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by: Priscilla orellana

FINAL STUDY GUIDE Soc 1 O'Connell Sociology 1

Marketplace > University of California - Irvine > Sociology > Sociology 1 > FINAL STUDY GUIDE Soc 1 O Connell
Priscilla orellana

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Here is my study guide for O'Connell Soc 1 final! I condensed my lecture notes as much as possible, and also included what I felt were the important points from the readings and discussion material...
Intro to Sociology
Chuck O'Connell
Study Guide
Soc 1, final exam, final exam study guide, final study guide, final, O'Connell, UCI, UC Irvine
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"The content was detailed, clear, and very well organized. Will definitely be coming back to Priscilla for help in class!"
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Priscilla orellana on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Sociology 1 at University of California - Irvine taught by Chuck O'Connell in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 332 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 03/15/16
Soc 1 Final Exam Study Guide Week 7 – Race, Ethnicity, Nationality • Film: Focuses on Tommie Smith & John Carlos in the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City. 2 African-American athletes who ran the 200-meter sprint, one took first place and the other took third place. Didn’t get public acknowledgement for their wins until several years later o Tommie Smith set a new world record and won the gold medal for the 200-meter race, John Carlos won the bronze (3 place) medal. Sent home by their country for raising their fists in the air during the national anthem, officials saw them as “militant radicals”. o Things to note from O’Connell: § Story we got: 2 men stand up for African Americans, sign of defiance (raised fist in the air) is now portrayed as a sign of hope. Was actually both, because they were showing that they are not going to back down from white supremacy. § Students held protests in Mexico City against spending tax money to showcase sports. Felt that it should be used for healthcare, education, land reform. Really a protest against the upper class. In order to punish the protestors, they put snipers around the main plaza where the protest was held and massacred dozens of Mexican citizens. These kinds of demonstrations were going on all over the world. However, this connection between the U.S. and Mexico wasn’t shown in the film. § Human rights: the man who won 2 place in this race, Peter Norman from Australia, wore a badge from the Athletes for Human Rights campaign. Wore it with the other two athletes discussed in the film. When Peter Norman went home to Australia, he was criticized for standing with African-Americans on this cause and also found it difficult to find work after that. • 1790’s, first citizenship law says that white people are the citizens, so by definition anyone whom the courts do not judge to be “white” are not part of the new American nation. You could be an immigrant culturally assimilated to the white culture, but that doesn’t mean you’re part of the nation, example: slaves. o U.S. isn’t the only country that ties nationality and race together. o We talk about race, ethnicity and nationality in order to talk about racism. In the U.S. racism has a specific name, system of white supremacy. § Racism: • What? is a system for the exploitation of minorities, (usually through exploitation of labor) • How?: It operates through government or state policies and market forces. These two things combined create and maintain a racial hierarchy that exists to exploit the labor of people of color. • Why? It is economically profitable and it is politically advantageous. o Toyota: $21.9 million o Ally Financial: 80 million o Honda 24 million o Wells Fargo 175 million o Countrywide Mortgage (B of A) 335 million, more than 200,000 Black and Latino customers o These numbers are fees that these companies have had to pay back for charging minorities higher interest rates on automobile loans, banking loans. • Race: refers to the political classification of people by physical characteristics • Ethnicity: refers to the political classification of people by alleged culture characteristics • Nationality: refers to the political classification of people usually by citizenship o Why does he say these are political constructs and not social constructs? To say it’s a social construct implies that people got together & made these constructions, but they’re actually created by government officials. o Purpose of these definitions: to set up a system that privileges some races/ethnicities/nationalities over others, giving them greater legal rights and protections, and conversely to deny privileges and legal protections to other races/ethnicities/nationalities. Make some races/ethnicities/nationalities more vulnerable to exploitation. Essentially, this system was created in order to create racism. • Infant mortality: One of the ways we track healthcare is to look at infant mortality. # of infants who do not make it to their 1 birthday per 1,000 infants born. Also look at this # in certain racial & ethnic categories. White babies have the lowest infant mortality rate. • Education rates in