group to the frequency of the phenomenon within the general population o stereotypes are often utilized to attribute the frequency of a phenomenon to characteristics of a group instead of institutional practices Consciousness, Intent, and Denial - Consciousness: People in system may/may not be aware of existence and impact of practices - Intent: Practices may/may not purposely created (e.g., de jure and de facto segregation) o neither justify the effects and consequences of institutional racism - Denial: frequently coincides with institutional racism because: o Practices lead ownership and ability to challenge practices outside one’s status or power o People feel powerless in large organizations o Institutions are naturally conservative and inclined to maintain status quo o Racist practices are often multiple, mutually reinforcing, and complicated Cultural Racism - Institutional racism keeps people of color from accessing society’s institutions o Cultural racism makes them uncomfortable if they do gain entry - Institutions have own cultures, which individuals are expected to adopt - Established norms are generally based on dominant culture o Behaviors outside norms judged as bad or wrong - Holidays/celebrations; Personal traits; Language; Standards of dress and beauty; Cultural icons White Privilege - White privilege: benefits automatically provided to European Americans on basis of skin color o Core component of daily White experience o not acknowledged or denied in order to avoid guilt or the relinquishing of privilege o May be invisible to European Americans, but is very visible to people of color - Unachieved attitudes - Those which are not thought through, or which lack commitment to any position - Avoidant: Ignore, minimize, or deny role of race in relation to identity and that of non-Whites - Dependent: Hold some position they have adopted from a significant other - Dissonant: Uncertain about their beliefs and open to new information Achieved attitudes - Those which have been explored, committed to, and integrated into one’s belief system - Dominative: Believe the majority group should dominate - Conflictive: Oppose efforts to rectify effects of discrimination, but don’t support racism outright - Integrative: Understand their White identity and favor interracial contact and harmony - Reactive: Feel guilty for White identity and militantly oppose racism - Contact status: Internalization of majority’s view of color, and the advantages of being White - Disintegration status: Anxiety with unresolved racial or moral issues that force to choose either own-group loyalty or humanism; awareness that race matters and White privilege guilt - Reintegration status: Idealization of one’s racial group and a concurrent rejection of other racial groups as an attempt to deal with discomfort - Pseudoindependence status: Development of intellectual acceptance of racial differences and a deceptive tolerance of other groups not yet integrated emotionally - Immersion/emersion status: Redefining Whiteness, understanding White privilege, and personal understanding of racism; often prompted by personal rejection by People of Color - Autonomy status: Coming to peace with one’s own Whiteness and developing a positive socioracial-group commitment Model of Racial Identity Stages - Pre-exposure: Student has given little thought to multicultural issues - Exposure: Students confronted with minorities and racism realities, stimulating anger and guilt - Zealot-defensive: over-identification with minorities or distancing themselves from issues - Integration: interest, respect, and appreciation for role differences Cultural Ally - Whites become cultural allies by challenging oppression and creating alternatives o Awareness of white privilege o Willingness to take risks and to take a stand o A belief in the potential of minority groups o Knowledge about cultivating support from other allies o Honesty, humility in their expertise about other groups Doing the White Thing - White training; The way people are taught to be White - seeking privilege and developing a perception of the “other” - Felt insecurity in racially mixed groups, immobility from shame in the face of racism, a loss of connection to spiritual or cultural roots and becoming a “culture vulture” - “UNtraining” White people who get together to discuss Whiteness and White racial training - Fallacy for many White people that there are two types of people: racists and non-racists o all people have racial conditioning, and a denial of this fact is counterproductive - Colorblindness is a way of denying accountability and ignoring racism o It is more productive to practice building alliances and making inquiries Bias in Service Delivery - Attitudes unconsciously affect behavior - In doctoral psychology programs, enrollment rates are <5% for students of color - Numbers for faculty of color also disproportionately low 3 of the 7 ways racism present in social work - President of ACA/APA never been Hispanic, Asian, or Native American o Only one African American President of APA - None of 5 most commonly used texts lists racism as area of attention Moving forward - Use of paraprofessionals - Traditional healers as part of mental health organization treatment team Western Culture Science - Historically viewed ethnic populations