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by: Bria Harris


Marketplace > Syracuse University > Psychlogy > PSY 335 > PSY 335 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Bria Harris
GPA 3.4
Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood

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About this Document

Here is a study guide for the exam on Thursday! This includes all of the notes from class, as well as some information that will be on the test that she didn't talk about in class. This study guide...
Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bria Harris on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
PSY 335 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 1 Why Study Child Development a Raising children How should we raise kids b Choosing social policies How to promote the welfare of children c Understanding human nature 2 Raising Children Help parents and teachers meet the challenges of reading and educating children Research identi ed effective approaches that can be used to help children manage anger and other negative emotions Remember to do turtle a form of intervention children were taught to be inside themselves when they were upset found to reduce negative emotions 3 Choosing Social Policies Permits informed decisions about social policy questions that effect children About 40 of kids that testify are under the age of 7 Child testimony from preschool kids Older children remember more accurately 4 Understanding Human Nature Provides insights into the most intriguing questions regarding human nature Investigations of development among children adopted from orphanages Romania supports the principle that the timing of experiences often in uence their effects Findings of Romanian Orphans at 6 amp 11 year olds 150 adopted Romanian kids compared to 150 adopted British kids Physical Development 0 Weight adopted before 6 months British control gt adopted between 6 amp 24 months gt adopted between 24 amp 42 months Intellectual Abilities 0 Percentage of kids with mental retardation 2 of kids adopted before 6 months same is general population compared to 33 of those adopted between 2442 months Social Development 0 20 had abnormal social behavior including not differentiation their parents from strangers did not form friendships as well 5 Historical Foundations of the Study of Child Development a Early Philosophers Views Plato and Aristotle believed long term welfare of society depends on the development of children Plato emphasized discipline and self control children are born with innate knowledge Aristotle was concerned with tting child rearing needs of individual child knowledge comes from experience Nature vs Nurture b Late Philosophers late 1600s to early 1700s Locke like Aristotle saw children as a tabula rasa and advocated lSt instilling discipline and gradually increasing kids freedom Rousseau believed parents amp society should give kids maximum freedom from the beginning c Social Reform Movements In the 19th century research was conducted for the bene t of kids amp provided some of the earliest descriptions of the adverse effects of harsh conditions amp how they impact child development d Darwin s Theory of Evolution Darwin s work on evolution inspired research in child development in order to gain insights into the nature of the human species e The Emergence of Child Development as a Discipline Child development emerged as a formal eld of inquiry in the late 19th century and early 20th century Sigmund Freud and John Watson formulated in uential theories of development during the period Freud biological drives exerted a crucial in uence on development Watson children s behavior arises largely about rewards amp punishments that follow particular behaviors Research methods were limited but theories were better grounded in research and inspired more sophisticated thinking 1 Nature vs Nurture Single most basic question about child development is how nature amp nurture interact to shape the developmental process Nature our biological endowment especially the genes we receive from our parents Nurture wide range of environments both physical amp social that in uence our development Developmental scientists now recognize that every characteristic we posses is created through the joint workings of nature and nurture They ask how nature amp nurture work together to shape development 2 The Active Child Children contribute to their own development from early in life amp their contributions increase as they get older 3 Important Contributions during children s first years are their 1 Attentional pattern eg paying attention to the mother more than strangers 2 Use of language 3 Play Older children amp adolescents choose many environments friends amp activities for themselves their choices can have a large impact on their futures 3 ContinuityDiscontinuity Continuous development changes with age occur gradually Discontinuous development age related changes include occasional large shifts Stage theories propose that development occurs the progression of age related qualitative shifts Conservation task task where children have to determine the amount of liquid in different size glasses younger children don t understand the concept that they glasses have the same amount of liquid while older children do Depending on how its viewed changes in height can be viewed as continuous or discontinuous Examining height at yearly intervals from birth to 18 years of age makes growth look gradual and continuous Examining the increases in height from one year to the next makes growth look discontinuous 4 Mechanisms of Developmental Change In general interaction of genes amp environment determines both what amp when changes occur eg One mechanism involves the role of brain activity genes amp learning experiences in the development of effortful attention Limbic system anterior cingulate regulate emotions amp settingmanaging goals respectively Delay gratification eg marshmallow test What role do genes amp learning experiences play in in uencing this mechanism or effortful attention Genes in uence production of neurotransmitters amp variations in these genes are associated with performance on tasks of effortful attention Children s experiences can also change the wiring of the brain system that produces