U.S. aren’t bad, but when you break it down into ethnic/racial groups, whites get the best education. • Occupation, state executions, income, wealth, residence, convictions/imprisonments: white people get the best jobs, residences, higher income/wealth, least state executions/convictions/imprisonments. • Structural racism as a result of policies and market capitalism o Colonial America, you see men from Britain coming to North America and establishing colonies for the purpose of making money and accumulating wealth. They have to grab the land and its resources, so they have to dispossess the Native Americans. Soldiers have to do this, so they have to develop a racist ideology. Once the land is taken, you need laborers, from England (indentured servitude) or Africa (slaves). Laws were created to prohibit European people from helping the Africans. Racism was not left up to personal choice, it was a matter of law. Classification of black/white emerged as a response to the rebellions that challenged authority. Racist law preceded the develop of intellectual/cultural theory of racism by intellectuals. o Over time the system of racism changes in response to 2 factors § The resistance of the oppressed § Changes in the needs of the ruling class • Film: o FTA: group called Fun travel adventure. Singer Rita Martinsen, sang a song about a black soldier who refused to fight in the Vietnam war. FTA was a group of anti-war entertainers that went to several war bases, found venues near base to sing anti-war songs/skits for the troops. Soldiers during this time began to sabotage, for example supply drivers would ruin the cars on purpose. Week 8: Politics, Democracy or Domination? • Recap: Racial policies change based on two factors: resistance of the oppressed, and the changing needs of the ruling class o Racial policies in the 1800’s: a number of laws are passed restricting the rights of “free” blacks. There were approximately 100,000 free blacks, most of whom lived in the upper south. This is a paradox because America is seen as a place for liberty yet they passed laws to restrict freedoms of blacks. In the early 1800’s, if you looked at America and the West Indies one of things you’d notice is a dramatic rise in the number of slave revolts. Revolts back in the 50’s were to escape from slavery, now revolts were to destroy the whole system of slavery and take down the ruling class. Slave masters held most of the prominent political positions such as supreme court justices, presidents, etc. o From 1866 to 1945/1965 you see a period of intensification of white supremacy. Paradox again, since the civil war brought about the abolition of slavery (or the abolition of “bound labor”). In the modern economy labor is “free”, as in you are not bound to this person as your master. Why then does white supremacy increase? o In the late 1940’s President Truman ends racial segregation in the armed forces. 1954 Supreme Court says school segregation is illegal. 1964/65 Congress passes Civil Rights law, government policy promises equal housing rights and there’s a war on poverty. This takes place over about 20 years, and overt segregation is being officially repudiated. This sets the context for the Cold War, which refers to a struggle between the U.S. as the premier capitalist power of the world and the Soviet Union, also known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Known as the antithesis of capitalism. Cold War is an ideological struggle, Soviet Union tells Asians of the lynching going on in the U.S. and that they should not be trusted, looks bad for U.S. so they have to move away from OVERT racism in order to look good again. • C. Wright Mills views the power elite as a self-conscious cohesive unit based on 3 factors: 1. Psychological similarity: these people develop certain similar values because they are brought up in similar social origins and lifestyles 2. Social interaction: these people most likely do business with each other, have children enrolled in the same school and interact socially, so they tend to see the world through the same perspective 3. Coinciding interests: they plan and coordinate their efforts in order to keep themselves at the top of the capitalist system, by working with leaders of different sectors. o “Power elite” is Mills’ term for coalition of the top tier of the military, the executive branch of the federal government, and business. • Film: U.S. goes to war with Iraq to bring democracy and freedom. City of Fallujah was a particularly strong city in terms of resistance. Given order to take Fallujah and destroy the resistance, the marines did take Fallujah, and they did temporarily destroy resistance in that city. City rebuilt itself, and as a result brought back the resistance in a greater form. o City was attacked on an American-led operation called Phantom Fury. Most intense fight in US war on Iraq. Forced thousands to evacuate Fallujah with no place to go. o After fighting was over, people of Fallujah had to make mass graves for their dead. Now there are military checkpoints that can take days to get through, and they have no human rights so excessive force can be used and women, men, and children are all searched at gunpoint. City is completely in ruins and there is no media coverage of the destruction. • “School of