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This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nurit Elovic on Monday September 8, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to a course at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views.
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Date Created: 09/08/14
Nutrition 9914 1257 AM What39s the difference between an essential and non essential nutrient Essential Must come from the diet and can39t be made from other nutrients Deficiency eventually causes health problems 45 different nutrients Non Essential Body can take a nutrient from food and make a different nutrient that39s needed What is the purpose of the Daily Reference Intakes Recommendations for each nutrient per day Falling below the daily recommendation will not cause health problems the goal is to average the DRI over time Name the 6 classes of nutrients and the general characteristics of each Carbs Composed of C H 0 Provide a major source of fuel for the CNS and Muscles during exercise Classified as simple or complex 4 calories per gram Lipids Fats and oils Composed of C H and few 0 Triglyceride is the major form of lipid Saturated fat trans fat monounsaturated fat polyunsaturated fats essential 9 calories per gram Protein Composed of C H O and Nitrogen Make up bones muscles other tissues Basic unit is amino acid 9 essential amino acids 11 nonessential amino acids 4 Calories per gram Vitamins Composed of various elements Vital to life Participate in metabolic pathways 2 kinds fat soluble and water soluble Needed in small amounts No calories Minerals Some contribute to body structure Calcium 2 categories trace minerals and major minerals Needed in small amounts and contain no calories Water Composed of H 0 Is a solvent lubricant medium for transport chemical processes and temperature regulator Makes up 60 of our body Yields no calories Of the 6 nutrients which are grouped as macronutrients and which are micronutrients Macro Carbs fat protein Micro Vitamins minerals What are the 2 categories of vitamins and the 2 categories for minerals Vitamins Fat soluble and water soluble Minerals Trace minerals and major minerals How many calories per gram are in each of the macronutrients Carbs 4 kcal Fat 9 kcal Protien 4kca Calculate the total calories from a food when given the amount of carbohydrate protein and fat 2502 A 24 hour diet recall reveals that 400 grams of carbs 70 grams of fat and 68 grams of protein were consumed How many total calories would that be and what o of calories came from carbs fat and protein 0 400x4carbs 1600 N 63 70x9fat 630 25 68x4Protien Y 272 N 11 o How does the DSHEA classify nutritional supplements What role does the FDA have in regulating supplements Classify vitamins minerals amino acids herbal remedies as foods Prevents the FDA from regulating them as additives or drugs FDA must prove these foods are unsafe before they can pull them from the shelf Dietary supplements can be sold without FDA approval Epidemiology The study of diseases in populations Diet disease pattern which helps from basis for lab study Case contro study Researchers compare people who do and those who don39t have a particular condition Tries to match in age and gender and other variables so differences in other factors will stand ouy People who have diabetes are overweight Cohort study Researchers analyze data from a selected group of people at intervals over a certain period of time Framingham heart study has followed 5000 participants over the last 60 years and found those with high cholesterol more likely to have heart attacks Double blind study experimental group and control group subjects are randomly assigned neither researchers nor subjects know which group their in Placebo Unexplained reaction to no treatment or sugar pill Name some of the red flags when it comes to identifying questionable nutrition advice Satisfaction garunteed one product does it all time tested would have been widely publicized Personal testimonials When assessing your disease potential what is the relationship between your relatives and your risk Risk increases if you have more relatives with diseases Risk increases if the relationship to relative is closer 0 Highest risk if you have 2 first degree relatives with a specific disease Healthy Diet 9914 1257 AM What are the 3 components of a healthy diet Appropriate calorie intake o Approximately 2000 2500 for the average adult Appropriate eating schedule 0 Spread calories throughout the day with emphasis on minimizing calorie intake late in the day Balanced diet 0 Make sure you39re getting all the needed nutrients What are the rules for combining balance and moderation Making choices from all 5 food groups and choosing the more nutrient dense option most of the time o Within each food group there are better choices and less healthy choices Understanding the recommending portions 0 Too much