Notes for Quiz 1
Notes for Quiz 1 Hist 101
Popular in Western Civilization I
Jasmene Monique Ramirez
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Popular in History
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jasmene Monique Ramirez on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Professor Davis-Secord in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization I in History at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Study Guide for Quiz 1 Extensive note format Neolithic 90004500 BCE Neolithic Revolution a period when agriculture was perfected by early people and animals were domesticated which allowed for large scale settlements and development of specialization by some people into elds other than agriculture This also helped to generate a greater sense of hierarchy and developed a gendered division of labor which was also a response to the conditions and technology of the time Other characteristics of the Neolithic included the rise in technology such as the pottery wheel and grindstones Jericho was the earliest settlement example The dead were buried beneath their homes Catal Huyuk 685055008CE Est population 5000 Rectangular dwellings Cooking hearths Ovens running off charcoal Plastered and painted walls Dead also buried beneath oors Items like knives beads shells and shing hooks found Potters wheel evident Representational art debate of whether it is a motherfertility goddess or evidence of a matriarchal system Clay animal stamps Eridu ubiad culture Temples built on platforms rebuilt 13 times Temple has central room and platforms for offerings and godgoddess gurines Pastoralists are a type of people who are primarily nomadic herders Much of their time was taken up by migrating animals around in search of grazing land Mesopoptamia First cities arose 400023SOBCE Masters of irrigation City state arrangement Communities were independent and competing for land and resources Uruk 40003100 BCE Writing state govt rise of cities Representational art Lions popular in art Differences between cities and villages in Mesopotamia Political organization kings taxes authority over masses Military power Slavery Divine right of kings to rule Forti ed walls evidence of advanced builders Trade networks and social organization including class division Advanced organized religion and monumental public buildings Uruk rough beveled rim bowls found in ruins Evidence of centralized grain distribution Cylinder seals also found at the site Clay token system of record keeping which eventually evolved into cuneiform style of writing on clay tablets City of Sumer Origins of language a mystery 12 city states 2 dominant groups Religious of cials who controlled the temples and ruling families that controlled large farms and groups of laborers Slavery was prominent in Sumer Slavery resulted from being a prisoner of war being born a slave selling self or children as a means of paying debts being sold by creditors if debts couldn t be paid etc Slaves had NO legal rights and little chance of freedom The Sumerian economic system was a redistributive economy meaning state of cials controlled the production and distribution of goods such as grain Cunieform was writing form Sumerian gods were humanlike Gods and Goddesses Gods were called the Annunaki Humanlike motivations and emotions Early dynastic Sumer 30002350 BCE First historical documents arose in this period Royal tombs at Ur reveal great burial riches and the retinue group of servants and others working closely with the king were often sacri ced joining their leader in death Bronze Age note that bronze was a copper tin alloy 40001000 BCE Bronze was the metal used in weapons and tools at the time Presence of metals in the elite and ruling family made it a status symbol Akkadians 23502160 BCE Created rst empire to obtain access to metal and ore mines Adopted cuneiform and many of the Sumerian gods and cultural elements of Sumer including the epic of Gilgamesh Sargon name meaning true king or legitimate king one of the leaders of Akkad led the conquest of Sumer Ebla in Syria was conquered by Sargon s grandson Naram Sin Naram Sin attributed divinity status to self Ordered huge building projects and united more cities under his command Akkadians were overthrown by Sumerian Ur lll dynasty Ur lll rulers created a centralized economy published the earliest recorded law code and enacted the divine right to rule Kingdom of Ur 21002000 BCE Ruled by UrNammu lord of Ur king of Sumer and Akkad Built Ziggurats and tombs Son of UrNammu Shulgi completed the great Ziggurat Claims divine status as well Hymns discovered were devoted to him Created uni ed administration of Sumer and Akkad Governors resided in cities All reported to him Shulgi increased the number of scribes to take care of the paperwork Standardized calendar and standardized weights and measures system established under his administration Amorites took over empire under Shulgi s grandson s reign lsinLarsa period 20001800 Ur sacked by the Elomites City destroyed and plundered 2 city states competing for