Test 1 Study Guide
Test 1 Study Guide 1230.0
Popular in INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION DISORDERS
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Clark on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1230.0 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lynne Hewitt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION DISORDERS in Language at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Test 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Finnegan Language and Scopes of Practice An exchange of meaning A way to share Thoughts and feelings Conduct bUSineSS Express identity Teach Build relationships Learn Pass on traditions Approximately 46 million people have a communication disorder that negatively impacts their ability to hear or talk There are two types Congenital Acquired A problem With one aspect of communication affects many other processes related to it Refers to any loss or abnormality of structures or functions Disorder is sometimes a synonym for impairment Refers to a reduced competence in meeting daily living needs Often caused by the nature of the impairment andor the attitudes and biases in that person s environment Communication differences are simply differences in dialect or accent that make it difficult to communicate You can have both a difference and disorder but they are not the same thing Their disorder doesn t define them it is simply a part of their life Speech Language Hearing Organic Physical cause versus functional Cause cannot be identified Developmental Early in life versus acquired later in life Pediatric child versus adult Speech interruption in speech production versus language significant deficiency in understandingcreating messages versus hearing how loud sounds need to be before they can be heardthe pitch level that sounds are heard at You can also classify disorders by the source of disruption The chart below shows the speech chain The picture below it show the anatomy of the LarynX Problems in either or both charts can cause disorders The Speech Chain Speaker Listener 1 H Sensory Brah nerves Feedbac ggfg link Branl Vocal muscles Sensory nerves Sound waves 1 Adotor nerves PdX113hhdif OF THE LARYNX Nasopharynx O h mp My Tongue r Epiglouis Epigloms Vocal cord laryngopharynx 39 v Trachca Vocal cord u 7 Esophagu larynx Trachoa 39 quot if Esophagus MlDSAGHTAL VIEW FOR SAMPLE USE ONLY 2008 TRIALSIGHT MEDICAL MEDIA L J Articulation and phonological disorders Motor speech disorders Fluency disorder Voice disorders Developmental EX Dyslexia Acquired EX Aphasia Known as dysphagia In scope of practice of SLP In pediatric populations known as feeding and swallowing Etiology cause of a disease anything that can affect structure and function of oral pharyngeal physiology Developmental versus acquired Conductive problems with low frequencies Sensorineural problems with high frequencies Mixed a mixture of causes from any of the above Scientific research foundations for the discipline of CSD Usually PhD required Scientific foundations of clinical work Basic research questions EX What genes control development of the hearing system Applied research questions EX What types of interventions are most effective to develop communicative abilities in children with autism Clinical profession requiring master s degree for national certification Usually also required for state licensure More than half employed in K12 settings Majority of the rest work in health care settings Certified SLP earns Certi cate of Clinical Competence from ASHA Minimum credential for audiologists is AuD Doctor of Audiology Work across lifespan Evaluate type and extent of hearing loss Aural rehabilitation Fitting assistive listening deVices Hearing aids Communication can be intentional or unintentional Language is a composed set of symbols Language is standardized An important aspect of language is the way we group words together For meaning conversations both speakers need to agree on word meanings and meanings that are depend on word order Speech is the most common means of expressing language These commands are received by muscles that control Respiration diaphragm Phonation larynx Articulation tongue lips and jaw When listening sound waves follow this sequence Sound waves enter the ear Turned into electrical impulses in the cochlea Impulses are carried to the brain via the auditory nerve and pathway Sounds waves are recognized by the brain as speech and turned into words and sentences Speech production depends on two critical components Phonemes Syllables Language has two basic types of sounds Consonants Vowels Syllables are units of speech that consist of consonants and vowels They are essentially small chunks or segments of words that make it easier to sound out The International Phonetic Alphabet is a special set of symbols used in phonetic transcriptions It represents the sounds of speech in the transcription Language has three interrelated parts Content the meaning of the language Form the structure of the language Use the way speakers select different forms to best fit the communication context Language Content Children s ability to process language affects the rate of development of their lexicon A lexicon is a mental dictionary of words This is the structure of language It involves three linguistic systems Phonology Morphology Syntax Phonology is the study of the sounds we use to make words Morphology is the internal organization of words Syntax is the linguistic agreements for organizing word order This concerns the goals of language and the ways we choose between alternative combinations