FInal Exam Study Guide
FInal Exam Study Guide Art His 23
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Art His 23
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Art His 23 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. George Baker in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 168 views. For similar materials see Modernism in Art History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
Reading Summaries: Greenberg, Modernism used art to call attention to art. It uses aspects of flat canvas and paint pigment as positives that should be embraced in art, while the academy wanted to hide them. Clark, “Olympia’s Choice” The painting insists on its own materiality and existence through Olympia’s stare and posture that confront the viewer directly. Pollock, “Modernity and Feminity” The work of Cassatt and Morisot with female/feminist experiences brings women into the place of the viewer of the painting and allows females to relate to the work. Most painting is catered to the male viewer, but these artists go against that. Foster, “Primitive Scenes” The identification of other cultures as closer to nature and animals, along with a lack of sexuality and gender is due to the white imperialistic viewpoint. Ponty, “Cezanne’s Doubt” Phenomenology used by Cézanne goes past impressionism. He uses live perspective, multiple colors, and no outlining to achieve this. Steinberg, “The Philosophical Brothel” “The Demoiselles d'Avignon seems to me to have one insistent theme to which everything in the picture contributes: the naked brothel interior, the male complicity in an orgy of female exposure, the direct axial address, the spasmodic action, the explosive release in a constricted space, and the reciprocity of engulfment and penetration. The picture is both enveloping and transfixed; it sorties and overwhelms and impales itself. And it ought to be seen as it was painted hung low in a narrow room, so that it spills over into it, topped by the entrant wedge of the table. In one sense the whole picture is a sexual metaphor, and Picasso will have used all his art to articulate its erotics. But it is also the opposite, a forced union of dream image and actuality. The picture is about the image in its otherness locked in with the real world. And like those mystics of old who used sexual metaphor to express union with the divine, so Picasso will have used sexuality to make visible the immediacy of communion with art. Explosive form and erotic content become reciprocal metaphors.” Krauss, Passages in Modern Sculpture Ch 1 and 3 Krauss compares two forms of sculpture. Traditional (rationalist, neoclassical) and modern. Characteristics of classic sculpture are narrative/history/time, frontality (a fixed vantage point that supports a central narrative) and sculptural allusion (figure/ground relationship in relief medium also supports the central narrative). Points of divergence from modernism include: nonnarrative strategies, nomimetic/illusionistic, and marks of process that reveal the sculpture’s making. Both of them rejected the technologically based role of analysis in sculpture, creating work that questioned the very role of narrative structure by gravitating toward that which is unitary and unanalyzable. Although surrealist sculpture, developing in the 1930s, exploited certain aspects of their work, the aims of surrealism were such that much of what was most radical in Duchamp’s and Brancusi’s conception of sculpture was either ignored or transformed. Indeed, it was not until the 1960s that Duchamp’s concern with sculpture as a kind of aesthetic strategy and Brancusi’s concern with form as a manifestation of surface assumed a central place in the thinking of a new generation of sculptors. Krauss, “Grids” There are two ways in which the grid functions to declare the modernity of modern art. One is spatial; the other is temporal. In the spatial sense, the grid states the autonomy of the realm of art. Flattened, geometricized, ordered, it is antinatural, antimimetic, antireal. In the temporal dimension, the grid is an emblem of modernity by being just that: the form that is ubiquitous in the art of our century, while appearing nowhere, nowhere at all, in the art of the last one. Benjamin, “The Work of Art in its Age of its Technical Reproductability” By the 19 century, technology had reached a level that artwork could be reproduced easily, causing a profound change in its effect, and also captured a place of its own among the artistic processes. The reproduction of artworks and the art of film have two different manifestations on art in its traditional form. In reproductions, the works unique existence in a particular place is lacking. By