effortful attention 5 Sociocultural Context Sociocultural context refers to the physical social cultural economic amp historical circumstances that make up a child s environment Contexts of development differ within and between cultures Development in uenced by ethnicity race and socioeconomic status The socioeconomic contexts exerts a particularly large in uence on a child s life Table 12 Children Living Below the Poverty Line Children from poor families tend to do less well 0 Increased rates of health problems 0 Increased socio emotional behavioral problems in kids 0 Increased drop out rates and teen pregnancy 6 Individual Differences Differences among kids arise very quickly in development Children s genes treatment by other people their subjective reactions to others treatment and choice of environments all contribute to differences among children even those within the same family 7 Research and Children s Welfare Child development research yields practical benefits in diagnosing children s problems amp in helping children to overcome them eg Research method of preferential looking helps in the diagnosis of cataracts in infants as young as 2 months old The Scientific Method 4 Steps to Testing Beliefs that involves 1 Choosing a Question 2 Formulating a Hypothesis 3 Testing Hypothesis 4 Drawing a Conclusion Importance of appropriate measure Relevance to hypothesis Reliability Validity Reliability degree to which measurements of a given behavior are consistent Interrater reliability amount of agreement in observation of different raters who witness the same behavior Testretest reliability when measures of performance are similar on 2 more occasions Validity the degree to which a test or experiment measures what it s intended to measure Internal validity degree to which effects observed within experiments can be attributed to variables that the researcher has manipulated External validity degree to which results can be generalized beyond the findings of the particular experiment or test Contexts for gathering Data about Children Interviews Structured Procedure where all participants are asked the same questions eg asking college students about their studying habits how many hours a day do they study where do they study their studying techniques Clinical Procedure where questions are adjusted in accord with answers participants provide Caveat Sometimes people want to give the answer that they think is quotrightquot to present themselves in a better light can give researcher false information Naturalistic Observation Used when primary goal of research is to describe how kids behave in their usual environment Limitations 1 Many behaviors only occur occasionally on an everyday basis 2 Behaviors vary on many dimensions difficult to determine the in uence of a particular behavior Structured Observation Presenting similar situations to kids amp recording each kid s behavior enabling direct comparisons of different kids behavior making it possible to establish generalizations of behavior across varying tasks Limitations 1 Doesn t give extensive information a child s individual experience similar to interviews 2 Doesn t give openended everyday data found in naturalistic observations Correlation and Causation The main goal of studies that use correlational designs is to determine how variables are related to one another Correlation association between 2 variables The direction amp strength of a correlation is a statistic known as the correlation coefficient CHAPTER 2 Conception Correlation coefficient can be from 10 to 10 weakest to strongest Correlation DOES NOT EQUAL causation Direction of causation problem It s not possible to tell from correlation which variable is the cause and which is the effect eg hours spent studying and grade achievement we do not know whether or not good grades causes students to study more or if studying more causes students to get good grades Third variable problem Correlation between 2 variables may arise from both being in uenced by a 3rd unknown variable Experimental Designs Allows inferences about causes and effects Rely on random assignment a procedure in which a child has an equal chance of being assigned to any group within an experiment eg ipping a coin Experimental control the ability of the researcher to determine the specific experiences that children have during the experiment 0 Children in the experimental group receive an experience of interest the independent variable 0 Those in the control group don t receive the independent variable 0 The dependent variable is a behavior that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable Conception the union of sperm and egg Process Sperm travels from vagina up through the uterus to the fallopian tubes sperm goes through the outer membrane of the egg chemicals prevent other sperm from entering the egg tail of sperm falls off amp nuclei of sperm and egg join creating a zygote a fertilized egg 4 Major Developmental Processes 1 Cell division Zygote divides into 2 cells then into 4 then into 8 and so on over the course of 38 weeks 2 Cell migration movement of newly formed cells to their point of origin in the embryo or somewhere else 3 Differentiation Embryonic cells stem cells begin to specialize in their function amp structure 4 Cell Death Apoptosis Genetically programmed cell death eg the formation of fingers depends on cells in between the ridges of hands dying Periods of Prenatal Development 3 Periods 1 Germinal Conception 2 weeks begins with conception amp ends when zygote moves to the uterus cell division occurs at this stage 2 Embryonic 3rd 8th week all 4 developmental processes occur at this period development of organs and body systems begins 3 Fetal 9th week birth Development of fetus continues increased level of senses behavior and learning 1 Fetal Experience Sensory structures are present relatively early in prenatal development amp play a vital role in fetal development and learning Visual experience is negligible Fetal experiences tactile stimulation as a result of their own activity eg moving around in the womb 2 Fetal Learning At 32 weeks the fetus decreases responses to repeated or continued stimulation a simple form of learning called habituation Increase stimuli decrease response Newborns have been shown to recognize rhymes amp stories