of words and sentences Pragmatics help us to decide what to say to whom how to say it and when to say it Communication ability begins in childhood continues to change through adulthood plateaus around 50 and then begins to decrease There are different time periods of language The period from 0 to 24 months as the from crying to short phrases stage The period of 2 to 5 years is the early sentences to stories stage Schoolage years start in kindergarten and continue through high school Finally children reach the stage of adult language To identify atypical behavior we must first know what is typical There is a significant amount of variation in the rate of communication development There is also variation in the way language develops There is also variation in communication style As a result it is very difficult if not impossible to pinpoint normal Since there is so much individual variation we talk of typical development instead of normal Children do not seem to understand the different words until they are around 6 months By the end of their first year of life infants can usually understand about 20 different words They listen longer to the sound patterns of their own language as well Speech is secondary to biological functions like respiration and feeding As children approach their first birthday they begin to use their first words The ability to sequence actions is a critical foundation in language Children communicate without words before they communicate with words It shows children that communication gives them some degree of control over their environment Children s vocabulary grows exponentially during the preschool years The earliest set of phonemes acquired by children is m b n w d p h The next set of phonemes include t 13 k g f V ch j The last set of phonemes include sh voiceless th s z voiced th 1 r g as in garage Speech sound acquisition is a gradual process This becomes important when children being to express more precise meanings with multiword utterances Gender vocabulary knowledge and parent input play large roles in grammatical development Before children can produce short sentences adults assume most of the responsibility for conversing with them One important development during preschool is the beginning of narration Children s vocabularies continue to expand dramatically during the schoolage years Schoolage children have a greater understanding of relationships between concepts Beyond the age of 5 years children s speech continuously becomes more adultlike In the late preschool years and early schoolage years children become aware and begin to mentally manipulate the sound structure they hear and say Children use a greater variety of complex sentence forms during schoolage years They engage in longer conversations and become more adept in shifting topics and style of speech Also their narratives become longer and more complex Children also improve at persuasion and negotiation during the school age years By the end of schoolage years development in language form content and use has reached a very high level of complexity Vocabularies continue to expand through adult years Shared vocabulary is often used to create social and economic bonds between members of a vocation or people with shared interests Neurological changes may lead to declines in some semantic functions in later life As part of the aging process muscles and cartilage stiffens Physiological changes lead to some changes in the voice Respiratory support for speech diminishes so that it may be necessary for some speakers to pause more frequently Articulatory changes in speech production of older adults are not considered problematic Older speakers demonstrate some changes in their use and understanding of morphology and syntax Some changes are more closely related to changes in the lexicon and pragmatics This difficulty relates to a decline in memory processing ability and vocabulary Throughout their adult lives individuals continually refine their discourse to match the needs of the situation Communication style is also related to social and cultural expectations Many older adults relocate to settings like retirement communities and nursing homes Where there are few younger individuals Changes in discourse style can include dominance of conversations unwillingness to select topics of interest to listeners increased verbosity failure to take the listener s perspective and a more rambling style of talking These changes could be related to memory loss a desire for prolonged contact and decreases in opportunities for socialization With a Wide range of people 10 The total number of spoken and signed languages in the world is between 6000 and 7000 The United States does not have an official language and has never had one Human language is an enormously complex system that is easily mastered by children in a remarkably short time Natural processes of linguistic change affect all languages over time and linguistic change is not linguistic decay All languages are equally logical or equally illogical Human language is primarily a system of arbitrary signs but some linguistic signs are representational Grammar is a system of elements and patterns that organizes linguistic expression Five hallmarks of human language systems are Arbitrariness Displacement Discreteness Productivity Duality A language system is better viewed as a triangle whose faces are meaning and expression and whose base is context Linguistic communication can operate in three modes Speaking Writing Signing Everyone speaks a dialect Chimpanzees do not have a suitable vocal apparatus for speaking