Animal Science 103
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Date Created: 09/09/14
ANSCI 103 Review Sheet for Examination 1 Lecture 1 Introduction 1 De ne agriculture domestication and Gross Domestic Product GDP Agriculture the practice of cultivating soil growing crops raising livestock or preparing and marketing the resulting products Domestication to adapt an animals behavior and traits to t the needsdesires of humans GDP the market value of all the goods and services produced by labor and property in the country 2 Summarize current trends in US Animal related Agriculture decreasing number of people involved in farming total number of farms number of animals increasing size of farms Lecture 2 Nutrition and Digestion 1 List and de ne the 6 major nutrients Water water in a feed or ration Rate of water loss impacted by activity temp humidity respiratory rate Carbs major energy source Simple carbs sugar in cereal grains Complex carbs starch Dietary ber cellulose roughages dif cult to digest Lipids Fats and Oils energy essential fatty acids easy to digest Proteins chains of amino acids Essential amino acids must be in diet animal can t make them Semi essential slowly produced by the animal Non essential produced by the animal Minerals elements other than CHNO make up components on bones teeth and other important parts of the body Macrominerals required in large amounts ex sodium calcium Microminerals required in small amounts ex copper iron Vitamins organic nutrients needed in very small amounts for speci c functions Fat soluble vitamins involved in regulation body functions and growth A D EK Water soluble vitamins used for body metabolic regulationC B complex 2 List and explain the major steps involved in ration formulation Animal species age weight stage and level of production nutrient requirements amount of dry matter energy crude protein minerals Feed identify feed components determine the nutrient composition of feed through feed analysis calculate the amount of feed to use Next look at cost then put in to place and see effect on animal 3 De ne eructation rumination chewing cud fermentation and bloat Eructation expulsion of gases through reticuloruminal contractions Rumination chewing cud Chewing Cud partially digested plant material that is regurgitated for further breakdown Fermentation the enzymatic breakdown of an energy rich compound in an anaerobic environment Bloating over distention of rumenreticulum 4 De ne carnivore omnivore herbivore monogastric hindgut fermenter foregut fermenter and ruminant Monogastric 1 simple stomach Hindgut fermenters fermentation occurs in the cecum and colon horses Foregut fermenters 3 mixing and fermentation chambers before the one true stomach Ruminant 4 stomach compartments 5 Trace the path of food as it passes through the ruminant and monogastric digestive tracts know locations and general functions of organs encountered 6 De ne forageroughage and concentrates and give examples of each type of feed Forageroughage greater than 18 crude ber Silage hay grass Concentrate less than 18 crude ber Energy feed less than 20 protein grain Protein feed greater than 20 protein animal and plant 7 Understand feed analysis and de ne the following terms moisture crude protein net energy neutral detergent ber and acid detergent ber Either physical or lab analysis Crude protein true protein and non protein nitrogen protein in feed is about 16 nitrogen Net Energy indicator of the true energy of a feed Neutral Detergent Fiber fairly insoluble material in plant cell walls used to predict feed intake Acid Detergent Fiber least digestible part of plants used to predict feed intake 8 What is the role of microbes in the rumen and the cecum List the products of fermentation to convert carbs to VFA s Most important one propionic bc goes to liver to be converted to energy 9 List three reasons reticuloruminal contractions are necessary allow built up CO2 and methane to be expelled from the rumen through eructation cud chewing move feed particles that have been reduced in size by cud chewing and microbial action out into the omasum Lecture 3 Reproduction l De ne the following terms chromosome diploid haploid genetic male genetic female genetics genomics single nucleotide polymorphism free martin chimera heritability Chromosome coiled DNA Genetics study of heredity Freemartin a sterile female bom as a co twin to a male 60 chromosomes in her own cells plus the 60 from her brother Chimera a female with both genetic female and male chromosomes Diploid 2 copies of each chromosome Haploid 1 copy of each chromosome Genetic Female XX Genetic Male XY Genomics study of the functions of genes and their relationships Single Nucleotide Polymorphism a site on a chromosome where animals in a population have different nucleic acids 2 How is genetic testing related to the selection of breeding stock to look for how heritable