Animal Science 103
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Date Created: 09/09/14
ANSCI 103 Review Sheet for Examination 2 Know TERMINOLOGY for horses poultry and swine Lectures 9 amp 10 Horse Mgmt 1 Summarize the current roleuse of horses in the US 75 of horses are used for personal use pleasure of showing 25 of horses used for ranching racing commercial riding and breeding 2 Describe horse management principles Water twice a day if not constantly available Balance Ration appropriate for age breed type size weight worldactivity level and reproductive stage Housing protected from weather extremes provide ventilation clean dry safe well maintained space for exercise Housing Types barns use clay rubber for footing well drained three sided barn face south to avoid wind located on an elevated well drained site accessible feed Preventative health plan hoof care parasite control dental care vaccination biosecurity protocol Manure Management store spread it compost it sell it transport it 3 List the characteristics of the commonpopular breeds horses donkeys amp crosses Draft Breeds coldbloods l42 l9 hands heavy solid strong horses with good temperament Purpose is work pulling heavy loads Light Breeds warmbloods and hotbloods 142172 hands purpose for riding driving racing Imported light breeds are thoroughbreds and arabians Quarter horse Morgan Standardbred and Appaloosa developed in US Ponies less than 142 purpose is for draft harness Miniature less than 38 inches life span is 2535 years Donkeys long ears short upright manes Work animals Male is a Jack female is a J ennet Crosses Hinny stallion and jennet mule mare and jack Have horse sizebody shape but smaller heads braying voice longer ears 4 De ne conformation body condition score amp oating Relate these terms to horse mgmt Conformation the physical form of an animal its shape and the arrangement of its parts Analysis system called BSMQTT gt balance structure muscling quality type travel BCS ideally 56 Check along neckwithers tailhead ribs for fat deposits Floating le off the sharp points on teeth bc of uneven jaw 5 Trace the path of feed through the horse digestive tract 6 List the core vaccines recommended for horses describe the diseases they protect against and explain the principles of vaccination Eastern and Western Equine Encephalomyelitis aka sleeping sickness mosquitos acquire the virus from birds and rodents then pass it to horses leads to brain degeneration Principles ae supportive care IV uids tube feeding Tetanus protect against spore forming bacteria in soil inoculate a wound then toxin diffuses bloodstream to nerves Principles are antitoxin penicillin sedatives muscle supportive care West Nile Virus mosquitos transmit the virus causes lack of coordination and stumbling Principles include supportive care IV uids Rabiesz 7 Describe the timing and stages of each phase of the horse estrous cycle as Well as breeding mgmt When should you breed a mare relative to ovulation Why horses are seasonally polyestrous long day breeders Estrous in the summer fall and spring transition winter anestrus llies enter puberty at around their 2nd spring 15 months Transition erratic estrus signs Anestrus GnRH low FSH random uctuations LH and Progesterone baseline Cycle Length 21 days estrus 47 days Luteal Phase diestrus 1415 days Ovulation occurs 2 days before the end f estrus signs LH nally peaks 2 days postovulation gt takes about 10 mins gt embryo stays in oviduct 56 days gt fertilized embryo enters uterus at 57 days post ovulation optimal time for matinginsemination is 2448 hours before ovulation should breed as close to ovulation as possible to minimize the of inseminations per cycle 8 List the advantages and disadvantages of arti cial insemination versus natural service Natural Service advantages limit training required of foals per stallion increases value and widespread disease transmission Disadvantages risk of injury to mare or stallion risk of disease transmission transportation of animals limit on evaluation of semen use of semen AI advantages ef cient use of semen time and resources increases genetic pool minimize risk of injury and disease transmission allows complete semen evaluation Disadvantages increase cost of equipment requires stallion training increase risk of widespread disease transmission 9 How long is a horse pregnancy 335 345 days 340 day avg 10 Outline the timing and three stages of horse parturitiondelivery Why is the timing of foaling more critical than the timing of calving or lambing Stage 1 Preparation 30min 6h myometrial contractions cervical dilution physical discomfort Foal rotates from dorsopublic to dorsosacral Ferguson s Re ex fetal pressure on the cervix is detected relayed to hypothalamus and posterior pituitary releases oxytocin Stage 1 ends when the water breaks Stage 2 Foal Birth see foals forelimbs within 510 min after water break Ave is 20 min Head follows feet Strong contractions stage 2 ends when foal is delivered Tear awat amnion clear uid from nasal passages Don t break umbilical core 123 Rule foal stands in 1h foal nurses within 2h mare passes placenta within 3h Stage 3 Fetal Membrane Passage typically 1h examine fetal membranes should weigh about 11 of the foals weight If not passed within 