dominance Breakup of centralized power Importing copper lapis lazuli gold pearls ivory Exported textiles barley silver and oil Family trade networks and outposts established Caravans sent back and forth Ba bylonians Hammurabi captures lands and spends 20 years conquering and building temples and creating a centralized government Captures what was once Sumer and Akkad and all towns along Euphrates and north of Euphrates and Tigris Also took tribal groups like Amorites and Elomites Hammurabi was devoted to the God Marduk patron of Babylon Marduk seen as supreme God and justi es divine right via order of god to rule Known for the creation of Hammurabi s code which consisted of an eye for an eye justice system However severity of punishment differed depending on the status of both defendant and plaintiff For example if you caused a miscarriage in a woman of the middle class you would pay a given amount of money If the woman was a slave the ne would be of lesser value How exactly it worked or was put into practice was a mystery Babylon destroyed by the Hittites in 1595 BCE Egypt REMEMBER Southern Egypt was called Upper Egypt and Norther Egypt was Lower Egypt Predynastic period Fayuum culture was the rst agrarian culture in the area of mid to lower Egypt Animals domesticated and community storage of food took place Fishing too Pottery not yet evident Badarian culture upper Egypt rst Neolithic pottery Simple pit burial Burried with grave goods Agrarian basis shing Long distance trade Naqada upper Egypt moving north Single burials Again unintentional mummi cation Decoration of pottery becoming evident Nile is the central gure End of this period mummi cation attempts Clear long distance trade Early dynastic period King Namer or Menes same person but name differs depending on the text you read united upper and lower Egypt Depicted wearing white crown of lower Egypt and ghting foes suggesting military conquest Eventually seen wearing red crown of upper Egypt Memphis was the rst capital of Egypt Administrative capital In the south in Abydus was the religious capital King technically owns everything during this time Known as a Godking Pyramids were constructed to demonstrate the immense wealth authority and religious importance of the pharaoh Old kingdom 26862160 BCE Kings of old kingdom were as follows Sneferu Khufu Khafra Menkaura Notice the last two added ra to the end of their names This is to associate self with Ra Sun temple worship becomes prevalent People believe kings are gods Must be kept happy to protect from invaders and ensure the ooding of the Nile People would even pray to dead kings for maintenance of living welfare of the state 700 miles of agricultural land concentrated closely along the Nile river Surrounding desert of Egypt offered natural protection to the kingdom and valuable ores Maat the goddess of order and harmony Egyptian society praised this principle Pharaohs were responsible for maintaining Maat in the kingdom The Great pyramid of Khufu was constructed during this time by Khufu also known as Cheops Burial chamber was inside and not under the pyramid 3 small pyramids by his held his queens Khafra s pyramid had an impressive gangway Also had the Great sphinx constructed to guard the entryway Menkaura s was the small pyramid Solar boats were put in the pyramids to carry kings to the afterlife The wood comes from what is now Lebanon in the Levant Statuary also became common in the old kingdom Intermediary period 1 Egypt split into two provinces Capitals were Thebes and Herakanopolis Middle New kingdoms 20611081 BCE Middle kingdom spanned 21902061 BCE The middle kingdom restored this centralized government Shabti gures created during this time Middle kingdom government however collapsed when it was too weak to control foreigners known as the Hyskos during the reign of Komose at Thebes New kingdom 15691081 BCE Centralized government restored once again when Ahmose expelled the Hyksos Organized a standing army Wars were waged to cement trade networks Ahmose took his son Amenhotep l to rule as coregent before his death to ensure a smooth transition of power Marital patterns in the new kingdom were as follows You never wanted to marry family females out to other rulers Rise of sister wives occurred as a result in which kings married their sisters Women gained status and titles through this arrangement Became high priestesses and queen Women considered wife of Amun as well as the wife of the king Hatshepsut was the sister wife who took the throne and ruled on the behalf of her stepson who was too young to rule She was the queen regent Eventually dispensed with regency and became total queen Ruled for 20 years as king in this fashion Economic prosperity and supreme peace with neighbors occurred during her reign Great stability period Someone it seems tried to erase all memory of her by destroying statues of her and her monuments Thutmose lll led trade expeditions and conquest into the levant Syria Lebanon Mesopotamia Spent 17 years performing this function Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and