presented before birth prefer them to other stories Newborns also prefer smells tastes and sound patterns that are familiar because of prenatal exposure 3 Hazards to Prenatal Development So far the focus has been on the normal course of prenatal development but sometimes there are hazards that occur during prenatal development Miscarriages About 45 of conceptions results in miscarriages and about 1520 of pregnancies of which women are aware are miscarried Majority of embryos that miscarry early have severe defects Environmental In uences Teratogens are environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development Timing is a crucial factor in the severity of the effects of teratogens o Sensitive period 0 Dose dependence how much is consumed how regularly Legal Drugs Cigarettes Cigarettes during pregnancy is linked to stunted growth amp low birth weight 0 SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Legal Drugs Alcohol Maternal alcoholism can lead to FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome which is associated with mental retardation facial deformity and other problems Maternal Factors Age nutrition disease amp emotional state of the mom have an impact on prenatal development 0 Mothers 15 years old and younger infants 3 to 4 times more likely to die before age 1 than moms 2329 years old 0 lack of specific nutrients of vitamins like folic acid can have dramatic consequences 0 STD s present hazards to the fetus o A woman s emotional state can impact the fetus as well Thalidomide During the 1960s many pregnant took the drug thalidomide to relieve morning sickness Some of these women took this drug during their 2nd month of pregnancy The 2nd month of development is usually when arms begin to develop As a result this negatively impacted the development of the fetus leaving children with underdeveloped arms This tragedy provides evidence for the significance of timing amp how environmental factors can impact development CHAPTER 3 Nature and Nurture Both hereditary and environmental in uence individuals characteristics When scientists first investigated contributions of heredity and environment they generally emphasized one factor or the other as the prime in uence Recent efforts to map the human genome established people differ from one another by only 115 of their genes Three Key Elements of the Model Genotype genetic material of a person their DNA Phenotype observablephysical expression of the genotype including body traits and behavior Environment includes every aspect of the person amp their surroundings other than their genes Four Fundamental Relations Parent39s Genotype Child39s Child39s Environment Genotype Child39s Phenotype 1 Parent s genetic contribution to the child s genotype Genetic material is passed on as chromosomes molecules made up of DNA Carry all of the biochemical instructions involved in the formation amp functioning of an organism Genes sections of chromosomes that are the basic units of heredity for all living things 2 Contributions of the child s genotype t 0 his or her own phenotype Although every cell in the body contains copies of all the genes you received from your parents only some of those genes are expressed Why Regulator genes largely control the continuous switching on amp off of genes that underlie development across the lifespan o A given gene in uences development amp behavior only when it s turned on eg regulator genes as the superintendent of a building Gene Expression About 13 of human genes have 2 or more different forms known as alleles The dominant allele is the form of the gene that is expressed if present eg B big B The recessive allele is the form of the gene that is not expressed if a dominant allele is present eg b little b A person who inherits 2 of the same alleles for a trait is described as homozygous eg BB or bb A person who inherits 2 different alleles for a trait is described as heterozygous eg Bb Genetic Transmission of Diseases Over 500 human diseases amp disorders are presently known to have genetic origins Recessive gene PKU Chromosome 12 sickle cell anemia the presence of hemoglobin S Tay Sachs disease Chromosome 15 cystic fibrosis both parents are carriers for the disease parents are heterozygous for disease Single dominant gene Huntington s disease neurofibromatosis 1 parent is the carrier Polygenic inheritance Cancer asthma heart disease autism many genes cause this psychiatric disorders Sex linked inheritance male pattern baldness red green colorblindness 1 in 10 men hemophilia clotting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy fragile X syndrome FMRI Chromosomal anomalies Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 Kleinfelter s XXY Turner Syndrome X0 3 Contribution of the child s environment to his or her own phenotype As the model indicates the child s observable traits results form the interaction of kids environment and genes PKU Kids with phenylketonuria PKU a disorder that s related to a defective gene on chromosome 12 are unable to metabolize phenylalanine With early diagnosis amp a restricted diet children can grow up without any problems However mental retardation can occur if not treated 4 In uence of the child s phenotype on his or her environment Children are active creators of the environment in which they live Parts of a Neuron Neuron specialized cells that are the basic unit of the brain s information system Cell body component of the neuron that contains the basic biological material that keeps the neuron functioning Dendrites conduct impulses towards the cell body Axon long shaft that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body Glial Cells Form myelin sheath provide support and protection for neurons Cells in the brain that provide a variety of critical supportive functions Play a role in communication within the brain In uence the formation amp strengthening of synapses Cerebral Lateralization The cortex is divided into 2 separate halves called cerebral hemispheres which communicate through the corpus callosum The 2 hemispheres are specialized for different modes of processing a phenomenon called cerebral lateralization Neurogenesis The birth of neurons neurons generated from stem cells most active during prenatal development Synaptogenesis amp Synaptic Pruning Formation of synapses between