of even the healthies choices from any food group can result in weight gain with a few vegetables as an excep on Comparison of vitamin and mineral content to number of Kcals A food that has a small number of calories but contains many vitamins and minerals would be nutrient dense Provides kcals and few to no other nutrients and is not filling Mostly contains sugar or fat doesn39t have to be sugar and fat free high calorie foods are also called What are 3 tools the government provides to help guide healthy eating Dietary guidelines Food labels My Healthy Plate What nutrients are required to be listed on the food label including the 2 vitamins and 2 minerals Total fat Saturated fat and trans fat Cholesterol Sodium Total Carbohydrates Dietary fiber and Sugar Protien Vitamin A and C Calcium Iron In what order are the ingredients listed on food packaging Listen in descending order by weight What are nutrient claims Low fat reduced fat low sugar enriched fortified Health claims Heart healthy reduces cholesterol Nutrition symbols List the 5 myplate food groups and within each group list 1 2 3 the best choices within each food group the correct portions of common foods within each group the nutrients common to each food group Grains 69 Servings daily 0 Whole grains corn beans peasgtRefined starch Bread Pancakes waffles cornbreadgtBiscuits muffins pastries o Serving size 1 slice of bread 2 cup cooked ricepastacereal 3 cups popcorn o Carbohydrate folate niacin riboflavin thiamin iron magnesium and fiber Fruits 35 Servings daily 0 Fresh and frozengtcanned fruit and dried fruitgtJuice 0 Serving sizes 1 medium sized fresh fruit 1 cup of fruit or juice 2 cup dried fruit 0 Carbs Vitamins A and C Potassium and fiber Vegetables at least 3 a day 0 Fresh and frozen emphasis on brightly colored veggiesgtCannedgtfried baked beans refried beans potato salad cole slaw o Serving size 1 cup of rawcookedjuice 2 cups of leafy greans o Vitamin C A folate magnesium potassium fiber Dairy 34 Servings a day o Skim or 1 o milkcottage cheese no fat yogurtgtCheese anything higher that 1 o fat free froyoice creamgtChocoate milk ice cream pudding buttermilk half and half yogurt with high sugar content Serving size 1 cup milkyogurtcottage cheese pudding ice cream 1 slice of cheese Protein calcium magnesium riboflavin vitamin b12 Vitamins A and D when fortified Protien 57 ounces a day 0 Lean meatpoultry fish tofu nuts beans seedsgteggs bacon sausage hot dogs lunch meats chicken with skin Serving size 1 ounce meat 1 egg 14 cup dry beans 1 tbs peanut butter 2 ounce nuts Protein iron zinc niacin thiamin B6 B12 magnesium potassium Fiber and vitamin E in beans nuts and seeds Fats and Oils 0 0 Liquid vegetable oils mayo oil based salad dressings trans fat free margarines fat from fish avocados nuts and oivesgtFat from meat lard butter margarines tropical oils Serving size 1 tbs oilmayomargarine 2 tbs salad dressingpeanut butter 2 avocado 1 ounce nuts Vitamin E essential fatty acids What are the 2 most significant improvements you can make to a fast food order Avoid fries No regular pop What are some tips for eating at a restaurant and still maintaining a healthy diet Leave off high calorie condiments mayo and salad dressing Leave cheese off sandwich No fried fish or chicken Shortcomings not much fruit of whole grain Ca rbs 9914 1257 AM Define hyperlglycemia High Blood glucose level hypoglycemia Low Blood glucose level Which hormones are responsible for lowering and raising blood glucose levels Pancreas releases insulin promotes glycogen synthesis and lowers blood glucose Also releases glucagon which breaks down glycogen and raises blood glucose What are the different characteristics between type 1 and type 2 diabetics Type 1 has a genetic link Diagnosed typically before 30 Possibly caused by an auto immune disorder causing beta cell destruction leading to absolute insulin deficiency Insulin injections required Usually over age of 30 80 are obese Defective insulin receptors on the cells Over secretion of insulin to compensate leading to beta cell failure Can be treated with meds dietweight loss and exercise What are the potential long term complications of diabetes Could damage arteries in the kidneys and eyes Damaging to nerves Increases chance of clogged arteries Overall poor circulation What is the glycemic index The blood glucose response to a given food compared to a standard Describe the relationship between a high glycemic index food blood sugars and insulin levels High glycemic index food cause high levels of glucose which causes the pancreas to release large amounts of insulin which is released to lower blood sugar Too much insulin increases triglyceride levels bad cholesterol promotes fat storage and the cells may become resistant to the insulin Identify the various types of foods that are considered carbohydrates and which are complex versus simple Complex Grains cereal pasta potatoes rice