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Test 3 Study Guide

by: Carina Sauter

Test 3 Study Guide ANTH 1102

Carina Sauter
GPA 3.79

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This is the test 3 study guide with appropriate terms and questions to study for our test coming up! Good luck!
Introduction to Anthropology
Dr. Birch
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carina Sauter on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1102 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Birch in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 296 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 03/15/16
Anthropology Test 3 Study Guide Terms: 1. Upper Paleolithic: Neanderthals disappear, only homo sapiens remain by the end of the period, 50,000-10,000 BP, blade tools 2. Domestication: “new technology” many used in the Neolithic Revolution to control animals and plants for their own growth and benefit; humans modified the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals to select a particular trait, for example to increase growth, increase size, decrease in protective devices, etc. 3. Neolithic Revolution: a term defined by domestication of plants and animals; the transition to economies based on food production and domesticated plants and animals; home bases in which people invested in 4. Behavioral Modernity: Fully human behavior based on symbolic thought and cultural creativity; body decoration and ornamentation, art 5. Broad Spectrum Revolution: People were collecting a broad spectrum of food resources – forest animals, birds, fish, plants; Hunter-fisher-gatherers 6. Sedentism: the practice of living in one place for a long time; new way of life 7. Natufians: Lived from 12,5000-10,500 BP; first domesticating people in history; moved plants that were dying in an arid environment to a better watered area; hard for Natufians to go back to hunter-gatherer after crossing Neolithic revolution; reliance on stable, high yield plant foods to maintain large and growing plant population 8. Cuneiform: Mesopotamian writing system, cuneiform, developed as a means of recording production and taxation 9. Neolithic Demographic Transition: the Neolithic revolution resulted in an increase in population – farmers have more children than hunter-gatherers because 1. Fertility increases as birth spacing decreases, 2. Child labor is needed and valued, 3. Increase in juvenile skeletons in Neolithic cemetery populations 10. Megafauna: large mammals of the period about 20,000 BP, evidence of killed megafauna taking multiple people, animal proteins left on tools 11. Clovis: Clovis tool type – large, flaked points, spears, darts 12. Southeastern Ceremonial Complex: set of symbols/motifs widely shared; non-local exotic goods; representative of rulers and ancestors 13. Cahokia: massive proto-urban center near St. Louis, closest thing to pre-historic city with 30,000 people; cities and suburbs, huge; Monks Mound – largest manmade construction in North America; Mound 72 – oldest mound with early chief buried inside in a bed of shell beads and arrows, falcon shaped, buried with be-headed conquered enemies 14. Monte Verde: Chile; radiocarbon dates suggest the site was occupied about 16,000 BP; tents covered in hides; exploited a wide range of plant and animal resources 15. Eastern Agricultural Complex: 1 of 8 places as an independent center of domestication; rier valley and tributaries of Mississippi rive – secondary streams, not main trunk; starchy and oily seeds; late archaic period (5,000-4,000 BP) 16. Swift Creek: middle woodland in Georgia (100-800 AD); decoration of ceramic vessels; paddles used to emboss wet clay – paddled sometimes traded through communities 17. State: secular leader, social classes, armies, taxation, laws, expansive economy 18. Circumscription Theory: a multivariate theory – involved multiple causes, factors and variables: 1. Environmental circumscription or resource concentration, 2. Increasing population, 3. Warfare 19. Urbanism: settlements where practices constitute having a state happen; regional centers; large populations; administrative functions 20. Ur, Iraq: 6,000 BP, Sumerian city state 21. Ideology: Often shared with groups within a society or a society as a whoe; a comprehensive vision or worldview; a way of looking at things; tied to the belief system of a particular society – religious or moral principles; a system of abstracted meaning applied to public matters; structures social interaction 22. Göbleki Tepe: 10,000-12,000 BC, Southern Turkey; built by hunter-gatherers; oldest known human made religious structure; stelae; sight is important – raised (see from afar); revolutionized our understanding of societies – complicated ritual and belief system 23. Stelae: an upright stone or slab with an inscribed or sculptured surface; 24. Monument: a statue, building, or other structure erected to commemorate a famous or notable person or event; size and permanence; commemoration or memorial; from the Latin word monumentum meaning “something that reminds” 25. Lascaux Cave: Southwest France; 1940 discovery by 4 kids and a dog; opened to the public but the carbon dioxide emitted and the constant visitations hurt the cave – close in 1963; replica cave opened in 1983; 18,000-15,000 BP; cave wall art 26. Harris Line: Lines on increased bone density that represent the position of the growth plate at the time of insult to the organism and formed on long bones due to growth arrest; “growth arrest lines”; Only visible by radiograph or in cross-section; Indicate episodes of temporary slowing or cessation of bone growth due to physiological stress in childhood. Caused by malnutrition in early Neolithic farming societies. 