neurons in the nervous system Synaptic Pruning Process of synapse elimination that occurs between early childhood amp puberty Plasticity Process when neural synapses are altered due to changes in the environment behavior and neural changes Lobs of the Brain Temporal Memory processing of emotion amp auditory information Occipital Visual information Parietal Spatial processing amp integrates sensory input with information in memory Frontal Planning amp executive function organizes behavior CHAPTER 5 Seeing Thinking amp Doing In Infancy Perception Sensation refers to the processing of basic information from the external world by sensory receptors in sense organs amp brains passive Perception process of organizing amp interpreting sensory information about objects events amp spatial layout of the world active Both events happen unconsciously Vision Research methods for studying infants vision Preferential looking technique amp habituation Preferential looking Show infants 2 patterns at the same time amp show their preference parent is blindfolded look at what pattern kid looks at longer Visual Activity Born with poor visual acuity Approaches that of adults by age 8 months amp reaches full adult acuity by 6 years old Young infants prefer to look at patterns of high visual contrast because they have poor contrast sensitivity ability to detect differences in light and dark areas In addition very young infants have limited color vision although by 23 months their color vision is similar to that of adults Infants would rather look at something than look at nothing Visual Scanning Scanning 1 month olds a scan the perimeters of shapes 2 month olds b scan both the perimeters amp interiors of shapes Tracking Although infants begin scanning the environment right away they can t track even slowly moving objects smoothly until 23 months Faces From birth infants are drawn to faces because of a general bias toward configurations with more elements in the upper half than the lower half of the face From paying attention to real faces infants begin to prefer the faces of their mother over other individuals Understanding of different facial expressions Infants look longer at faces that adults find more attractive than those adults rate as less attractive amp interact more positively with people with attractive faces Same or Different As adults you no doubt can tell the 2 men apart easily but you may still not be sure whether 2 monkeys are different or not Why These skills of differentiation are not necessary fro survival Pattern Perception Pattern Perception Subjective contour Infants can also perceive coherence among moving elements Object Perception Perceptual constancy perception of objects as being of constant size shape color etc in spite of physical differences in retinal image of the object Summary of Vision Acuity not great at birth but develops quickly Color vision around 23 months Infants scan the periphery initially amp then look at the inner features Infants have a preference for faces and facial configuration Infants can discriminate faces and non faces very early on Other perception tolls fro vision develop early the ability to perceive patterns objects and depth Auditory Perception Although the human auditory system is relatively well developed at birth hearing does not approach adult levels until age 5 or 6 Newborns turn towards a sound a phenomenon called auditory localization Infants are remarkably proficient in perceiving subtle differences in human speech Music Perception Recent research evidence suggests a biological foundation for music perception Infants share the strong preferences adults have for some musical sounds over others Infants also respond to rhythm in music amp are sensitive to melody showing habituation to the same tune regardless of pitch eg Baby dancing to Beyonc Taste amp Smell Sensitivity to taste amp smell develops before birth Newborns have an innate preference for sweet avors Newborns prefer the smell of breast milk amp by 2 weeks appear to able to differentiate the scent of their own mothers than other women Touch Infants learn about the environment through active touch Oral exploration dominates for the 1St few months Around 4 months infants gain greater control over their hands amp arm movements amp gradually takes preference over oral exploration eg stop putting everything in their mouth Intermodal Perception Combining of information from 2 or more senses is present from very early on in life Very young infants link sight amp sound oral amp visual experience amp visual amp tactile experience Eg Guy s mouth close your eyes hear 1 sound watch video and listen hear 2 sounds Sight and Sound Findings Video of baby watching lady when woman smiled and made a happy voice the baby smiled when the woman looked sad amp sounded sad the baby began to frown 4 months can integrate sight amp sound Wide range of phenomena 0 Emotion Facial expressions with voice 0 Gender Male voice with male face 0 Speech Sounds Vocal sounds with mouth movements 0 Speech Synchrony Soundtrack with mouth movements 0 Number Items in a display with a number of drumbeats Sight and Touch Babies suck on a smooth or bumpy pacifier without seeing the pacifier Show baby a picture of a bumpy or smooth pacifier 1 month olds even newborns can integrate looking amp touch correspond eg babies that had a smooth pacifier looked at the photo of the smooth pacifier amp visa versa Sight amp Proprioception Imitation at birth newborns can make their own facial expressions match another persons Motor Development Re exes Newborns demonstrate re exes innate fixed patterns of action that occur in response to particular stimulation Current Views on Motor Development Previously believed to be an element of neurological maturity Current theories however often take a dynamicsystems approach Illustrating the Dynamic Systems View Research by Esther Thelen amp colleagues examined the stepping re ex The infants performance of stepping movements when the baby is held under the arms amp feet touch a surface Thelen performed 2 tests to hypothesize that increases in infants weight made it impossible to execute stepping motions Hence movement pattern amp neural basis remain but is masked by the ratio of leg weight to strength


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