beans fiber lettuce salad veggies Simple sweets pop fruits fruit juice Name the monosaccharides Glucose fructosem galactose Which organ do the monosaccharides travel to after they enter the blood Small intestine Which monosaccharide are all other monosaccharides converted into glucose Name the disaccharides and which mono s make up the disaccharides Maltose GucoseGucoseApha bond Sucrose GucoseFructose Alpha bond Table sugar Lactose GaactoseGucoseBeta Bond milk sugar What are amylose and amylopectin Which is used as a thickener in foods Amylose Straight chain polymer Amylopectin highly branched polymer Used as a food thickener as it forms a thick and stable gel Shown as modified food starch in ingredient list What39s the difference between glycogen and starch Name the 2 places the body stores glycogen Glycogen molecule contains hundreds of glucose unites in long highly branched chains Stored in liver and muscles Starch Molecule contains hundreds of glucose molecules in either occasionally branched chains amylopectin or unbranched chains amylose What are the 2 categories of fiber the general health benefits of fiber and the major food sources Insoluble and Soluble Promotes softer stool prevents obesity delays gastric emptying slows glucose absorption slows glucose absorption reduces blood cholesterol reduces hemorrhoids and diverticula Bread vegetable fruit legumes How much fiber do malesfemales need daily Women 25 grams a day Men 38 grams a day What39s the difference between intact fiber and isolated fiber Intact found in foods naturally high in fiber like whole grains fruits and veggies Isolated fibers derived from other starchy foods and added to non fiber containing foods to make them higher in fiber Explain the digestion of carbohydrate excluding fiber in the small intestine Pancreatic amylase is released which further digest starch fragments into disaccharides Disaccharides then broken down into monosaccharides by 3 enzymes released by intestinal cells Monosaccharides are absorbed through intestinal cell and into the bloodstream What are the 3 possible destinations of glucose after entering the liver Release glucose back into the blood stream Store as glycogen in liver Convert to fat triglyceride What are the functions of carbohydrate Supply energy protein sparing prevents ketosis sweetner in foods For a healthy diet what is the recommendation for o of total calories from carbohydrate the range 45 o65 o What are the guidelines for added sugar in grams per day for females and males Women 25 grams per day Men 38 grams per day What are problems with high sugar diets Empty calories extra calories add up quickly dental caries high glycemic index Which foods are better tolerated in lactose intolerant people Dairy with fat cheese yogurt What are the 2 general categories of sugar substitutes and what are examples of both Non Caloric Saccharin aspartame splenda stevia Sugar alcohols caloric Vitamins Minerals and Water 9914 1257 AM What functions do lipids fat serve in the body Provide energy main fuel for muscle at restlight exercise stores energy insulation and protection transport fat soube vitamins Satiety flavor and mouth feel health benefits What is another name for the lipids fat found in both food and in the body Triglycerides What are sources of saturated monounsaturated polyunsaturated fats and trans fats Saturated Animal Products Monounsaturated Oils nuts avocados Polyunsaturated oils Mayo and salad dressings walnuts Trans Fried food commercial baked goods processed food margarine Which 2 polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential Omega 3 and 6 What are the possible health benefits of omega 339s some food sources and what is the daily recommended intake Decrease blood clotting reduce blood pressure lessen symptoms of depression low risk of some cancers prevent muscular degeneration Found in fish oils Flax soybean and canola oil walnuts Recommended 1000 5000 mg a day What are the body39s 2 main emulsifiers involved in the digestion of fat Bile acids Lecithins Explain how fat is digested once entering the small intestine including enzymes and hormones involved CCK stimulates the release of bile and lecithin to help emulsify fat CCK hormone stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic lipase enzyme fat is broken down to mono gycerides free fatty acids and glycerol Explain enterohepatic circulation In the liver bile is made from cholestrol In the gallbladder bile is stored In the small intestine bile emulsifies fat Bile restored into the blood in the colon bile that has been trapped by viscous fibers is lost in the feces What are de esterification and re esterification De Lipoprotein lipase on fat cell breaks triglycerides in the chylomicrons Re adipose tissue blood flow may play an important role in the regulation of free fatty acid release from adipose tissue Describe the transportation of digested fat fat from food starting