27. NAGPRA: Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act”; Provides a process for museums and Federal agencies to return certain Native American cultural items to lineal descendants, and culturally affiliated Indians tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations; 1990 28. Elgin Marbles: A collection of classical Greek marble sculptures and architectural fragments brought to England from Greece by Thomas Bruce between 1803 – 1841; Mostly from the Parthenon in Athens 29. Stallings Island: Georgia; Savannah river, 8 miles from Augusta; Earliest pottery in North America; late archaic; 4,500-3,500 BP 30. Chiefdom: larger, stratified population, class system, political and religious leaders; Mississippian societies; hereditary ranking; commoners and elites 31. Heritage: Something that is or may be inherited from a predecessor; (heir) inheritance; Valued objects and qualities such as cultural traditions, and historic buildings that have been passed down from previous generations; Something possessed as a result of one’s natural situation (birthright); Valued objects (buildings, artifacts); Qualities (dance, language, morals) Questions: 1. Why do archaeologists believe that body decoration and personal ornamentation was significant in early human history? • These are signs of individual self-awareness, group identity, and social signaling. These are significant in early human history because they tell us about societies and their identity as a whole, demonstrating pride and community. 2. When did regionalism in material culture emerge, and why is it significant? • Upper Paleolithic • Significant because we can study the movement of people and the benefits/ withdrawals each area seemed to have for their lives. 3. What is the Neolithic, and what are the 2 central characteristics that define it? • The Neolithic Revolution is the transition to economies based on food and production and domesticated plants and animals. The two central characteristics that define it are 1. 50% or more of the diet coming from domesticated foods and 2. Settled (sedentary) village life 4. Why might cause a society that has transitioned from hunter-gatherer lifestyles to farming to be 'trapped' and unable to go back to hunting and gathering? • There are biological impacts on physiology from the hard work (increased nutritional stress, and more frequent occurrences of lesions from disease) and changes in diet (less nutritional, starchier). The populations increased and there were more mouths to feed. With a greater and easier yield to produce, farming took over and there was no way to go back. 5. What are the four scalar categories of Human societies and how is each defined? Describe one reason this is a helpful framework and one reason that this is a problematic framework. • Bands: small egalitarian groups of hunter-gatherers, Segmentary Societies: kinship-based groups, usually farming people, no formal political institutions; Chiefdoms: larger stratified population, class system, political and religious leaders; States: secular leaders, social classes, armies, taxation, laws, expansive economy • Many people may believe this is an evolutionary ladder but IT IS NOT. • This allows us to study the different societies and determine what kind of peoples they were. 6. What do anthropologists mean by “Behavioral Modernity?” • Fully human behavior based on symbolic thought and cultural creativity; body decoration and ornamentation, art 7. Define “Domestication,” explain the process, and give an example of a species originally domesticated in the Neolithic. • Domestication is an evolutionary process whereby humans modify the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals . • Barley and Chickpea 8. What are the five major traits of domesticated plant species? How do these traits relate to the process of domestication? • Increased size, decrease in natural means of seed dispersal, decrease in protective devices, seeds ripen faster, simultaneous ripening of the seed or fruit; humans modified the genetic makeup of said population to act in a beneficial way to their lives 9. If you were a Paleoindian in the Americas, what would your subsistence base consist of? • Meat from game hunting 10. When did the Eastern Agricultural Complex emerge? Name two domesticates from this period. • Late archaic period • Squash and sunflowers, chenopod, starchy and oily seeds 11. What were the four key cultural innovations in the Woodland Period? • Widespread use of pottery • Elaborate burial practices • Long-distance trade • Bow and arrow 12. When did maize enter the southeast? How did the introduction of maize change agriculture in the southeast? • Late Woodland period and Mississippian period • Allowed for a starcy diet and for societies to settle down and rely on this as a main food source. 