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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabby Duray on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to APK3110c at Florida State University taught by Dr. Robert Moffatt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 159 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
APK3110 Exam 1 Study Guide 0 What is ATP How does it function How is ATP formed What is the role of PCr in the formation of ATP 0 O 0 ATP is adenosine tri phosphate it is the biochemical way to store and use energy The potential energy within ATP powers all of the cell s energy requiring processes ATP is adenine and ribose bound to three phosphates There is a lot of energy stored in the bond between the 2nCI and 3rd phosphate groups that can be used to fuel chemical reactions When a cell needs energy it breaks this bond to form adenosine diphosphate ADP and a free phosphate molecule In some instances the second phosphate group can also be broken to form adenosine monophosphate AMP When a cell has excess energy it stores this energy by forming ATP from ADP and phosphate Two major energy transforming activities related to ATP Extract potential energy from food and conserve it within the bonds of ATP Extract and transfer the chemical energy in ATP to power biologic work 0 ATP transfers its energy to other compounds to raise them to a higher activation level ATP serves as the ideal energy transfer agent How ATP is formed with ATPase ATP synthase is ATPase used in ETC Protons enter Fo portion of ATPase As protons reach the F1 component one alphabeta subunit pair synthesizes ATP while another releases ATP Another cycle of ATP synthesis is initiated by proton entry through the F0 component of the ATPase f ADP levels drop in the mitochondrial matrix ATP synthesis cannot continue Also mitochondrial ATP must leave the matrix and enter the cytoplasm Transporters are required for this process Transporters allow ATPADP and PiOH exchange across the membrane Now that ADP is again present in the matrix ATP synthesis resumes The cycle keeps repeating with newly synthesized ATP leaving the mitochondrial matrix and ADP entering Pi also enters the matrix for ATP synthesis in exchange for hydroxyl ions 0 ATP comes from three different biochemical systems in the muscle in this order Phosphagen system A muscle cell has some amount of ATP oating around that it can use immediately but not a lot it only last for about 3 seconds To replenish ATP levels quickly muscle cells contain a high energy phosphate compound called creatine phosphate The phosphate group is removed from creatine phosphate by creatine kinase and is transferred to ADP to form ATP As creatine phosphate levels decrease we move onto next system Glycogen lactic acid system Muscles have glycogen which is a chain of glucose molecules A cell splits glycogen into glucose then the cell uses anaerobic metabolism to make ATP and a byproduct called lactic acid from the glucose Also known as glycolysis Aerobic respiration When oxygen in present and glucose can be completely broken down into carbon dioxide and water Glucose can come from three different places 0 Remaining glycogen in muscles 0 Breakdown of liver s glycogen into glucose 0 Absorption of glucose from food in the intestine Aerobic respiration can also use fatty acids from fat reserves in muscle and the body to produce ATP proteins can also be used in extreme cases and broken down into amino acids 0 Aerobic resp would use carbs then fats then proteins It produces ATP at the slowest rate but can continue to supply ATP for longer Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism 0 Aerobic metabolism refers to the energy generating cataboic reactions where oxygen serves as the nal electron acceptor in the respiratory chain to combine with hydrogen to form water It occurs in the mitochondria of the cell It is when pyruvate enters the mitochondria and is oxidized and turned into carbon dioxide and water krebs cycle Uses fat protein and carbohydrates and can continue inde nitely o Anaerobic metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm ATPPCr lactate forming glycolysis Pyruvate enters the cytoplasm and is turned to lactic acid through glycolysis Uses only carbohydrates and doesn t last long 0 Describe glycolysis o Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose a carbohydrate to either two molecules of pyruvate or two molecules of lactate o If the end product of glycolysis is lactate this is considered anaerobic glycolysis Oxygen is not needed and it is a faster process for forming ATP but does not last for a long time o If the end product of glycolysis is pyruvate the pyruvate proceeds on to the Krebs Cycle which is aerobic When pyruvate continues on to the Krebs cycle this is considered aerobic glycolysis where oxygen is needed and it is a slower process for forming ATP but lasts longer
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