with formation of chylomicron in the lymphatic system to the chylomicron remnant deposit in the liver Reformed into triglycerides packaged into the chylomicrons then travels from the lymphatic system to blood then to fat cells lipoprotein lipase on fat cells break triglycerides in the chylomicrons fatty acids are absorbed by cells takes 210 hours to clear chylomicrons Describe the transportation of synthesized fat starting with VLDL and ending with the receptor pathway and scavenger pathway Fat and cholesterol made primarily by the liver then packaged in VLDL Very Low Density Lipoprotein VLDL deposits fat becomes VLDL remnant IDL then Progresses to LDL Low Density Lipoprotein Which pathway receptor vs scavenger contributes to plaque formation and clogged arteries Scavenger What are the characteristics and functions of cholesterol in the body Essential component of cell membrane forms important hormones precursor to bile acids Why are antioxidants potentially helpful in preventing plaque buildup in arteries Prevents oxidation of LDL Why is it beneficial to have a high HDL level Removes cholesterol from the blood stream block oxidation of LDL What are the daily recommendations for fat intake expressed as a o of total calories 2030 o What are the daily recommendations as grams per day for saturated fat trans fat 0 lt10 o Define myocardial infarction and stroke Myocardial Heart attack blood flow to heart is blocked Stroke Blood flow to brain is blocked What should overall cholesterol LDL and HDL levels be lab values LDL Between 130 and 100 HDL 4050 0 Overall 200 or lower What diet measures can be taken to reduce LDL levels Reduce saturated fat trans fat and cholesterol Increase MUFA and PUFA to recommended amounts Increase dietary fiber Lower glycemic load foods Caloric intake to maintain healthy weight What impact does exercise have on LDL and HDL levels Slows down plaque buildup increases vascularity or heart increases HDL improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity aids in weight loss and lowering blood pressure What effect does trans fat have on cholesterol levels Raises bad cholesterol HDL lowers good cholesterol HDL How many vitamins are there and how many are water soluble vs fat soluble Fat soluble 4 Water Soluble 9 Define enrichment and fortification Enrichment Adding back some vitamins and minerals lost during milling Fortification adding vitamins and minerals beyond what is naturally in the food Explain the general characteristics of fat soluble vitamins Generally stored in liver or fat stores More likely to be toxic Transported like fat in chylomicrons VLDL LDL Which fat soluble vitamin is considered the most toxic Vitamin A What are the 2 general sources of vitamin D Sun Fatty fish cod liver oil milk margarines yogurt and orange juice Which vitamins and minerals are considered antioxidants Vitamin A C and E Minerals selenium copper manganese and zinc Given the state of research should antioxidants be supplemented Diversify your antioxidant intake with a balanced diet What is the main function of vitamin K Blood clotting Explain the general characteristics of water soluble vitamins Dissolve in water Readily excreted by kidneys Subject to cooking losses Function as co enzymes Prevalent in energy metabolism Why is folate an important vitamin before and during pregnancy Helps with the development of nervous system in fetuses Which population is most at risk for Vitamin B12 deficiency and why Elderly due to poor absorption due to lack of stomach acid What are the main 2 minerals involved in fluid balance Sodium and Potassium Explain the 3 steps of the sweat mechanism Water absorbs any excess heat Body secretes fluids via perspiration Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates What role do ADH and aldosterone have in fluid balance Signal the kidneys to retain sodium and water respectively thus increasing blood volume How many minerals are there and how many are major vs trace Major 7 Trace 9 What are systolic and diastolic blood pressure Systolic Pressure in arteries when heart pumps Norma 120 Diastolic Pressure is pressure in arteries when heart is relaxed Normal 80 What is considered normal blood pressure What is considered high 14090 high 12080 Normal What are the health problems associated with high blood pressure Hypertension peripheral resistance heart attacks strokes congestive heart failure poor circulation vision problems kidney disease What are the 4 preventive measures for hypertension Lose weight Exercise Reduce alcohol intake Diet Reduce sodium DASH diet Healthy low calorie diet Define salt sensitivity Intake of salt resulting in higher blood pressure When does calcium absorption increase What decreases the absorption of cmdum Increase In times of need growth period slightly acidic environments adequate vitamin D intake estrogen is present parathyroid hormone aids in absorportion Decrease Rapid intestinal