the Americas” in Georgia: Northern American army teaches Latin Americans to put down peasant workers from Mexico to Chile. • Film by Veterans for Peace o Former students/instructors of US School of the Americas speak about the school o School no longer has a cold war mission so they feel it should be shut down. School trains Latin American military to fight a cold war. Some of the students were known human rights abusers, but it doesn’t make a difference to the instructors. Some graduates have gone to kill thousands of Indians per week. o U.S. is the largest armed supplier in the world. o School of the Americans was known to be the best place a Latin American officer could go to launder his money. o More info: o US Tax payer $$ à $$ to US gov’t à $ given to SOA à give instruction in counterinsurgency à counterinsurgency campaigns in Latin America à refugees fleeing Guatemala & El Salvador à emigrate to USA à fill low wage jobs and become accused of ruining America • Elitist model of power: model that views power as being held by the elite upper class and only looking out for the interest of this group. • Pluralist model of power: model that views power as being shared equally among the people • Instrumentalist view: view that the ruling class rules by controlling political officials and institutions through money and influence. • Structural view: view that the ruling class gets its way not because of the link between the economic elite and the political elite, but because the structure of political and economic institutions in capitalist society make it imperative that the state serve their interests, whether or not the elite are directly involved in politics. • Obama as a ruling class candidate: o Predominantly white U.S. Business and political establishment made it difficult for candidates that threaten the establishment to run for president by denying them adequate campaign funding and favorable media treatment, and legally implementing a take -all two party system. o President Obama cultivated the support of the privileged few by advocating fiscal restraint, calling for “pay as you go” government, and extolling the merits of free trade and charter school. o President Obama made the safety of the power elite evident by supporting bail out of wall street financial firms with billions of taxpayer dollars, refusal to question the morality of the U.S. colonial wars, and supporting the maintenance of our exceedingly high “defense” budget. o Government needed a “makeover” and Obama was just that. His multicultural background, race, youth, charisma, and early opposition to the Iraq War was useful to corporate elites. By electing an official that was an outwardly progressive “change” persona, it diverted, captured, controlled, and contained coming popular rebellions, while at the same time not completely threatening the current establishment. The perfect symbol of “deceptive imperial ‘re- branding’”. Week 9: Politics: Consensus or Rebellion? • Politics is basically the question of, “Who rules society?” o Answers: § Pluralist model • Says that power in America is distributed among a plurality of interest groups o Interest groups are groups that advance certain political points, lobby lawmakers to pass bills in their favor. Example of interest groups: Surf Rider Foundation, goal was to protect the coastline from developments that destroy surfing breaks and keep the waters clean. National Rifle Association (NRA), people who want to protect their right to bear arms. MADD Mother’s Against Drunk Driving. o None of these interest groups necessarily have dominance over the entire system. Groups learn to make coalitions with one another and make compromises. o Interest groups generally don’t get all of what they want at once. The pace of change is very slow, often takes several years to get laws passed in their favor. o When you look at interest groups, people with higher socioeconomic status (SES) are the ones who form and participate in interest groups. • Elections involve equal voting rights. Puts poor and rich on the same level, in terms of voting. However, poor people vote less even though you could argue that poor people have a bigger voice in elections since there are many more poor people than rich people. § Class Conflict model: • Looks at power in terms of a class struggle between capitalists (own means of production) and the working class. • Sees power in America as the outcome in a political and economic struggle between capitalists and working class. o Power is concentrated in the hands of the capitalist class o How can this be if they are the numerical minority, especially with open and free elections for office? Theorists of this model say that the capitalist class’ power comes from their domination of three key institutions in society: § The economy: Since society works under a privatized economy and people must work to produce the things they need to live, you should look first to economy for exercise of power. Food insecurity but there’s mass amounts of food produced, homelessness but there’s vacant houses, clothing being mass produced but there’s people without proper clothing. Decisions about production of these things are made by people who own the means of production aka capitalist class. They decide how many people will