as biologically inferior - Cultural deprivation: non-whites derived of substantive culture - Cultural disadvantage: non-whites have culture that has become deficient due to racism - Patients of color tend to be over-pathologized African American Clients - Families often include blood relations and non-related members; genograms useful - Extended family often provide key support th - Trauma of slavery and racism; civil rights movement of 20 century - Informal around social time - Attracted to rhythm and pattern, dictates cadence of communication and expression - Attraction to novelty, creativity, spontaneous creation, style over function - Vocal and expressive with verbal communication and persuasion skills valued - Spiritual reverence and respect; even if not religious Latino/a Clients - Largest minority in US - Extended family includes family friends - Strict child rearing/physical discipline; children obey - Loyalty to family - Respect for adults - Men demonstrate strength, virility, dominance and provide for family - Women nurture, submissive, self-sacrificing; Virgin Mary - Females restricted, while males given a lot of freedom - Roman Catholic Church – equal emphasis on spiritual world as material world Ethnic Conflict, Genocide, and Mass Violence - Trauma: disconnects self from victimization and insights which lead to feeling credible - Therapist – take on role of witness; attempt to see client’s self unconditionally Trauma and Grief among Native Americans - Genocidal perpetrations by the U.S. government against the Lakota Sioux in the 19 century (killing, imprisonment, relocation, bounty on Lakota scalps, death by starvation and exposure) - Indian Boarding Schools: Forced Separation, abuse, and destruction of cultural knowledge - Most well-known non-reservation boarding school was est. in Pennsylvania in 1879 - 1893: U.S. state parents can deny children’s transfer to off-reservation schools - Mush Hole Boarding School - Shaved heads and called mush hole baldies – bugs all over head - Raped at 6 and bleeding – nurse beat her saying that wouldn’t happen - Thomas Indian Boarding School - Taken from mother, didn’t see her for 10 years - young couldn’t talk –get mouths washed out with soap In cold shower - Name of school derived from word asylum - Daughter of woman who went to boarding school - Leader came from correctional industry - Marched; follow routine- many went on to the military - Whooping cough, mumps, measles etc. - Boys circumcised; tonsils removed at age 7 with no pain pills; ether used to fall asleep - Girls given full physicals ritually; one believed she got pregnant from holding boarding hands domestic violence raise treat suicide unresolve kid's schools cause + lack of bonding their kids and d anger trauma trauma with kids same waa ylcoholism Brave Heart’s Cultural Intervention - series of interventions with Lakota Sioux - based on research done with Jewish holocaust survivors and their children - historical trauma education led to increased awareness of personal trauma and grief - Sharing grief and related effects within a traditional context led to catharsis - A grief resolution process led to an eventual reduction in grief-related effects - Positive group identification increased - Positive commitment to community healing increase PTSD in Native American Males - Consequence of communal trauma; ego split [one with pain; one identify with aggressor] - Men may unconsciously become aggressive to loved ones - Ultimately, rage against aggressors is turned on oneself - often self-medicate with alcohol - re-traumatizing can occur when providers invalidate and pathologize clients South Africa: Truth and Reconciliation Commission - provide amnesty to perpetrators who disclosed their crimes - reconciliation and restorative justice [not retribution or punishment] - humanity of both offenders and victims and sought to offer peace and repair social connections - to document human rights abuses, publicly acknowledge victim experiences, restore victim dignity, grant reparations, and produce a final narrative history of apartheid Impact of TRC on Victims - Affirmed reality of victim’s experience; allowed healthy opportunity for victims to tell their story - creation of a narrative history, allowing victims to have a purpose and source of social action - Reconnected victims with the community and humanity in general - on Bystanders [Non-involved whites who remained silent] - Stimulated of an awareness of the atrocities - Facilitated lessening of future tendencies toward dissociating from negative events, splitting, and projective identification in bystanders  development of empathy - on Perpetrators - perpetrators experienced true remorse and when victim feels forgiveness is justified - Uncovered the interdependence of perpetrator and victim - Perpetrator responsible for trauma and has insight for victim to complete narrative heal Institute for the Healing of Memories - intended to provide follow-up therapy and support for South Africans - Michael Lapsley, a priest and trauma specialist, is founder and director - 3-day workshops to bring together former enemies, victims, and bystanders - Focus on narrative therapy; metaphor of “journey,” expressive arts, and group process Holocaust Survivors, Nazis, and Their Children - Extensive research has