motility high fiber intake excess phosphorus intake vitamin D deficiency presence of polyphenols in tea Menopause aging achlorhydria Lack of stomach acid What lifestyle and diet habits can help ensure adequate bone mass Meet calcium and vitamin D needs Healthy body weight normal menses weight bearing physical activity moderate intakes of protein phosphorus sodium caffeine Non smoker What are the two types of iron in foods and which is better absorbed Heme and Nonheme Heme is found in animal products and is better absorbed than nonheme which is found in plant products What vitamin enhances absorption of iron Vitamin C What39s the difference between a benign and malignant tumor Benign is a tumor that doesn39t spread Malignant tumors metastasizespread What are the 3 steps of carcinogenesis Initiation Exposure of cell to carcinogen compound that damages DNA Results in alteration in the DNA mutation Each cell has repair mechanisms that look for errors in DNA replication and make corrections 99 of the time Phytochemicals may enhance the process Cancer Promotion Cell division increases Step can last for months or years The damage is locked into the genetic material Promoters are compounds that increase cell division Cancer Progression Cancer cells proliferate forming a mass tumor large enough to affect body functions What lifestyle advice would you give someone trying to minimize their risk of getting any form of cancer Remain physically active avoid obesity diet Food Safety 9914 1257 AM Who is at increased risk for foodborne illness 0 Very young very old people with long term illness Pregnant Malnourished What are the 2 general categories of agents that can cause food poisoning and what are examples of each Infectious Agents Bacteria Virus Parasite Non Infectious agents food additives pesticides glass plastic Define direct and indirect bacterial food poisoning Direct Already present in food then invade intestinal wall and produce infection Indirect Toxin produced after food eaten What can be done to prevent mushroom poisoning 0 Cooking canning freezing other processing Hunter must be familiar with the mushrooms they collect How do you prevent getting sick from moldy food Discard food with mold What are consumer and industry trends that may increase risk of foodborne iHness Centralized food production insufficient regulation by FDAUSDAEPA Antibiotic treatment for animals increased consumption of ready to eat foods Preference for rare meats increase in the number of elderly immunosuppressive medications What type of food environment do bacteria thrive in Water neutral pH oxygen and protein rich environments Which preservation methods work to decrease available water in the food Add salt or sugar Drying Fermentation What are fermentation pasteurization and food irradiation Fermentation Create acidic environment Pasteurization Heating process that kills most microorganisms Food Irradiation Low dose of radiation that destroys pathogens but does not make food radioactive What preventative measures can you take when purchasing food Buy frozen food Place meats in separate plastic bags don39t buy dented cans or foods with broken seals buy only pasteurized milk and cheese buy only what you need check the precut produce for brown slimy color and texture What are three types of expiration dates on food packages Is it safe to eat foods beyond those dates Sell by best is used by use by Milk still good within a week Eggs okay for 35 weeks Poultry and seafood freeze or cook within a day or 2 Beef and Pork Cook or freeze within 35 days What preventative measures can you take when preparing foods What is proper way to thaw foods Wash hands keep counters and cutting boards clean and sanitized prepare raw meat separately thaw foods in fridge or cold running water avoid coughing and sneezing over food clean fruits and veggies thoroughly What is cross contamination Contaminated source to clean source Example Using the same cutting board that was exposed to raw meat without washing before cutting veggies What preventative measures can you take when cooking food Thoroughly cook meat fight poultry egg Use food thermometer Cooking stuffing separately Eat food right away Serve cooked meat on clean plates Avoid partial cooking food for picnics What is the temperature danger zone 40140 degrees F What preventative measures can you take when storingreheating cooked food Store leftovers within 12 hours Reheat leftovers to 165 degrees Store peeled cut up produce in the fridge Keep fridge under 40 degrees What is the 2 hour rule Discard any foods that can spoiled left out at room temp for longer than 2 hours How long should you keep ground meat in your refrigerator How long should you keep raw steaks roasts chops poultry lunchmeat and mayo based salads Ground meat 12 days Raw steaks 35 days 0 Mayo 2 months Lunch meats 24 weeks Why are food additives used What are the two categories Limit spoilage