traits are such as Weaning Wei ght birth Wei ght carcass yield 3 What are spermatogenesis and oogenesis Where do these processes occur Sperrnatogenesis production of sperm testes Oogenesis production of eggs ovaries 4 Trace the path of sperm through the male reproductive tract What happens to sperm in the epididymis De ne cryptorchid What is the purpose of male accessory sex glands Epididymis maturation of sperm Male accessory glands contribute secretions to sperm to make semen Cryptorchid undescended testes 5 Trace the path of an oocyte through the female reproductive tract starting at the ovaries 6 Describe What occurs during each stage of the estrous cycle Proestrus follicles begin developing estrogen increases Estrus estrogen peaks sexually receptive Metestrus CL develops progesterone released Diestrus CL releasing max progesterone if no pregnancy CL degenerates bc uterus releases prostoglandin Anestrus temporary ovarian inactivity 7 What is ovulation What stimulates ovulation What forms in the ovary as a result of ovulation What is the purpose of this structure when the egg is dropped into the oviduct an LH surge causes ovulation The Corpus Luteum forms in the ovary after ovulation and its purpose is to release progesterone to support pregnancy 8 What is the difference between a nonseasonal polyestrous female a seasonal polyestrous female and a monestrous female Nonseasonally Polyestrous cycle throughout the year no matter what the season Seasonally polyestrous cycle continously throughout certain seasons Monoestrous one cycle per year 9 Where is Gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH produced What is the purpose of this hormone in the hypothalamus to go to the APG to release LH of FSH released episodically 10 Follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland What are the effects of FSH and LH in the male and the female Anterior Pituitary Gland LH causes ovulation in females produces testosterone in males FSH needed for production of spermeggs 1 1 Where are Prostaglandin F2a and Progesterone P4 produced What are the effects of these hormones How are these hormones used to manage estrous cycles Prostaglandin produced in the uterus destroy CL Progesterone produced by CL support pregnancy 12 Summarize the process of seX sorting sperm The DNA of sperm cells are stained with a uorescent dye and then passed 60mph through a ow cytometer as drops of liquid containing a single cell Xbearing sperm uoresce brighter which is detected amp a charge is applied to the droplet Lectures 4 6 Dairy Cattle Management 1 Describe the life cycle of a female calf born on a dairy farm calf gtheifer gtlactating cow gt dry cow gt calving 2 Summarize current trends in the US dairy industry Fewer dairy farms with larger herds increase milk production per cow dairy generate l 1 of all annual cash receipts beef is huge contributor more cheese demand than liquid milk 3 List the top 5 dairy producing states CA ID WI PA NY 4 Which breed of dairy cattle is dominant in the US Why Which breed produces less milk by volume but produces the highest percentage of milkfat think Mapleline Dairy Holsteins bc produce most milk per volume Jerseys produce the highest percent of milk fat 5 De ne dystocia weaning total mixed ration TMR negative energy balance ketosis or ketone bodies somatic cell count SCC mastitis and California mastitis test CMT Dystocia dif cult birth Weaning transition from a milk based diet to a concentrate and forage based diet Total Mixed Ration rations are calculated on a dry matter basis and then converted into an as fed basis to feed Negative Energy Balance when the cow is not eating enough feed gtnot enough propionic acid produced gt not enough glucose produced for energy Ketosis when ketones such as acetone are exported for use by other tissues for energy Somatic Cell Count white blood cells secretory cells and squamous cells Legal max in US is 750000 cellsmL Mastitis in ammation or infection of the mammary glands California Mastitis Test estimates the concentration of SCC s in milk 6 What is heat stress Why is it signi cant on a dairy heat stress is caused when the temp is gt77 or humidity is greater than 72 Effects include decreased milk production and pregnancy and increase in illness and feed intake 7 Understand how management practices impact animal health Ex Why are calves housed in hutches Why do farmers dip newborn calf umbilicuses in antiseptics Why are calves fed colostrum Why and how are cows dried off Claves fed colostrum so they can receive speci c antibodies to help with rst months of life dip with iodine to prevent infection cows dried off so calves can nish development and repair udder tissue 4560 days before calving 8 Draw a lactation curve and label the axes Explain each stage of milk production on the curve relative to reproduction i e calving breeding and drying off dry matter feed intake and body condition 