was an unconventional ruler of Egypt He pushed the idea that Aten a sun god was the only god and seeks to wipe out the traditional pantheon of gods by outlawing worship of them The worship of Aten was different from the traditional worship of Egyptian Gods Worshiping Aten was an attempt at monotheism and Aten was seen as a transcendent and personal God who in exchange for worship provided peace and prosperity The people and clergy however rebelled against this system and accused Akhenaten of attempting to reacquire all land given to the clergy by claiming a monotheistic system Ahkenaten was married to queen Nefrititi and he and his wife appeared to engage in naturalistic self depiction in art Tutankhamen was the son of Akhenaten He attempted to reverse all changes his father made Ascended to the throne as a child Led trade mission to Syria Tries to heal internal relations and is known as the best preserved mummy whose tomb was one of the few that was never raided His burial chamber is in Thebes One of his military commanders took over in his stead and ushered in the 19th dynasty Late Bronze Age 15001200 BCE lndo Europeans resided in the East Hittites in central Anatolia and the Mitanni in Syria Mitanni arrived around 1550 BCE Became powerful as a result of the invention of a horse drawn chariot Successful in battle against the Egyptians and Hittites However they were eventually conquered by a joint Hittite and Egypt force But after the conquest of the Mittani the Hittites and Egyptians began ghting Battle of Kadesh Hittites The Hittite people were most powerful in Anatolia in 1750 BCE Hittites were the enemies of Egypt turned allies 16 years after the battle of Kadesh To secure the peace the Hittite leader gave one of his daughters in marriage to an Egyptian leader Minoans The Minoans resided on Crete and had a palace society in which large buildings housed rulers servants and people of religious and administrative importance These also existed as independent city states Lack of forti cations in existing ruins suggests the Minoans were a peaceful people who were seafaring and engaged in trade with Egypt and the levant The palace at Knossos suggests a great degree of wealth and power Bull worship was also apparent in this society and Linear A was their writing system The language is not greek or indo European and still has yet to be deciphered The Minoans also had a Mediterranean polyculture cultivation of olives grapes and grains in a single interrelated agricultural system This system increased the wealth health and agricultural diversity of the culture The Minoans also had a redistributive economic system Mycenaeans The mycenaeans were a warlike people residing on mainland Greece They dominated farmers conducted naval raids etc They eventually took over the Minoan trade routes and eventually Crete and adopted some light bull worship themselves They were also detailed record keepers that engaged in elaborate trade They wrote in Linear B which was a pictographic script They were more warlike than religious This was evidenced by graves found in which people were buried with their war equipment Mycenaeans Minoans and Hittites disappeared as a result of a clash with people known only as the sea peoples Iron Age Cultures Developments of the iron age include the production of iron tools the rst monetary system an alphabet and the advent of monotheism Phonecians of the Northern Levantine Coast Settled in the Levant They were a seafaring trading empire Could travel long distances Settlements as far as southeastern lberian peninsula and north morocco to the levant Famous for purple dyes and trade in timber and metal goods 22 letter alphabet No vowel symbols Read right to left Philistines of Southern Levantine coast Defeated by Ramses lll Settled in Gaza strip and modern lsrael Cities ruled independently but can come together in times of warfare Enemies of the Hebrew Had large hearth altars and advanced architecture monopolies on iron smelting and trade in iron tools The acquisition of iron technology gave them an edge over the Hebrew who still possessed only bronze weapons Hebrew Kingdoms of Israel and Judah The Hebrews were semi nomadic 18OOBCE settled near the phoenecians The people altered between being nomadic and settling They had an organized tribal structure hierarchy The Hebrews were eventually enslaved by the Egyptians until Moses brings them back to Cannan and they attempt to reconquer this region from the philistines The Hebrews eventually divided into two separate kingdoms Judah in the south and the kingdom of Israel in the North Tribes ruled initially by judges but united under king Saul 1025 1000BCE The capital of the new kingdom was atJerusaIem Saul was later usurped by King David Under King david Hebrew control was expanded down to the tigris and Euphrates He built up Jerusalem as a religious and administrative center King Solomon came after king David ruling from 973937 BCE The temple at Jerusalem was considered the center of religious worship It was the place in which the ark of the