coloring or flavor to prevent undesirable changes in food color or flavor increase safety of foods 1 Intentional Added directly to food 2 Incidental Indirectly added as a contaminant pesticide residue What populations need to be most concerned with mercury poisoning Fish What containers and coverings are recommendedsafe for microwaving foods Anything labeled microwave safe What are BPA s Bisphenol A chemical that has been used in the manufacture of many hard plastic food containers Why are hormones and antibiotics given to animals Increase milk production in dairy cattle to increase size in cattle which results in more meat Stop animals from getting sick and to make them gain weight What are pesticides and which population groups are most at risk for pesticide poisoning Chemicals used to control insects weeds fungi and other pests on plants Children elderly people with weakened immune system What measures can be taken to minimize exposure to pesticides Trim fat wash fresh produce in warm running water discard outer leaves of leafy vegetables buy organic Name and define the 3 categories set by the USDA for labeling of organic foods 100 organic made with 100 o organic materials Organic made with at least 95 organic ingredients 0 Made with organic ingredients Minimum of 70 organic ingredients with strict restrictions on the remaining 30 What are genetically modified foods Removing genes from one organism and transferring them to another organism to give that particular crop a desirable trait What is pink slime Used as a filler in ground beef Originated as beef attached to the fat that is trimmed off Beef is mechanically separated from fat through a heating process Then processed heated and treated with ammonia gas pressed into blocks and frozen Weight Management 9914 1257 AM What39s the difference between positive energy balance and negative energy balance Positive energy balance Weight gain energy calories in is greater than energy calories out Negative energy balance Energy in is less than energy out What amount of calorie restriction deficit is needed to promote roughly 1 pound weight loss per week 500 calories per day What39s the difference between hunger and appetite Hunger Physiological drive to eat controlled by internal body cues cues that tells to eat and to stop eating due to fullness satiety may be as many as 25 or more chemical messengers that govern hunger Appetite Psychological external drive to eat craving controlled by external or environmental cues What is leptin and what affect do high and low levels of leptin have on appetite Hormone produced by the adipose tissue that decreases desire to eat Essentially fat cells communicating with the brains The more body fat the higher the levels of leptin Obese may still have low levels of leptin genetically so they never feel full Is hunger or appetite most likely to cause overeating Appetite overrides the physiologic influences signaling fullness What are the three components of total energy expenditure energy out Physical activity thermic effect of food basal metabolism What is basal metabolism and what percentage of overall calories burned each day does it represent The energy burned to maintain all involuntary processes to keep the body alive Roughly 6070 of the total calories burned each day What is thermogenesis and what are examples Calories consumed are lost as heat Keeping body temp at 986 cold environment shivering fidgeting maintenance of muscle tone posture Why do fat burners claim to be beneficial for bodyfat loss Weight loss is a result of calories burned as heat instead of stored as fat Inhibit appetite What factors increase basal metabolic Rate BMR Tall thin growth periods more lean tissue fever stress heat cold Which lower BMR Older age fat tissue fasting starvation malnutrition sleep When is the BMR at its lowest While sleeping What is the thermic effect of food and what percentage of overall calorie needs does it represent Calories used to digest absorb and metabolize food nutrients Roughly 5 10 above the total basal energy used How many calorieskg are recommended for moderately active person Know how to calculate this Pounds divided by 22 kg kg x 30 daily calorie intake How do you calculate a healthy weight based on gender and height For men 106 pounds for the first 5 feet 6 pounds per each inch over five feet A man who is 53910 should weigh 166 lbs i10 For women 100 pounds for the first 5 feet 5 pounds per each inch over five feet 0 A woman who is 5 10 should weigh 150 lbs 10 0 What are BMI s and what is the limitation of the BMI Formula based on weight for height Doesn39t take into account muscle tissue vs fat At what BMI does health risk increase When BMI is above 25 What is the BMI for someone who is classified as overweight and obese 0 Over 25 overweight Over 30 obese What factors should be considered when setting a healthy weight goal Weight history and family weight history