been conducted on the Holocaust and the effects of trauma - Survivors and children exhibited serious PTSD symptoms diagnosed (secondary trauma) - experienced compartmentalization, splitting, dissociation, and psychic numbing  Contributed to Nazi perpetrators ability to carry out orders Children of Nazis’ reactions - Splitting of negative feelings about their parents and Germany’s past - Being haunted by guilt, anger at their parents, and general emotional upset Seeking Justice - Victims & children struggle with desire for justice and revenge to gain a sense of balance - Learning by the perpetrator of a moral lesson, repudiating belief that once caused harm - exacerbate and fuel interethnic hatred: - Each side experiences intergenerational grievances for injustices and harm - Group members’ worldviews become one-dimensional, so it is impossible for the victim to empathize with the enemy group - own acts of violence are not acknowledged and cannot be judged in a balanced way - Each side sees itself as a victim (double-victimization) - A need to protect one’s own group - Weissmark’s 2004 study of children of Nazis and Holocaust survivors resulted in six stages of transformation of interactions and perceptions of one another - Generalizing: Survivor’s children tried to justify parents’ behavior - Revealing: Nazi children share personal views; Survivor children change feelings - Distinguishing: Both groups realize they were being imprisoned by their parent’s past - Discussing the Here and Now: groups focus on self in present; feelings from actions - Sharing of Hurts: groups share difficulties growing up with parents/holocaust trauma - Transformation: groups express affect; their ability to change feelings toward the other - Critical dimensions of reconciliation between former enemies: - Interaction required to see the other as a human being and to transform stereotypes - Sharing of one’s narrative allows for the humanization and the development of empathy - Learning to listen and to express feelings instead of thoughts - Allowing children to detach from their parents’ experience - Speaking in here and now about perceptions and feelings, rather than the past - Develop perceptions of similarities between groups Treating Traumatized Refugees - outside country of nationality due to fear of prosecution for race, religion, nationality - Internally displaced peoples are those displaced within their own countries - Women refugees face particular dangers due to increased risk from sexual and physical violence - Child refugees at risk for abduction, rebel force recruitment, enslavement, sexual exploitation - health concerns: poor nutrition, unsanitary conditions, dirty water, and access to health services - increased susceptibility to diseases like diarrhea, malaria, cholera, measles, etc. - Returning home difficult; country may lack ability to take displaced ppl if home has been taken over or if services like schools and roads are limited/non-existent - Two developments have influenced the immigration reform date occurring today: - The recession and the increase in enforcement of immigration laws - increase in legal enactments by cities and states to deal with unauthorized migration - Immigration now makes up one-third of population growth - The U.S. labor force is equally divided between immigrants and native-born individuals - No evidence for negative impact of foreign-born workers on the U.S. labor market CERI: Center for Empowering Refugees and Immigrants - culturally competent health/social services to refugee/immigrant families with links to programs on housing, legal, citizen barriers impacting mental health, support groups, counseling, medical management, alternative medicine, youth services, holistic mental health for Cambodian teens/young adults, prevent crimes, gangs, prostitution etc., parent-child impacted by trauma - Cambodian Refugees: 1.7 million killed during Vietnam War, despite neutrality; Vietnamese invade and capture capital starting years of warfare  Cambodians to Thailand, becoming refugees  eventually to U.S., Australia, France, and Canada Forgiveness - process of healing allowing victim to disconnect from reactions (e.g., anger and guilt) - Does not condone, excuse, forget or accept what has happened - Cognitive-behavioral intervention strategy for forgiveness - Viewing event less personally - Taking responsibility for one’s own emotions - Changing narrative about the event to include choice to grow rather than suffer - Altering internal rules for our own and others’ behaviors which we have no control over Reparations - Offer compensation to victims in an effort to restore what they lost - financial compensation, offering of services, symbolic acts of acknowledgement - must communicate an acknowledgement of violation and accept responsibility - The process of seeking reparations may be more valuable than the reparation itself - The perception of the reparation must be positive to the victim - Acceptance of reparation cannot, even in the most subtle way, minimize the harm done Restitutions - returning of property to rightful owners; perpetrators living in/destroyed entire communities? Apologies - acknowledge what occurred, accept responsibility, and promise not to allow to occur again


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