covenant containing the tablets with the ten commandments were stored The Babylonians took the Hebrews into Babylonian captivity but the Hebrews maintained their faith and continued to worship Yaweh despite the loss of their temple ark and commandment tablets Their faith did not depend on the presence of temples A second temple ofJerusalem was rebuilt under king Herod After Solomon s death the kingdom had broken up into two kingdoms once again Judah was destroyed however in 586 BCE The Hebrews eventually switched from monolatry worship of 1 god over other gods that may exist to monotheism rm belief in only one god and all others are false Yaweh was the God of the Hebrews and like Aten was a personal individualist God who wants and expects everything from his followers that was expected during religious worship Lydian Kingdom 1200546 BCE Resided in the former Hittite area of Asia minor Sardis was the capital and it was one of the wealthiest of iron age cultures They had control over land trade routes and became wealthy as mediators Electum was a metal they had in abundance which was a gold and silver alloy The rst coinage system developed here under the denomination called the stater Pure gold was worth more than electrum The monetary system spread as a good pay and trade medium The Lydians were destroyed in 546 under king Croesus by Persian king Cyrus the Great Revival of Empires in Mesopotamia Assyrian empire 1300612 BCE Started in the city of Ashar in Northern Mesopotamia and united under Assurnasirpall II and son Shalmaneser lll after him Conquest and construction of monumental structues begins Uder TigathPileser Ill and Sargon ll further expansion and conquering of the Levant North Hebrew capital was captured at the end of the 7th century Sargon ll successor conquers Egypt His name was Asurnasurpol Nabopolassar usurps this empire and creates the neobabylonian empire Rises up in Babylon in Southern Mesopotamia and spends the next ten years establishing power Then unites with the Medes of Iran and rise up and march on Assyrian empire Under Nebuchadnezzar ll Jerusalem is destroyed So is the temple of Solomon and the Hebrews are enslaved Nabonidus is the successor of Nebuchadnezzar The neo Babylonian empire takes over the same territory of the assyrians except Egypt They constructed hanging hardens elaborate gates and create major centers of learning Persians lndo European people Come from eastern side of the Persian gulf Cyrus establishes self as ruler and unites tribes such as the medes and then usurps Babylonian empirek Becomes its ruler and then ditches the medes people Takes over the same area as the Assyrians and Babylonians Cyrus the great takes over the lydians as well and ends up with a bigger empire than the assyrians and Babylonians Egypt is conquered by Cambyses Darius and Xerxes create an empire organized in satrapies or provinces called satraps Standardized weights and measures and coinage called a daric Taxation in coinage Established road and communications systems Allowed for coherence of administration First to employ extensive roadways Note that Cyrus the great allowed the Hebrews to be a tributary state Relative freedom but taxation required Under Xerxes battle of Marathon against greeks occurred Greeks win despite small numbers and less power Zoroastrianism was religion of the Persians It was monotheistic under the God AhuraMazda which means wise lord Dualistic religion meaning that Ahuramazda was the ultimate good Transcendent and embodies all that is positive Ahriman is his equal in power and is god of all evil Eternal cosmic struggle Priests were called the Magi They believed AhuraMazda would win the cosmic struggle during end times in an apocalyptic struggle It would be the end of everything but all souls would be allowed into heaven upon victory AhuraMazda was a personal god as well who set forth ethical and behavioral requirements Required personal heartfelt devotion People worshiped in the presence of re Greeks Progression from Paleolithic to Neolithic to bronze age Civilizations included indo Europeans Minoans and the mycenaeans which all ended in a dark age due to the sea peoples Archaic Greece saw the resurgence of art writing etc Geometric and decorated pottery found Greek colonies of the dark ages were in Anatolia Greece Italy and east Spain and northeast Africa Despite distance still considered selves greek Little differences or changed perception in identity Broad greek identitiy was called panhellenism and consisted of the following characteristics Belief in 12 gods who were anthropomorphic in perception and humanlike in appearance and motivations but could take on different forms could mate with humans and produced demigods as offspring Olympia and Mt Olympus were important to the gods Gods are not transcendent or infalliable Games were very important in greek culture particularly the Olympics Funerals however tended to accompany these games Panhelenic festivals such as the sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia pythian games at the temple of Delphi lsmithian