However they are capable of putting together several signs to form a meaningful string The degree to which the language of chimps and that of very young children are alike remains under investigation The consensus suggests they are fundamentally different at least in displacement and productivity 11 The overall objective of speechlanguage pathology services is to optimize individuals39 ability to communicate and swallow thereby improving quality of life Speechlanguage pathologists are committed to the provision of culturally and linguistically appropriate services and to the consideration of diversity in scientific investigations of human communication and swallowing One aspect of providing these services is to determine whether communication difficulties experienced by English language learners are the result of a communication disorder in the native language or a consequence of learning a new language Increased national and international interchange of professional knowledge information and education in communication sciences and disorders can be a means to strengthen research collaboration and improve clinical services The framework in speechlanguage pathology encompasses health conditions and contextual factors The health condition component of the ICF can be expressed on a continuum of functioning On one end of the continuum is intact functioning At the opposite end of the continuum is completely compromised functioning The contextual factors interact with each other and with the health conditions and may serve as facilitators or barriers to functioning Speech language pathologists may in uence contextual factors through education and advocacy efforts at local state and national levels Speech language pathologists work to improve quality of life by reducing impairments of body functions and structures activity limitations participation restrictions and barriers created by contextual factors Speechlanguage pathologists as defined by ASHA hold the ASHA Certificate of Clinical Competence in SpeechLanguage Pathology CCCSLP which requires a master39s doctoral or other recognized post baccalaureate degree ASHA certified speechlanguage pathologists complete a supervised postgraduate professional experience and pass a national examination as described in the ASHA certification standards Demonstration of continued professional development is mandated for the maintenance of the CCCSLP Where applicable speech language pathologists hold other required credentials e g state licensure teaching certification 12 Speechlanguage pathologists address typical and atypical communication and swallowing in the following areas speech sound production uency resonance language comprehension and expression v01ce cognition Speechlanguage pathologists provide clinical services that include the following prevention and diagnosis collaboration prereferral treatment documentatlon o screenin g 1nterventlon referral assessmentev management aluatlon o counseling consultatlon Speechlanguage pathologists engage in prevention and advocacy activities related to human communication and swallowing Speechlanguage pathologists also serve as educators administrators and researchers Speechlanguage pathologists provide services in a wide variety of settings The practice of audiology includes both the prevention of and assessment of auditory vestibular and related impairments as well as the habilitation rehabilitation and maintenance of persons with these impairments The overall goal of the provision of audiology services should be to optimize and enhance the ability of an individual to hear as well as to communicate in hisher every day or natural environment Audiologists provide comprehensive services to individuals with normal hearing who interact with persons with a hearing impairment The overall goal of audiologic services is to improve the quality of life for all of these individuals During the assessment phase audiologists perform tests of Body Function and Structure ActivityParticipation limitations and restrictions are sometimes addressed by audiologists through case history interview questionnaire and counseling Audiologists are professionals engaged in autonomous practice to promote healthy hearing communication competency and quality of life for persons of all ages through Prevention identification assessment and rehabilitation of hearing auditory function balance and other related systems They facilitate prevention through the fitting of hearing protective devices education programs for industry and the public hearing screeningconservation programs and research Audiologists currently hold a master39s or doctoral degree in audiology from a program accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and SpeechLanguage Pathology CAA of the American SpeechLanguageHearing Association ASHAcertified audiologists complete a supervised postgraduate professional experience or a similar supervised professional experience during the completion of the doctoral degree as described in the ASHA certification standards 14 Audiologists serve a diverse population and may function in one or more of a variety of activities The practice of audiology includes Prevention Rehabilitation Education ResearchAdmini Ident1f1catlon Advocacy stratlon Consultatlon Assessment They provide services in private practice medical settings community and university hearing and speech centers managed care systems industry the military various state agencies home health subacute rehabilitation longterm care and intermediatecare facilities and school systems
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