9 Identify the components of milk 8788 water 1213 solids 34 milk fat 10 Summarize the procedures included in the testing and processing of milk Testing check the quality temp antibiotics Processing separation standardization forti cation pasteurization homogenization rapid cooling 11 What are the similarities and differences between free stalls and tie stalls Free Stall less labor improved cow comfort cows can walk to and from milking parlor Yet less individual attention cows may require training on how to use stalls Tie Stall individual observation yet more time milking more labor and bedding 12 How is mastitis related to bedding ooring and manure management need clean udders Cows lay down 1112 hrs a day so bedding needs to be clean and bacteria free 13 How is manure managed on a dairy farm can either put it in pasture store in place temporary storage of manure or collection systems collect then transfer to eld or storage site 14 Which hormone is involved in the neuroendocrine re ex of milk letdown stimulation of receptors in the teat skin sends a signal to the brain to release oxytocin which enters the blood stream to the udder to cause contraction of muscle bers 15 Why would a producer choose to milk cows three times a day instead of twice a day 16 Outline the procedure for milking a cow check udder and foremilk for mastitis by Visual assessment and strip test clean teats dry attach milk stop post dip with antiseptic 17 Name the cow estrous cycle length of the cycle and the signs of estrus non seasonally polyestrous 1922 days stands when mounted tries to mount other cows decreases feed intake 18 Roughage typically composes of a dairy ration while concentrates typically make up of the ration 19 List three different factors that determine the Volume of water consumed by a cow 20 Ideally heifers reach of adult weight amp height by months of age for breeding 21 Heifers would then calve for the rst time at months of age 22 List at least four different ways to assess cow comfort see if they are chewing cud if they are laying down assess legs and udders for cleanliness smell of the air look for shade fans sprinklers 23 Why is analysis of records important for dairy farms What type of information is included in dairy farm records identi cation production reproduction health feed nancial culling so they can keep track of the herd past and present performance to make changes for the better in the future Lecture 7 Small Ruminant Management 1 Summarize current trends in US and global small ruminant industries sheep industry has gone way down bc seasonal low demand for woolmeat difficulty in maintaining herd predation and parasitism goats had been increasing until 2008 bc importation of new breeds of goats that had superior growthcarcass and increase in population of people from different cultures now stabilized globally ruminant demand has increased due to increased population personal income and urbanization 2 Define the following terms ewe ram lamb doe buck kid cabrito chevon chevre mutton cashmere and mohair Chevon goat meat Cabrito meat from goat kids Chevre Mohair from angora goat eece grown to 612 inches shorn twice a year ber becomes worse with age Mutton lamb meat Cashmere soft down or ber from the undercoat of a non Angora goat 3 List the components of the Humane Slaughter Act of 1958 and the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act of 1978 Humane Slaughter Act only voluntary required that livestock be rendered insensible to pain by some means before shackling hoisting and cutting Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act required livestock be rendered insensible to pain by some means before shackling hoisting and cutting or that for ritual slaughterblessing livestock suffer the loss of consciousness by anemia of the brain by the severance of the carotid arteries 4 What is custom slaughtered or cut and wrap meat uninspected cannot be sold has to be labeled not for sale only the owner of the animal and immediate family can consume it 5 Describe the seasonality and stages of the small ruminant estrous cycle seasonally polyestrous short day breeders pineal gland senses the sunlight and releases melatonin depending on length of darkness Ewe 17 days Doe 21 days Estrus diestrus transition irregular estrous cycles before and after breeding season anestrus spring and summer 6 Describe the three breeding options for ewes and does and the differences between the species longmid summer to mid winter merino dorset intermediatelate summer to early winter suffolk hampshire short fall southdown cheviot 7 When are small ruminants at greatest risk for negative energy balance How does this differ from dairy cows in the last 46 Weeks of pregnancy for cows its 2 Wks before calving and 6 wks after calving 8 Which goat breed produces milk with the highest percent of fat Nubian
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