be employed, wages, where to build the factories. § The ideological apparatus: Companies like CNN, NBC are private companies owned by capitalists, who hire the editors, producers, etc. of mainstream media. They choose what to and not to report. § The state: Government and state are not synonymous. The state is the institution of political power through which one class dominates another. Government is the form the state may take. U.S. is a democratic republic. o Say that pluralists only look at how the government operates, how a law is made, how interest groups influence lawmakers to write up and pass certain bills, but politics is really about power, and not all power is exercised in just Congress. Power is about compelling people to do the things you want done. • The potential power of the working class lies in its ability to collectively disobey the system of the ruling class • Film “Sir no Sir”: o Most of the injured soldiers in this film did not feel that their injuries/sacrifice were worth it. They did not feel like they were fighting for a worthy cause in Vietnam. o Started an underground newspaper published by a group of radical soldiers and distributed at night among barracks, etc. Became the lifeline of the GI movement, slogan was FTA which was said to mean “Fun Travel Adventure” but in reality stood for “Fuck The Army”. FTA entertainment show with anti-war comedians and singers became popular among the soldiers. o Meeli Massacre: officers tried to hide the fact that women and children were massacred in this village in Vietnam. o Richard Nixon was elected because he said he would end Vietnam war, but he actually expanded it and attacked Cambodia. o Anti-war movement causes a near collapse of the army. Many commanders and officers are killed by their soldiers, known as “fragging” because they usually used fragmentation grenades. Richard Nixon implements “Vietnamization” and promises soldiers will not be involved in ground offensive combat and instead changed it to an air war. o Navy officers and airmen now became the center of the GI movement. USS Kitty Hawk became a center in San Diego to get support in keeping the navy ships home. • Misconception: Anti-war movement was not concentrated among affluent college students, it was mostly people of low wealth and education. It was not motivated by students’ wanting to avoid getting drafted, and the most divisive activism came from within the cities and the Army itself. Veterans of the Civil Rights movement and people of color also strongly supported the Anti-War movement. • “Vietnam Syndrome”: George H.W. Bush coined this term, refers to a profound distrust of the government by many of the citizens, especially about government foreign policy and war. Distrust came out of the Vietnam movement, the civil rights movement. Found that government officials would consistently lie. Every leader of South Vietnam was appointed and removed by the United States, which makes it NOT an independent country. • This is an example of a successful collective resistance from working class people. This shows the potential power of the working class against the power of the ruling class. o Through its control of the state apparatus, the ruling class makes it difficult for the working class to organize and resist orders. o One of the biggest examples of this is labor movement. Through the 1800’s strikes were considered conspiracies against commerce. Took time to even get the right to go on strike. Once workers gained this right, all kinds of laws were passed in order to make strikes ineffectual. § Most powerful kind of labor strike is a sit down strike, in which you sit down at your work station and do not perform any work. This is effective because you’re sitting in front of millio ns of dollars of productive machinery, which is necessary for production. Boss wants continuous production in order to be competitive in the market. If you’re out long enough, people may decide the competitors’ products are better and lose business permanently. Usually they call in the unemployed during these strikes in order to fill in the striker’s place. “The reserved army of labor”. First the striker’s have to be removed, and make sure the machines are in tact before striker’s leave. Now sit down strikes are illegal. § Sympathy strikes are also illegal (Professors skipping lectures to sympathize TA’s going on strike). • Sociology of religion: sociological study of religious groups. Religion is a human organization, which has an effect on society, and societ y also has effects on religion. o Early French sociologist Emile Durkheim: § (sociological) definition of religion: a system of communally held beliefs and practices that are oriented toward some sacred supernatural realm. o Why do sociologists study religion? § Religion is ubiquitous phenomenon with a tremendous impact on human behavior § Religion heavily influences aspects of society. A lot of our morals/values come from religion, and our society also influences religion. Example: there are tons of branches of Christianity now whereas at one point there was only one type of Christianity. § Consequences of religion: • Social control by creating and enforcing rules and socializing children to have religious beliefs and values • Legitimizes social structures with