Study Guide Ch. 1-4
Study Guide Ch. 1-4 S 316 - 001
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S 100 - 006
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessika Francis on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to S 316 - 001 at Ball State University taught by Michael John Tagler (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Social Psych 316 Study Guide 1w Chapter 1 Q Social Psychology is the study of A The real or imagined in uence of other people Q For social psychologists the likely explanation of the mass suicide at Jonestown was A Processes that could ensnare almost any healthy person Q In social psychology the level of analysis is A The individual in a social context Q The comment quotThe people who committed suicide at Jonestown were socially isolated and thus cut off from other points of view about their leaderquot illustrates the fundamental attribution error A False Q What do social psychology and personality psychology have in common A They both focus on the individual Q What do social psychology and sociology have in common A They both are concerned With group processes Q In social psychology why is construal so important A People 5 behavior is affected by their interpretation of events not only the events themselves Q What was the main contribution of Gestalt psychology to social psychology A It showed that the Whole is larger than the sum of its parts Q The need to feel good about ourselves and to feel our opinions are accurate is a motive that is central to how we construe the world A True Q To get people to change selfdestructive behavior social psychologists would be likely to A Get them to look at themselves in a more positive light and have them involved With society in a healthy way Chapter 2 Q What is the hindsight bias A The tendency for people to exaggerate after knowing that something occurred how much they could have predicted it before it occurred Q What does a strong negative correlation mean A Two variables are close in relation and one can determine the predictability of the other Q What does low internal validity mean A A serious aw in an experiment Where there are multiple circumstances besides the independent variable that is affecting the dependent variable Q Suzy wants to nd out whether eating vegetables before an exam leads to better performance on the exam Which of the following strategies would answer her question most conclusively A Wait for exam time in a big class give a random half of the student s carrots before the exam and see Whether the students Who ate carrots perform better Q Establishing external validity through replication means what A The results of one study can be generalized to other situations and to other people through repetitions of the study often With different subject populations or in different settings Ex A researcher conducts a study with participants who are college students The researcher then repeats the study using the same procedures but with members of the general population as participants the results are similar for both studies Q What is internal validity A Making sure that nothing besides the independent variable can affect the dependent variable this is accomplished by controlling all extraneous variables and by randomly assigning people to different experimental conditions Q When a psychologist joins a local commune to understand and observe its members39 social relationships it is called what A Ethnography Q The basic dilemma of the social psychologist is that A There is a tradeoff between internal and external validity in most experiments Q Social psychologists use functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to correlate different kinds of brain activity with social information processing A True Q What are 3 parts to the guidelines for ethical research A 1 When deception is used in a study participants must be fully debriefed All research is re vie wed by an IRB institutional re view board that consists of at least one scientist one nonscientist and one person unaf liated with the institution 3 A researcher receives informed consent from a participant unless deception is deemed necessary and the experiment meets ethical guidelines N Chapter 3 Q Summarize the research on automatic thinking A Automatic thinking is vital to human survival but it is not perfect and can produce mistaken judgments that have important consequences Q A man walks out of a store clutching a bag and the storeowner runs out shouting at the man two people experience this sight and assume two different things What is a good explanation for the two different interpretations of this event A Different schemas were accessible in each person s mind possibly ha ving different recent experiences that primed different schemas Q Although schemas can lead to errors they are a very useful way of organizing information about the world and lling in gaps in our knowledge A True Q Selfful lling prophecy is A An expectation of one s own or another person s behavior that comes true because of the tendency of the person holding it to act in ways that bring it about Ex Thinking you are going to fail a test and failing it Q When you can recall numerous times a person is either assertive or unassertive and then come to a consensus on whether they are or not this is an example of what A Heuristics Q Out of the following Using metaphors about the body to make judgments Counterfactual reasoning Acting according to goals that have been primed Selfful lling prophecies which requires the least amount of automatic thinking A Counterfactual reasoning Mentaly changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been Q All human being have the same cognitive quottoolsquot that they can use A True Q Research on controlled thinking and free will shows what A There is a disconnection between our conscious sense of how much we are causing our actions and how much we are really ca using our actions Q When wanting to get people to come to your table to help you raise money for research what would most likely increase the likelihood that passersby will donate A Spraying citrusscented cleaning solution on the table because people use physical sensations to prime a metaphor which can in uence people 5 judgments Q What is the best conclusion about social cognition A Whereas people are very sophisticated social thinkers who have amazing cognitive abilities there is also plenty of room for improvement Chapter 4 Q What is a major assumption of Kelley39s covariation model of attribution A People gather information to make casual attributions rationaly and logically Q What psychological phenomenon shows little cultural variation A Anger facial expressions Q Sitting in front of the class gains Sidney more participation points whether or not she actually participates Her positioning in front of the teacher could have an effect on how big of a role the teacher thinks Sidney has in discussion due to what A Perceptual salience Q The scenario that Mark39s rst impression of Lucy is a negative one and even though he comes to observe her displaying a variety of skills multiple times he remains convinced that she will never amount to very much illustrates the idea of what A Belief perse verance Q What is the fundamental attribution error A The tendency to overestimate the extent to Which other people 5 behavior is due to internal dispositiona factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors Q A student falls asleep during math class This student is the only one who falls asleep in this class and they fall asleep in all their other classes According to Kelley39s covariation theory of attribution how will people explain this behavior A It is due to something unusual about that person because their behavior is low in consensus low in distinctiveness and high in consistency Q Imagine that you are in Hong Kong reading the morning news and you notice a headline about a double murder that took place overnight A suspect is in custody What would be a likely accompany headline to the story A Dispute over Gambling Debt Ends in Murder Q Two people take tests and are given feedback and are told they did very well One being from China and the other from the US They are both asked to make attributions for their performance Based on cross cultural research on the selfserving bias you would expect that A The American only will say heshe succeeded due to their high ability Q quotMembers of collectivist cultures are more likely to go beyond dispositional explanations considering information about the situation as wellquot is a statement that best describes what A Cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error Q You39re an American college student who is dragging yourself to class early in the morning after pulling an all nighter You see a student slip and fall through your haze of exhaustion How are you most likely to interpret the cause of the student39s behavior A Given my cognitive capacity and cultural background I will likely assume that the student fell because he or she was clumsy
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