13. Describe three ways in which Mississippian society was different from societies in the earlier Woodland Period. • Maize agriculture – 50% of their diet • Organized into chiefdoms with relative power and elites • They were not living on the coasts – characterized by mounds and plazas with a permanent village settlement • Systematic warfare with warriors 14. What was one early theory for the formation of the state and why was it found to be inadequate? • Creation and control of Hydraulic systems for irrigation o Neither a sufficient nor necessary condition for the rise of state o Many societies never experience state formation; many rose without hydraulic systems • Long distance trade o Not needed 15. How are “voluntaristic” and “coercive” processes of initial state formation different? • Voluntaristic theories: posit that population may voluntarily band together giving up their individual sovereignties in exchange for the security of the state • Coercive theories: regard conflict and dominance of some population over another population as key to the formation of states 16. What are the three primary variables in Carniero’s theory of the origin of the state? • Robert Carniero’s Circumscription Theory is a multivariate theory that involves multiple causes, factors, and variables. The three primary variables include Environmental circumscription/ resource concentration, Increasing population, and Warfare. His theory asserts that winners of warfare become elites and the losers become commoners. 17. Describe 4 of the 6 basic characteristics of state-level societies? • Controls a specific regional territory • Productive agricultural economies • Accumulation of resources • Social stratification • Public buildings and monumental architecture • Record-keeping system 18. Name the scales of human societies. • Ruler • Elites • Artisans/ priests/ officials • Commoners • Slaves 19. Archaeologists explain the collapses of states in multiple ways. What are two common anthropological explanations of why states collapse? • Invasion • Disease • Famine • Drought • Environmental degradation – erosion, deforestation, soil exhaustion • Social and political upheaval • warfare 20. What was the subject of the first human writing? • Receipt/ Accounting 21. What does it mean for a monument to be mutable? Give an example from either class or the Scarre article. • Frequently changing • Arc de Triomphe (Napoleon, Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers, Germans, Freedom, Remembrance) 22. Describe how monuments of war have changed. • They used to be for rallying and to commemorate a great battle or leader, but now they are for remembrance of the lives lost 23. How does ideology relate to monumentality? • A comprehensive vision or worldview tied to the belief system (religious or moral principles) of a particular society • The dominant ideology is produced by the dominant class, extended/imposed on the rest often in the form of a monument 24. How do elite members of a society use monuments to legitimize themselves? • They seize control and use monuments to legitimize themselves – they inscribe status onto the natural and built environment. 25. List one legal and one illegal threat to the archaeological heritage • Illegal: looting and illicit trade in antiquites • Legal: infrastructure and land development 26. Who is Kennewick Man? Briefly explain the controversy surrounding his remains. • discovered by two college students in Kennewick, Washington • one of the oldest skeletons ever found in the Americas, dating back to 9,000 BP • controversy: Who owns the remains? The ones who discovered it, or the owners of the land in which it was found. Currently under no single group's possession. Remains held important information about the origins and "span" of the native Americans in the new world; Scientists sued the government attempting to keep remains for scientific study; Scientists were allowed to study because he was too old to be traced to a single native group. Related to an Asian population. 27. Who built Stonehenge and what were their societies like? • Neolithic Socieity in early 3000 BC, stone age • Stone axes, kept livestock, barley and wheat; wore leather, relatively healthy; aristocratic society 28. Describe at least 3 kinds of archaeological evidence used to reconstruct what happened at the site. • Used stone balls (stone bearing technology to move larger stones) • Grooves naturally made pointing to the sunrise at the summer solstice • Used manpower to mimic domestic animals 29. Explain the relationship between Stonehenge and the nearby site of Durrington Walls. • Stone=death; Wood=life • Stone=sunset; Wood=sunrise • Stone= realm of the living; Wood= realm of the dead • Straight path – river linked them • Lived at Durrington with great feasts of animals, rituals at Stonehenge • Linked on summer and winter solstice


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