secular beliefs (class order) (things that aren’t necessarily religious can be justified using religious beliefs) • Unifies believers and produces conformity in behavior, but it also divides, separating believers from nonbelievers, denominations, religions, and members of other local religious groups. § Karl Marx on religion: says it’s the opiate of the masses, and it’s also the sigh of the poor. It is an ideological apparatus that promotes false consciousness. Makes current social arrangements seem right and inevitable, which promotes the status quo by teaching the faithful to accept their condition. § Emile Durkheim on religion: it promotes a feeling of community through collective sanctification of the sacred. Brings order and functionality. § Max Weber on religion: religion is a catalyst for modern economic development. Calvinism of the time said that those who have/create/spend wealth (wisely) are the ones who will go to heaven. This was known as the Protestant ethic. o Why does religion exist? § Functionalists (order theorists): say that religion exists because it fulfills certain functions 1. Social solidarity: set of communal beliefs/practices 2. Social control: gives people rules to live by 3. Psychological support 4. Provides meaning of life § Conflict theorists: the dominant religion of any society will be the religion of the ruling class. Furthermore, the scriptures will be interpreted to fit the political and economic interests of the ruling class o Scriptures can be taken literally or metaphorically. Mold these to fit their agenda • Religious trends in the U.S. o Catholic church losing members because of contraception and divorce issues, Christianity gaining members because of emphasis on evangelism. o Rebellious 60’s was accompanied by a decline in religious observance o Conservation reaction in 70’s and 80’s characterized by rise of evangelicalism and the Religious Right. Religion associated with the Republican Party. o Negative reaction to blending of religion and conservative politics. o Decline of mainline denominations, rise of Christian fundamentalism • “Civil Religion”: the dogmas that include the existence of God, the afterlife, rewarding virtue and punishing vice, and the exclusion of religious intolerance o The “God” of civil religion is strict and severe. Religion is tied more to morality and sin than salvation and love o Religion reinforces male patriarchy (usually men exclusively hold positions of power, religion says that if men lust women are to blame and if women lust, women are to blame etc.) o Religious doctrines have common views on gender: § Women and men have different missions and different standards of behavior § Women are subordinate to men, although men and women are equal in the eyes of the deity. • Church: highly organized, bureaucratic form of religious organization that accommodates itself to the larger society. o relationship between class and religion: Churches tend to be homogenous in socioeconomic status, since most people live nearby the churches and most likely are in the same social class. • Sect: a religious organization that tends to oppose a church, and tends to be dogmatic, fundamentalistic, and in opposition to the world • Theodicy: religious legitimization for a situation that might otherwise cause guilt or anger • Routinization of Charisma process by which an organization attempts to transmit the special attributes of the former leader to a new one. • Megachurches: trend among evangelicals is toward very large churches. Growth fueled by entertaining church services, provision of services, and specialized ministries for targeted groups. Week 10: Sexuality and Gender • Gender: refers to social conceptions about what attitudes and behaviors are appropriate for the different sexes o Attitudes about others are not inborn. They may be shaped by our physical differences, but they are not solely determined by those differences. These attitudes vary across time and place. o We become gendered through gender socialization o If you don’t obey/accept gender roles, people usually get upset because they’re viewed by society as necessary. • Order vs. Conflict Theory Perspectives on Gender: o Order theorists: emphasize the importance of labor division and social integration between genders. Biology, history, and society’s needs combine to separate men and women into distinct gender roles. Men fill the “instrumental” roles, women fill the “expressive” roles. o Conflict theorists: emphasize the economic structure of society in producing women’s inequality. Women’s economic role in society is primarily determinant of their overall status. The dominance of men in society is their control of the means of production. • Michael Foucault states that communication is key in establishing and regulating social life and personal identity. He believes that as we learn language, we learn cultural values which predisposes us to think and act in ways that reproduce and confirm the existing social order o Boys try to stay away from behaviors that will deem them as “sissy”, “wimp”, or “mama’s boy”. o Survey of 1,300 students found that teachers give males more attention and encouragement than females, which shows that communication in schools echoes society’s gender roles. o Communication upholds cultural values