3h a medical emergency 2 10 of mares 11 Describe in detail the sequence of events that should occur after foaling nurse then slowly transition to hay and grain 10 days to 3 wks of age reach about 50 of adult weight during the 1st year wean foals 4 6 months of age castrate colts at gt 1 yr of age Lectures 11 amp 12 Poultry Mgmt 1 Outline the life cycle of an egg producing chicken and the life cycle of a meat producing chicken Broiler foundation breeders gt fertile eggs gt incubators gt chicks gt meat type broilers Layer foundation breeders gt fertile eggs gt chicks gt hatchery pullets 2 De ne vertical integration candling induced molting beak trimming and feed ef ciency or feed conversion for broilers and egg layers Vertical Integration consolidation and usually single ownership of the various levels of producing processing and distributing poultry Candling process of using high density light to determine the quality of an egg interior defects cracks Induced Molting when you induce a hen to shed and replace all feathers extends hens productive life to H0 Wks Can induce by feed removal or non feed removal add substances that inhibit egg production Beak Trimming remove 12 to 13 of the beak to minimize cannibalism and feather pulling Feed Conversion amount of feed needed to produce 1 lb of live weight 3 Summarize current trends in the poultry industry largest industry decreasing of farms and increasing ock size also increasing vertical integration increasing annual egg production 75 of eggs produced for consumption 25 produced for hatching market increasing US consumption of poultry bc of health perception convenience fast food and low cost 4 List and describe the 4 major components of an egg Shell Membranes out membrane attached to shell inner membrane enclose egg tough brous protein Shell 11 egg weight Cuticle l l7000 pores spongy layer and mammillary layer 94 calcium carbonate Yolk 31 egg Weight germinal disc embryo proteins lipids vitamins minerals White albumen 58 egg Weight Water protein 5 Outline production of a chick from ovulation to hatching including time periods reproductive tract locations and incubator requirements Ovary cluster of ova yolks ovum develops as yolk is added Ovulation occurs 30 min after the previous egg was laid Infundibulum 15 min 34 inches sperm reservoir and the site of fertilization Magnum 3 hrs 15 inches 3 layers of albumen are formed chalaze inner thin white thick layer Isthmus 125 hrs 4 inches water and mineral salts added 2 shell membranes are formed Uterus 21 hrs 4 inches shell and shell pigment are added Vagina 4 inches cuticle added muscles move egg out total time to form a new egg 2527 hours 6 Trace the path of feed through the chicken digestive tract and describe the organs that are unique to birds BealdMouth glands secrete saliva tongue moves feed to pharynx for swallowing taste buds on roof of mouth and back of tongue Esophagus smooth muscle transports the feed from the mouth to the crop and from the crop to the proventriculus Crop out pocketing of the esophagus in the neck feed and water stored here until the remainder of the digestive tract is ready for more food When almost empty the crop sends signals to the brain so that more feed is consumed Proventriculus true glandular stomach digestion begins Gizzard muscular mechanical stomach grind crush and mix feed with digestive juices Small Intestines duodenum pancreas digestive enzymes liver gallbladder jejunum Meckels diverticulum pre hatching illeum Ceca singular for cecum blind pouches at the junction of the small and large intestine re absorbs water ferments coarse materials produce 8 b vitamins large intestine gt rectum gt cloaca gt vent 7 Describe the composition and cost of poultry rations poultry are omnivores fed almost exclusively a complete diet that are offered in mash or pelleted form Greater than 60 grain energy like corn and oats less tan 10 animal or vegetable fats and oils roughage protein minerals and vitamins 8 Why are ventilation systems critical on farms especially for con nement operations bc maintain temp minimize levels of carbon monoxide hydrogen sul de and dust 9 How is caged housing for chickens different from cage free housing Which type of housing is more common List the mgmt goals for housing Mgmt Goals For Housing protect from environmental extremes and predators minimize transition of disease facilitate optimal daily careinspection provide constant access to feed and water maximize bird health and comfort Caged Housing 95 of egg production in US 90 in world hens should be able to stand at or tiered laying cages Feed trough water source Cage Free able to roam freely in an enclosed area unlimited access to food and water 10 At what age are broilers sent to slaughter At what age do pullets start laying eggs At what age does egg production start to decline 11 What role does photoperiod or duration of light exposure play in egg production chickens lay eggs in response to light 12 Be able to match the clinical signs of illness with the correct disease name Marek s disease Newcastle disease and Coccidiosis Mareks Disease highly contagious tumors in nerves lameness or paralysis of limbs liver ovaries Newcastle disease respiratory and nervous system decreased egg production diarrhea