current health status how do your clothes fit energy levels Does a person have to be at the perfect weight to be healthy and fit No Name the 5 methods of assessing bodyfat Fat fold underwater weighing bioelectric impedance bod pod DEXA What39s the difference between android obesity and gynecoid obesity and which is associated with health problems Android upper body associated with heart disease type 2 diabetes Abdominal fat is released right into the liver fat affects iver s ability to clear insulin and lipoprotein Defined by over 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women in waist measurement Gynecoid Lower body encouraged by estrogen and progesterone after menopause upper body obesity appears less heath risks What is the Set Point theory No matter how hard a person tries their body resists weight change and when they do lose weight it always returns What are the chances a child will be obese as an adult if one parent is obese If both parents are obese One parent 40 chance Two parents 80 chance Why don39t extreme diets generally work What are the physiologic reasons Requires long term lifestyle changes not a quick fix More concerned with weight loss than healthy lifestyle What are the characteristics of a sound weight loss diet Meets nutritional needs except for kcal Slow and steady weight loss Adapted to individuals habits and tastes Contains common foods Fit into any social situation Permanent change with eating problemshabits Give examples of the following behavior modification techniques chain breaking break the link between two behaviors links can lead to excessive intake snacking while watching TV cognitive restructuring Changing your frame of mind regarding eatingphysical activity Stress eating replaced with walking contingency management Forming a plan of action in response to a situation Rehearse in advance appropriate responses to pressure of eating at parties selfmonitoring What am I eating am I looking at portion sizes have I increased my physical activity What is the recommendation for amount of regular physical activity for weight loss and why is important for weight loss 1 hour most days of the week Increases calories burned preserves muscles What is the purpose of bariatric surgery Gastric bypass gastric banding Purpose of weight loss by reducing the size of the stomach What are the criteria to qualify for bariatric surgery BMI more than 35 or over 30 with other health issues psychological evaluation pregnancy not planned for at least 1 year post op Lipids 9914 1257 AM What are the health benefits of regular physical activity Maintains lean muscle tissue aids in weight control improves cardiovascular health enhances insulin action strengthens bone reduces susceptibility to infections improves sleep fewer injuries psychological health What are the 4 sources of ATP during physical activity and what are the time frames each source provides ATP Pre exists in muscles and provides ATP for 24 seconds PCR pre exists in muscle provides ATP from 530 seconds Anaerobic pathways comes from breakdown of carbohydrae to eventually make ATP from 30 seconds to 2 minutes Aerobic pathways comes from breakdown of carbohydrate fat and protein which can all be used to make ATP from 2 minutes to 3 hours Name the 2 areas of glycogen storage and what the glycogen in each area is used for Muscle provides energy directly to the muscle where it is stored Liver Functions to replenish blood glucose levels so glucose is able to leave liver Explain the differences between anaerobic and aerobic pathways including advantages and limitations Anaerobic Provides energy from carbs starting with 10 seconds peak use from 30 seconds to 2 minutes of work Pathway is used when there is limited or no oxygen 0 Advantage ATP made available quickly allowing for high intensity 0 Limitations produces on 2 ATP per glucose which limits how long you can perform at a high intensity Aerobic Plenty of oxygen available Pathway used primarily in low to moderate intensity 0 Advantage produces a lot of ATP Provides sustained energy from 2 minutes to 3 hours of work 0 Limitations takes longer to generate ATP which limits intensity Depending on the exercise intensity and duration explain which macronutrients carbohydrate fat and protein are used as the main fuel source Carbs are stored in muscle and liver as glucose Glucose can be broken down to for ATP quicker than fat or protein Makes it ideal for short bursts of activity Predominant fuel source for more intense longer duration activities Fat produces 5 times as much ATP as carbs but it is produced slower meaning it is not a major source of fuel for intense activity Protein provides 2 o 5 o of energy needs during rest and lowmoderate exercise Provides 1015 of energy needs during endurance exercise Most energy is from branched chain amino acids Where is the majority of stored energy in the body located How much energy is supplied by