replicating a particular work over and over, it gets detached from the sphere of tradition and subtitutes a mass existence for a unique existence. The unique value of the “authentic” work of art has its basis in ritual, the source of its original use value. With the emancipation of specific artistic practices from the service of ritual, the opportunities for exhibiting the products increase. February 9, 2016 Cezanne, Uncle Dominique, 1866 & The Abduction, 1867 Oldest of the impressionist painters. He was technically in the generation of Manet but wasn’t involved in the movement until later with Seurat In his earliest paintings, you can see how he is very odd. He wants to be close to the realism that characterized Courbet He has put down his brushes and is using a spatula sort of tool that smears the paint and lays it down thick Scenes of fantasy, return to various mythological metaphors No one accepted it or knew what to do with these paintings o Uses an erotic and sexual metaphor for his work Cezanne, House of the Hanged Man, 187273 & The Bridge at Maincy, 187980 This is the Cezanne that associates himself with the impressionists Didn’t have to worry about selling his paintings and could just focus on his art Drawn to the techniques of impressionism o Painting en plein air, divided brush strokes, contrasting colors In House… the setting is in the suburbs outside Paris Exiles human life form the scene o Associates this painting with an abstractive theme o Was the hung man murdered or was it suicide? Techniques against impressionism o Uses black linear paint, as though he wants to bring back this classical technique or isn’t able to give up the drawing aspect that impressionism ends o Spreads his paint, causing solidarity o Uses the traditional positioning of a tree to provide depth and push the surface toward the viewer Motif of the bridge at the center, more or less geometric assembly o Non modern techniques o He wanted to search for the cylinder in nature and find geometric shapes o Unideal forms of shapes Cezanne, Chateau de Medan, 1880 Seurat Vs. Cezanne o Close geographically and biographically o Constructive brush stroke was the same o Seurat’s mechanic way of painting was similar to Cézanne’s systematic pattern Cezanne, Gulf of Marseille Seen from L’Estaque, 1886 and The Basket of Apples, 189094 Landscape and still life The landscape has very complex forms o Breaks with the realist trend in modernism o Naturalism is not at play in terms of light and color o Doesn’t have the 3 planes of landseasky o The sea pushes to you, looks closer than the buildings o Deep perspectival ambiguity as he rethinks the geometric forms The still life o Void of the human body and figure o Painting that finds solidity of things and go away from political themes o Wedding between classicism and modernism as said by some art historians o Space begins to fragment, the wine bottle is slightly oblique/not symmetrical Cezanne, Still Life with Plaster Cast, 1894 Instead of centered and stable, everything is in a volatile state It’s as if the ground rises up in the air Geometry is the classicist law of form that brought order and thought, bit modernism wanted to cast this down o This is why Cezanne being presented as a classicist presents problems Cezanne, Mount Ste. Victoire…, 1882 & Pines and Rocks. 1895 An attempt to portray the structure of the world Didn’t go to landscape and still life as a retreat from political painting but rather he wanted to find answers and experience subjectivity Is the world’s structure uniform? Is it truly geometric as the classicists tried to make it appear? Cezanne, Apples. 187778 See the constructive stroke building the forms The very shape/evocation of the circle Become a kind of poem on the eternal nature and nonsolidity of form Denies that anything is truly in a geometric form Shapes are made by what the eye perceives Cezanne, Idyll. 1870 & Temptation of St. Anthony, 1870 Body was in crisis He is painted as a pensive person Bodies will not conform Cezanne, A Modern Olympia, 187374 & 186970 The body aligns itself with the body that we see and is more maternal Cezanne, Bather with Outstretched Arms, 1877 & The Large Bather, 1885 A space at the edge of the world The world is something to be looked at but also to be engaged with His feet get giant and are blood red The painting is more about how one feels about themselves and their perception of their body Tuesday, February 16 th Cezanne, Bathers at Rest, 187577 Bodies in the world o Not part of the classical myth of river gods in pastoral spaces o Immersion of the body in the physical world Proportion begins to shift and change Phenomenological themes o One of the great enigma paintings