games at Poseidon s sanctuary and nemean games at the sanctuary of zeus The winners of such games brought honor to their city state and were treated well by the state Training for these games was important to the greeks and became the centerpiece of greek education for boys The temple of Delphi drew people from everywhere Tribute was brought in exchange for prophecy Pythia prophetess becomes drunk and high from wine narcotic leaves and gases coming from a crack in the earth over which her chair sat She was asked about essentially anything and would provide an answer in the form of an enigmatic poetic riddle which was open to interpretation Believed answers came from Apollo Language also unites the pan Hellenic greeks Same language in both writing and speaking Adopted the Phoenician alphabet Adapted it to their needs Written on scrolls and read from left to right Homer was a writer who transcribed oral epics handed down between performers and became central texts of Greece llliad and Odessy were set in bronze age Greece which was seen as the golden age of heroes Polis City state which contains an acropolis and agora Each city state was rule d independently The acropolis is the high point and focus of religion Temple was devoted to a patron god or goddess The agora was a public space at the bottom of the hill where festivals games theatre markets administration and public forums were held Focus of public life War and Democracy in Athens 480404 BCE Battles Marathon Greeks decimate Persians Termopylae Persians win Athenians ee Athens Salamis Athenian eet overcomes Persian navy Persians retreat Pataea Final major greek Persian battle Persians lose and are kicked out of Greece Athenians return to a destroyed Athens and rebuild the city Athens becomes known for its navy and seaborne trade Athena was the patron goddess and was the goddess of the intelligent and orderly side of war Archaic Athens Rose to prominence due to being a port city Ruled by aristoi one group of elite Aristoi considered self to be superior Aristocracy Worked as magistrates or archons Ruled as they pleased Self serving Athenians feared tyranny Tyrant is a completely self serving ruler Common good neglected under tyrants 620 Dracon becomes an archon and sets up strict draconian laws Solon the law giverquot 594 elected as sole archon Anti tyranny laws and land laws established Declared all Athenian citizens free Athenians could not be slaves Two Athenian citizen parents were required to be considered an Athenian Change the assembly of citizens to allow all citizens to vote on who becomes archon From Aristocracy to Democracy in Athens Athens falls into tyranny Relatively kind ruler but sons parkas and hippias are not They take over and hippias prevails Coup occurs against hippias and he is exiled by a noble family Cleisthenese belongs to the coup family and changes the constitution of Athens Gave citizens right to vote on laws Start of true democracy The rowers of the boats of the battle of salamis demand say in government Become major advocates for democracy Archon Themistocles was the mouthpiece for the rowers and was the leader of the naval forces The word democracy comes from the word demos meaning people and kratos meaning power Ostracism was practiced by the Athenians to eliminate threats of tyranny Vote on kicking out people seen as being a threat to democracy by acquiring too much power Thermistoclese was ostracized by vote however today the integrity of the vote was questioned Constitution of Athens Attributed to Aristotle 325 BCE Legislative branch was ekklesia and Boule who vote on archons Administrative branch consisted of 9 archons and strategos general Judicial branch had law courts and juries Athenians after Battle of Salamis 1 Delian League Group of city states as allies pay Athens for protection Used fear of Persians as justi cation City states cannot bow out Begins to appear as an empire Garrisons placed in other city states to enforce payment 2 Straegos Pericles ruled and introduced pay for poorer citizens to engage in public service Sets treaty with Persians 3 Peloponnesian wars other city states unhappy with Athens for refusal to allow Delian league members to leave the league Opposition lead by Sparta Revolt against Athenians 429 BCE an epidemic kills many Athenians Pericles dies Athens sets up an oligarchy after Pericles death Small group rules 409 democracy restored Wars end when Athens and Sparta reach stalemate Sparta then buys a eet from Persians Athens defeated Oligarchy s installed y Spartans in all Delian league city states 30 tyrants destroy democracy 401 Democracy restored Sparta begins to act exactly as the Delian league did Less popular than the Athenians Worship typically occurred outside the temples Slave labor economy Slaves dehumanized Symposium dinner party for adult males Drink wine eat food have sexual relations with female slaves or young males Philosophy and poetry shadng Free women could only be involved in child rearing weaving and priestess work
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