Study Guide 3
Study Guide 3 BMS 208
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aldina Softic on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jolanta Lanier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 110 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
BMS 208; Exam 3 Study Guide The Nervous System: - Central: Brain & Spinal cord - Peripheral: cranial & spinal nerves Sensory Somatic (sensations such as temperature) Visceral (sensations from internal organs) Motor Somatic (Voluntary) Autonomic (Involuntary) Structural Classification of Neurons: Unipolar: one projection from neuron body (supply temperature, pressure, pain & touch) Bipolar: two projections (taste, smell, sight, balance, & hearing) Multipolar: many projections (supply movement) Functional Classification of Neurons: Somatic: ‘outer’ regions of the body (skin, muscles..) Visceral: organs on the inside (lungs, heart, stomach..) Sensory organs deliver messages through the posterior region of the spinal cord Information leaving the spinal cord goes through the anterior region of the spinal cord Neuron bodies are located in the grey matter Interneurons communicates between sensory and motor neurons Neuroglial Cells: Majority of the cells in the nervous system Multiply & renew Support neurons Found in both central and peripheral systems Types of Glial Cells: Oligodendrocytes: Make myelin sheath for axons in the central nervous system Neurolemmocytes (Schwann Cells): Make myelin sheath for axons in the peripheral nervous sytem Satellite Cells: support cells in the ganglion in peripheral system, stabilize environment and remove waste Astrocyte: Assistants for neurons in central system Microglia: sanitation cells for central system Ependymal cells: secrete cerebro spinal fluid in central system Synapse: space between neurons, messages transferred in chemical form The Brain: Forebrain (Cerebrum): o Gyrus: folds of cortical tissue o Sulcus: gap between gyrus Midbrain: o Anterior: red nucleus, substantia nigra, & cerebral peduncles o Posterior: Corpora quadrigemina Hindbrain: o Pons (contains ganglion for respiration) o Medulla Oblongata (contains ganglion for cardiac control) o Cerebellum (balance & equilibrium) Convolutions: folds of grey matter Longitudinal fissure: divides brain into left and right hemispheres Grey matter contains neuron bodies White matter contains axons Frontal lobe: motor function Parietal lobe: feeling Occipital: vision Temporal lobe: hearing and smell Pre-central gyrus: sends messages to stimulate skeletal muscles Pre-frontal cortex: responsible for abstract thinking Post-central gyrus: receives senses Diencephalon: Thalamus o Anterior group: awareness of emotion o Posterior group: relay center Hypothalamus o Autonomic functions o Produce hormones o Body temperature Cranial Nerves: Cranial Nerve I: Olfactory o Sensory o Smell Cranial Nerve II: Optic o Sensory o Vision Cranial Nerve III: Oculomotor o Inferior oblique, medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus Cranial Nerve IV: Trochlear o Superior oblique Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal o Mixed o Touch, pain, mastication Cranial Nerve VI: Abducens o Lateral rectus Cranial Nerve VII: Facial o Mixed o Taste for front 2/3 of tongue Cranial Nerve VIII: Vestibulocochlear o Sensory o Sense of balance and hearing Cranial Nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal o Mixed o Back 2/3 of tongue, swallowing Cranial Nerve X: Vagus o Mixed o General sensation in thorax and abdomen Cranial Nerve XI: accessory o Motor o Sternocleidomastoid & trapezius Cranial Nerve XII: Hypoglossal o Motor o Tongue muscles Cranial Meninges: connective tissue covering brain o Layers: Pia mater (thin) Arachnoid Dura mater (thick) Dural Folds o Falx Cerebri (double layer of dura mater in longitudinal fissure) o Falx Cerebelli (in between cerebellum) o Tentorium Cerebelli (above cerebellum) o Superior sagittal sinus (in between 2 layers of dura mater) Choroid Plexus: produces cerebrospinal fluid Ventricles of brain o Lateral ventricles o Third ventricle o Fourth ventricle Spinal Cord & Spinal Nerves Regions: Cervical: neck & back of arms Thoracic: thoracic, stomach, back Lumbar: entire anterior of legs Sacral: entire posterior of legs Coccygeal Spinal Cord: Central canal Posterior median sulcus Anterior median fissure Lateral horns: autonomic motor function All spinal nerves are mixed (sensory & motor) Layers of axons: endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium Cervical Plexus: Innervates diaphragm (phrenic nerve) Brachial Plexus: Musculocutaneous (radial, ulnar, median nerves) Lumbosacral plexus: Femoral nerve, obturator nerve, sciatic nerve, common fibular, tibial nerve Monosynaptic reflex: direct communication between sensory and motor neuron Polysynaptic reflex: inter-neuron facilitates sensory-motor communication Communication between spinal cord and brain happens through tracts o Anterior spinothalamic tract: touch/pressure (3 neurons: dorsal root ganglion, posterior horn, thalamus) o Anterior and lateral corticospinal tract: brain overrides spinal cord Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic ganglion Sympathetic ganglion are located in trunk Parasympathetic ganglion are located in head/neck and pelvis Sympathetic: 1. Paravetebral ganglion: located next to vertebra 2. Celiac ganglion, inferior mesenteric, superior mesenteric: located in abdomen 3. Adrenal medulla Parasympathetic: 1. Ciliary ganglion 2. Otic ganglion
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