of the bathers series o There isn’t much of a narrative Cezanne, Bathers, 1883 Gaze at each other, model how we view the scene Bodies seem incomprehensible Cezanne, Large Bathers, 18941905 The repetition of this painting as a statement piece This is the first version o Bodies are spread vertically o Experiencing the world with eyes and flesh at the same time 19001905 o Second attempt o More confusing, less readable o More focused on a figure that is entering the scene o Desire and sexuality is embodied in the forms/shadows used in the work o Categories are being called into question 18981906 o Third attempt o Embraced the unfinished aspect of painting, or he was unable to finish it o Geometric shapes return, but are still imperfect o Fusion of bodies, loss of separation End of the 19 century Vision of the crisis in modernism Art is now all about connection and becomes a kind of bodily tactic Joseph Maria Olbrich, House of the Vienna Secession, 1898 Institution of artists who went away from the academic Embraces a kind of return to classicism in the architecture of the building Compared to a religious building or temple Geometric shapes, nature themed décor Klimpt, Philosophy and Medicine, 19001907 Various stages of suffering and eroticism Moves away from enlightenment Irrationality, a release of desires opposed to containment Klimpt, Beethoven Frieze, 1902 Be one with the wall/architecture Bodies seem to float Death, sickness, insanity The depiction of an article about Beethoven’s 9 symphony Not about sight for sight sake, the beginning of the idea that you can visualize sound Consists of 3 panels that correspond with the 3 parts of the music After darkness there is light as the music become more upbeat February 18, 2016 Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso Associate the figure of the artist with the bohemian, not a model of the bourgeoisie Transformation of painting form as seen by the body o Not idealized or youthanized Matisse, Sideboard & Table, 1899 and Carmelina, 1903 Moves backwards in modernism Still life composition, lightened by the sun, short brush strokes o Postimpressionism Carmelina goes back to Manet o Realism/modernism Matisse, “Luxe, calm, et volupte”, 1904 Modernist pastoral, the body in a landscape Accepts divisionism o Divided strokes, thick rather than small o Divided colors Henri Rousseau, The Hungry Lion Throws Itself on an Antelope, 1905 Selftaught painting Returning to a vision of primordial nature in the jungle Andre Derain, The Dance, 19056 Vibrant colors and hues New movement called “Fauves” Named after the French word for beasts Primitive and wild Matisse, The Woman with a Hat, 1905 & Open Window, 1905 Continued explosion in terms of color and hue Woman with a Hat o Portrait of his wife o Genre about looking and the optical o Combination of the small brush strokes and also larger ones that swirl in the background Open window o Still type of divided brushstrokes Matisse, Woman with a Green Stripe, 1905 He is letting color run wild Shows us the change from divisionism brush strokes Gives us a flattened background There is no outside light or color Lack of naturalistic motivation o The green down her face o Yellow on one side, rosy pink on the other Picasso, Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906 Nothing is about the space of color All browns and tans Picasso, Self Portrait, 1901 & The Absinthe Drinker, 1902 Periods organized around color Embraced tonalities of blue Picasso, The Boy with a Pipe, 1905 & The Family of Saltinbanques, 1905 Less about Chroma as Chroma Thinking about bodies themselves Opposed to color, he will push line Gertrude Stein America writer Dear friend of Picasso and Matisse o She starts to collect modernist painting, causing her to be in the center of the movement o Held salons in her house Picasso tried over 50 times to paint her portrait but couldn’t o Eventually he leaves and goes to Spain and is able to finish it o Drew inspiration from Iberian sculpture o The solidarity of sculpture is important to him Matisse, Le Bonheur de vivre (The Joy of Life) Pleasure and color Returning to a golden age like is seen in past paintings Explosion of movement in the theme of wild colors and bodies It’s as if they are dancing Seems to be going back to the caves origins of cave art Matisse, Joy of Life Comparison to the divine creating bodies (the creation of Adam) The eroticism can be compared to the myth that Narcissus walking and seeing his reflection in the water and falling in love This central moment in the work is between the two women, who are sort of inverses In his early conception, it seem like he thinks the joy of life is based in the primordial life of the cave