by reinscribing and naturalizing socially constructed patterns of meaning, perception, and sense making. o Language is always changing, so communication reforms social understandings as well. • Femininity and masculinity are modeled differently from one culture to another o In Western society, femininity is seen as women not having agency and men having dominance o All societies make gender a major category for organizing social life • Western society glorifies a hyper masculine institution o Armed forces, warriors o Assaults against women in the military are higher than in the civilian population. • Data comparing men & women: o Men: lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, more problems at school, high arrest rates, more imprisonment, more military service, more combat deaths and more occurrence of PTSD o Women: high life expectancy, lower infant mortality, less problems at school, lower arrest rates, less imprisonment, less military service, less combat death and less occurrence of PTSD o This data looks like society favors men. However, men have more income, wealth, prestige, and are less likely to die at the hands of women. • Gender operates together with other power systems such as race, class, and sexual orientation. Gender system denies both women and men the full range of human and social possibilities. o Some women may get benefits from their race and class, but are simultaneously restricted by their gender • Gender and the wage gap o Despite a growing # of women in the workplace, inequality persists for a few reasons: § Women are concentrated in lower-paying jobs § Women tend to work less overtime than men § Women as a group have less education and experience than do men, therefore get paid less. § Women enter the labor force at different and lower -paying levels than men • Feminism from the 70’s to the present: o Back in the 70’s the lower 40% had similar lifestyles, but today you see a “class polarization” between the top 20-30% (doctors, lawyers, professors) and the lower 40% percent (“working class”). Class polarization has made it difficult for present-day feminists from different classes, races, and occupational levels to band together on common issues o Feminists in the 70’s/80’s fought for legalization of abortion, stop involuntary sterilization of poor women of color, and challenge sexism of medical care. Abortion is now legal and mostly accessible as well as health information, however low-class women still have high rates of uninsurance, and they get subpar quality healthcare. o Housework was a major feminist issue in the 70’s; focused on issues like getting paid for it by the state and getting men to help out. Nowadays feminists are completely silent about housework. Many upper-class women pay maids to clean their houses for $15/hr or below which hardly accounts for transportation, equipment, and/or benefits in addition to the manual labor. o Issues regarding sexual harassment and male violence against women have remained relatively the same since these issues still affect women today. However, poor and working-class women still face problems that are not clearly defined as “violence against women” such as harassment from managers, being forced to work long hours, or under hazardous conditions. • Human sexuality is socially constructed. The things you think are important about sex, and the rules about sex. Society tells you who you are supposed to be having sex with etc. o If you look at traditional rules of behavior, you can see that there have been modifications over time o Traditional: straight sex. Modification: greater acceptance of gay/lesbian sex o Traditional: sex only between two people married to each other. Modification: people can now live together unm arried and have sex and no one really makes a big deal. o Traditional: sex between couples (not more than two people, no masturbation) Modification: o Traditional: same race Modification: now more mixed couples & families • Heteronormativity: societal belief that heterosexuality is the normalized type of sexuality. Even in lesbian/gay relationships people try to identify the “feminine” partner and the “masculine” partner. • Compulsive heterosexuality: imposes negative sanctions on those who are homosexual. This ties together gender and sexuality. • Gendered institutions: certain institutions that are patterned by gender. Example: nursing • Androgyny: refers to the integration of traditional feminine and masculine characteristics in the same individual o Women are more likely to be androgynous than men because fathers usually transmit their traditional gender roles more often to their sons than daughters. • The activities/games that kids participate in at school are considered power play, a complex social process involving both gender separation and togetherness. This process changes with age, ethnicity, race, class, and social context. • Caucasians, heterosexuals, and males are the standard to which race, sexuality, and gender are compared to. They have been normalized in Western culture, and all other variations (gay, bisexual, African, women) are seen as abnormal. By designating one group as the standard, we label all other groups as “deviant”, even in professional contexts.


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