Coccidiosis host speci c protozoal parasite infest coccidia egg eaten by chicken infests gut then excreted so ready to be eaten by next host Symptoms include huddling loss of appetite diarrhea Lectures 13 amp 14 Swine Mgmt 1 Describe the life cycle including housing breeding and feeding of a female piglet born on a swine farm 2 Summarize current trends in the US swine industry as well as the changes that have occurred over time Current Trends most farms have less than 100 pigs most pigs are on farms with greater than 5000 pigs Increasing of large swine farms and vertical integration Increasing pasture use con nement individual animal productivity body condition used to be for fat but now for lean used to be a lot more pig farms feed changed from forages to corn soy and housing went from outside to con nement 3 Identify the top swine producing region in the United States Corn Belt 4 Describe the transition from a marketlive hog to retail cuts presented in a supermarket raised to market weight 220 270lbs classi ed by use sex age weight and quality 28 of weight is lost during slaughterdressing gt 20 of weight is lost during preparation of retail cuts 5 Describe the different types of swine production systems Farrow Wean breeding herd produces either early weaned pigs or feeder pigs Finishing feeder pigs purchased then grown to market weight Farrow Finish all stages of production on one farm PurebredSeedstock Operations same as farrow to nish but end product is breeding boars and gilts or show pigs Integrated Corporate Operation farrow to nish operations that also have a seedstock production 6 De ne All In All Out AIAO vertical integration ushing farrowing segregated early weaning formula contracts risk share contracts forward cash contracts and benchmarks Vertical Integration when one company or owner has two or more stages of production Flushing increase the amount of feed 10 days before breeding to increase the ovulation rate Segregated Early Weaning piglets weaned at 2l 22d moved into an isolated clean nursery then into a nisher building no contact with other groups Formula Contract producer agrees to sell at a future date a speci ed of hogs by weight and carcass merit to a buyer for a certain price Decreased risk of price uctuation increases risk of pro t loss if prices rise Risk Share Contract hog price is paid within a predetermined range and adjustments are made if the cash market falls outside the range Forward Cash Contract hog price is based on a formula that accounts for uctuations in feed costs Benchmarks performance benchmarks where the preweaning farrowing rate of liters per sow etc should be 7 What are the advantages and the disadvantages of slotted ooring Adv minimizes manure handling Disadv expensive harder on legsfeet and harder to control temp 8 Describe how environmental temperature requirements vary with age Starts at about 95 degrees then as gets older gets cooler and cooler until about 60 degrees when greater than 180 pounds 9 Name the pig estrous cycle length of the cyclestages the signs of estrus and the breeding options commonly used on pig farms Length 21 days total 3 4d in polyestrous 40 60h in estrous 14d in diestrus Signs standing re ex vocalization interest in boars 10 Ideally gilts should reach puberty at months of age and be bred on their estrous cycle Why aren t gilts bred on their rst estrous cycle 11 List 5 methods for inducing puberty in gilts Boar breed housing climate stress 12 How long is pig gestation 3 months 3 Weeks 3 days 114 days 13 How soon after weaning her litter should a sow display signs of estrus 4 to 7 days post weaning 14 Summarize pen mating hand mating and AI Pen Mating house gilts or sows with an appropriate of boars in a pen or pasture Hand Mating heat detect SID or BID starting at puberty for gilts or 3d post Weaning for sows Supervised exposure to a boar 25 min AI heat detect and breed 67 of all marker hogs 90 of hogs from farms with gt500 sows 15 What is the purpose of induction of farrowing How is induction accomplished bc allows for close supervision during farrowing groups all sows together improves use of labor and facilities and allows for cross fostering if necessary done by a PGF2 injection to sows on day 112 which should cause farrowing in 2436 hours 16 List the major causes of preweaning mortality stillbirths hypoxia chilling crushing low birthweight starvation 17 What is involved in piglet processing dip umbilicus ensure colostrum intake within 46 hours Clip 8 needle teeth dock tail and ear notch or tattoo 1 3d Inject iron dextran 3 4d and castrate at 3 14d Offer creep feed starting at 1 2wks 18 Be able to match the clinical signs of illness with the correct disease name Parvovirus Leptospirosis Erysipelas and Colicobacillosis Parvovirus can get it through ingestion inhalation venereal Can cause embryonic death sequential death mummies and still births or if far enough along a fetal immune response and some live pigs Leptospirosis in urine venereal sepsis localizes abortion still births mummies weak piglets small litters u like symptoms Erysipelas bacterial fever lamenessarthritis endocarditis diamond skin disease abortion and possibly death Colicobacillosis ecoli diarrhea
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