Fantasies of birth and reproduction oExplosion of color and form Figures much more sexualized in his sketches Kissing/embracing figures are fused, fetus like Central figures echo Michelangelo and Caravaggio Picasso, the Two Nudes and Studies for Two Nudes, 1906 Picasso never titled his own paintings Gargantuan women, taking on masculinity and muscular features oBetween male and female Makin the body inherently massive Resembles/echoes narcissus scene The figures seem to echo each other, but not direct reflection oDifferences: pointing vs. grasping fingers Lost profile vs. Iberian sculpture o Picasso, effort to respond to Joy of Life Les Demoiselles d' Avignon, 1907 oNamed by Picasso's friends oFlips Matisse's pastoral imagebody in modernity, commodity oTurning again to a figure of prostitute and the brothel oFragmentation of space challenging mimetic basis of space oTotal experience of visual mastery of the body oSketchesclothed figures, Spanish drinking vessels By spring 1907 male figures are gone, more like final work Males: sailor figure and doctor figure (man of pleasure, man of knowledge) But, painting gin final form is no longer a narrative oIcon/imagenot narrative oPhallic symbols watermelon, leg, fragment, table itself oBodily curves 2nd figure, standing but looks like reclining Like a horizontal figure flipped up Fragmented space/perspective Aspects of the image enact phallicization of space oBreak down of western ideas to enact an engagement with fragmented spaces, disproportionate figures oThe work was not shown for many years oEruption of discontinuity, depictions of faces Some like Iberian masks Rough features, new influences from African sculptures oHead w/ Scarification, 1907, a detail in the work Scarification marks on faces, but could also influence sculpture Stylistic inconsistency or multiplicity oSelf portrait Wide, disassociated eyes of the Demoiselles Picasso seeing himself in identification with his painted figures Picasso, Three Women 1908 & Matisse, Music, 1910 Picasso fusion of male/female n central figure Matisse echoes Picasso's "great hoax" Five figures, squatting, touching themselves Feb. 25, 2016 Modernist Sculpturelater than modernism in painting When sculpture was in the 19th century…. François’s Rude, Departure of the Volunteers of 1792, 1833 Erection of the Arc de Triumphe on Champs du Elysee Decoration of the Arc, Cruciform composition Hybrid sculpture, relief sculptureonly partially in the round Narrative sculpture, neo classical Edward Steichen, photograph from 1908 of Auguste Rodin's Monument to Balzac, 1897 Taken at night, illuminated by moon Composed as a public monument and rejected Crisis in public perception of sculpture itself Wants to create a sculpture in honor of a writer Early plaster form and final version (bronze cast) o Body cloaking itselfbody is somehow enigmatic now o Early conceptionB's body is large, strange stance o Is he in stasis? In motion? Both? o Headearly cast Mask like, strangely empty void Sidelooks pained, grief o Headless bodyeroticism, holding his sex/masturbating o Final version head seems strangely detached, dissonant fragments Body rips back, towards oblique, changes as we move around o Now seen as a departure from academic sculpture, and placed in its intended place Rodin, Man with the Broken Nose, 186264 and Age of Bronze, 1877 Rodin teaches himself Man with broken nose is the first work he sends to the salon o Sculptural fragment of human body o Furrows: relief seems intended to interact optically with light o Surfaces reflect light/capture shadows, optical enhancements o Face caste into nonidealized body, conception of the body itself is disfigured Influenced by Michelangelo’s sculpture after trip to Italy o Said to have broken nose Age of Bronze o Surely influenced by Michelangelo o Figure in Rodin’s mimics contrapposto o Accused of casting from an actual figure/living body o Figure looks too real, beyond idealization o Rodin never made another life size sculpture Rodin, Torso of a Man, 187778 Seem to be reflecting on ancient sculpture Echoes ruinous image/effect of time in the present o Does not fix imperfections Intense fragmentation of body, embraces the process Rodin, Head of Couching Woman, 1882 Eyes seem gouged out Sketch given elevation to final product Violence/violation of the ideal space of the body "Iris, Messenger of the Gods" 189091 Classical myths Arms and head missingthought to be extraneous Almost pornographic Something at the limits of what bodies can do Eruption of body in flight, open like origin of the world Rodin, Adam, 188081 Emerging form R's thoughts and reflections on a large project Seems to refer to contrapposto but is not o Imbalanced, one leg