protein during exercise What are the physiologic effects of aerobic exercise The more trained a muscle the greater its ability to use fat as fuel expecially at higher intensities What are hypertrophy and atrophy Hypertrophy increased in cell size muscles enlarge as a result of repeated work Atrophy wasting away of tissues result of non movement What are the 3 components of the athletes diet Quanitity how much to eat Quality optimal amounts of carbs fat and protein Vitamins and minerals Timing pre competition during competition post competition List the high risk sports for inadequate calorie intake Gymnast cross country ballet dancers figure skaters weight class athletes How does an athlete know if they39re at their optimal body weight Know body composition Within the normal o of body fat What is the best advice for an athlete trying to lose weight Gain weight Weight loss is done best during off season Reduce calories by 500 per day Use performance and general energy levels as a barometer For weight gain add 500100 cals per day with increased resistance training No empty calories Don39t skip meals Add snack before bed Weight gain depends on genetics degree of positive energy balance number of rest and recovery days and training program For an athletes diet what percentage in a range of overall calories aka macronutrient needs should come from carbohydrate fat and protein CHO 5070 0 Protein 1025 Fat 2040 What is the main goal for carbohydrate intake in general Maximize glycogen stores What is carb loading and which events are appropriateinappropriate based on duration for carbohydrate loading Consuming extra carbs leading up to an event Tapering off exercise while increasing CHO intake What are some of the common mistakes with carbo loading Athletes don39t back off training enough failure to eat enough carbs too much fiber fear of weight gain consume too much high fat junk food For a competitive athlete fat consumption should never drop below what o of overall cals 15 o What are protein recommendations on a gkg basis 122 gkg of body weight 0 Higher value for individuals participating in endurance exercise and strength sport athletes who regularly resistance train What isare the goals of precompetition eating Help avoid hunger during the event top off glycogen stores keep blood sugars stable provide fuel during the event not be too full or have GI issues provide some extra fluid What are some characteristics of the preevent meal Consumed 24 hours prior to event consist primarily of CHO low fat little fiber moderate protein avoid fatty fried foods sweets Name some good choices for precompetition snacking 12 hours before Sports drinks bars fruit crackers dry cereal What is the goal of consuming carbohydrate during exercise Help avoid low blood sugar preserve muscle glycogen as long as possible What is the goal of post competition eating How would you optimize replenishment of muscle glycogen Replenish glycogen minimize protein breakdown that naturally occurs after exercise Can be optimized by ingestion of carbs ASAP Ideally 100g of carbs within 30 min Adding at least 59 grams of protein helps increase refueling rate Generally speaking what are the vitamin and mineral needs of athletes compared to sedentary adults Needs may be slightly higher for athletesexercisers Extra vitamins and minerals needs may be met by diet since athletes tend to consume extra calories What are the two most common nutrient deficiencies Iron and calcium What o of weight loss in fluid will affect athletic performance 3 o How many days in a range does it take to acclimate to the heat 510 days of training in hot environment How long does the benefit last if training is done in a more temperate environment 23 weeks Name the 3 kinds of heat injuries Heat cramps fluid and sodium loss Heat exhaustion Heat stroke heat regulation mechanisms fail Quit sweating Internal body temp rises How much fluid should be consumed for every pound of weight loss after exercise 3 cups for each pound of weight loss How much fluid should be consumed during extended bouts of exercise lasting longer than 30 minutes 1 cup for every 15 minutes What are the main components of sports drinks in the fluid replacement category Diluted carbohydrate sodium potassium When is a sports drink necessary vs water What are the advantages of sports drinks Over 60 min of exercise Sports drink will quickly replace carbs used keep blood sugars stable and maintain blood volume What is the general advice for daily caffeine intake 200 mg per day Don39t exceed 300 mg per day What39s the first step when deciding if you should buy a supplement to improve performance Food first Clean up diet What is the main claim of creatine supplementation Allows for more explosive movements due to increased regeneration of ATP Effective for activities that last up to 10 seconds Often result in weight gain
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