almost twice as long as the other Pointing figurelike Creation of Man The shadow o Rodin reuses figures but changes arms, heads, etc. o Puts together pieces of previous bodiescollage o Replaced pronated arm Rodin, Three Shades, 1902 Related to the shadow extended, not pronated arms Three castes of the same figure Using repetition to break down the stasis of sculpture Cancels access to the body Meant to be on the apex of his final project Rodin, The Gates of Hell, 18801917 Meant as a doorway for the Museum of Decorative Arts Worked on his whole life Cast in its last site Rodin seems to be going back o Back to the renaissance o Doors of paradise baptistery doors, Hard to see how this would function pictorially o At the very center: the thinker o Meant to tower over the door Reflecting on Michelangelo’s mortuary sculptures The prodigal son, 18801882 o Sculpture that wants to tell a story o Figure erupts all over gates of hell o No single narrative logic o Improvised version of hell Each time it is caste, meaning seems to change Phenomenological Week 9 Picassos Demoiselles begins to make us thing and take formal explanations and themes outside of the canvas No more selfcritical, now confronts the world Georges Braque, L’Estaque, 1906 & Viaduct at.., 1907 Gravitated toward Matisse Excessive hues and color Back to where Cézanne was before, thinking about “The father of us all” Cezanne’s legacy pushed artists Severed him of phobism Braque, Large Nude, 1908 Questions the mimetic relationship Turned headlike squatting figure Horizontal figure rotated into the vertical Crisis picture, kept private Braque, Houses at L’Estaque, 1908 & The New Castle at La RocheGuyon, 1909 The geometry of squares of squares and cubes A critic named this as cubism This would mean the painter wanted to idealize form and shape and return to the geometry of classicism Very little color; attending to the way in which space can be utilized Color isn’t as important Light and shadow are used more Braque, Violin and Palette, 1909 & Violin and Pitcher, 1910 Cubism Our ability to see in these paintings is severely undermined We see paintings but can’t see figures or objects Ability to feel Braque, The Emigrant, 1911 & Picasso, Ma Jolie, 1911 Very similar paintings Proclaim to be pictorial spaces that are broken down Picasso is turning to mass culture, music, and language All things outside of painting Picasso, Birdman’s Meal, 1903 Tactile and optical are engaged within modernism Ruptured later Blue period works March 8, 2016 Francis Picabia, Dance at the Spring, 1912 very large painting Cubist, fleshly pink colored hues Marchel Duchamp, Nude Descending a staircase, 1912 Robotic, machinic form Picabia, Dance at the Spring, 1912 & The Spring, 1912 Begins to paint massce paintings Browns and blacks with some sort of skin tones Image of the body Picabia, The Procession, Seville, 1912 Our eyes dive down, if not into the painting Picasso, Houses of a Hill, Horta de Ebro, 1909 Set in spain like picabia’s They hated each other, critique each others cubism at this point Language of contradiction between Excessively physical and bodily with the absence of any of these things Picabia, The City of New York.., 1913 Water colorspink hues Its as if he is saying “my painting is phenemlogical” and interacts with the body not just depicts it Rotated painting to make it more incomprehensible Duchamp, Bride stripped by.. He made the 3 non squares by the physical action of copying the shapes a veil made in the wind Somewhat by chance Hans Arp, Collage arranged According to the Laws of Chance, 19161917 Constructed by tearing construction paper into canvas Anti artistic, anti cultural Trying it to the world Duchamp, Bride… Sent his work to an exhibition and on the way back it completely shattered He abandoned this work in 1923 Physical prodecures: opening to the world, letting dust gather on it Picabia, Egoist and Polygamy, 1918 Deeply indexical kind of art Seems to be abstract drawings Picabia, The holy virgin & THe Young Girl. 1920 Contradiction between chance and purposeful creation Questioning the cliché of how sexuality and gender are presented Whoredom and promiscuity Miro, The Birth of the World, 1925 & Andre Masson, Figure, 1927 The line created by chance Gives it over to the world and to that which is unknowable within ourselves Picasso, Guernica, 1937 Reaction to modern military events Modermisn retyrning to history painting but no longer through the mimetic Reembraced monochromatic colors Wounded bodies, mostly women & children Modernism After impressionism: Calls for no more galleries Picasso sees the endless themes of violence in classical works
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