Animal Science 103
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Date Created: 09/09/14
AnSci 103 Exam 3 Lectures 15 amp 16 Beef Cattle Management 1 Terminology Define feeder calf yearling feeder growth stimulant genetic selection production testing progeny testing EPD genomics SNP backgrounding shrink conformation immature male bull calf castrated male steer mature male bull Feeder calf weaned calf less than a year of age sold to be fed to market weight Yearling feeder weaned and fed through the winter before sale at 12 years of age Growth stimulant work with animals endocrine system to partition nutrients to support more muscle growth for increased weight gain improved feed efficiency and a leaner carcass Genetic selection select for desired traits Production testing evaluation of a cow based on performance of her calves Progeny testing evaluation of a bull based on the performance of his calves Expected Progeny Dlfference EPD a measure to the degree of difference between the bull s progeny and the progeny of the average bull in the same breed Genomics study of the function of genes and their interrelationships Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP a site on a chromosome where animals in a population have different nucleic acids Backgrounding growing and feeding of calves from weaning until entry into a feedlot Shrink loss of weight when handled or shipped due to decreased feed consumption and manure losses Calves yearlings may shrink 315 Conformation appearance of a live animal based on skeletal structure muscling 2 Value of Cattle in USNorld in the total livestockpoultry section of ag 39 cattle accounts for 15 of that Huge market USA 4th in total cattle but the highest in beef and veal per lb 3What factors affect beef cattle inventory demand beef prices cost of production feed weather land prices 4 Types of beef cattle Angus from Scotland Black and polled dominant perform well in feedlots and produce high quality carcass with well marbled meat Hereford from England Red body and white face horned Superior foraging ability vigor and hardiness Simmental from Switzerland yellow to red and white horned Adaptable to range of conditions and strong in milk and meat production Limousin from France Golden red or black polled or horned Excellent feed efficiency adaptability and high carcass yield 5Dominant areas of cattle southern and central region of the Great Plains MTNBKS 6 Distribution of Dairy Farms vsBeef Farms small farms are most popular for dairy cattle but the most cattle are on the big farms the most beef cattle are on small farms and small farms are the most popular 7 Describe cycle of beef production after calving baby weaned at 610 months 400750 lb cow is still bred when she is nursing bc too long of a waiting period otherwise Bred in MayJuly calvingnursing febapril then rebreed mayjuly after calf weaned moved to stocker yearling operation then sold to feedlot where finished to market weight fed lots of grain after reaching market weight at hopefully 24 months sold to auction 8Types of operations CowCalf Operations gt management objectives maximize lbs of calf weaned per cow calf crop o of calves produced per 100 cows in breeding herd minimize annual cow costs weaning annual cow cost divided by lb calf weaned will give you the break even point breeding goal is to produce and raise one healthy calf per year from each mature female in the herd Calves should be born within a 12 month interval at right time of year to maximize profits net calf crop of calves weaned divided by of cows in the breeding herd Stocker Yearing Operations gt feed weaned cattle for 612 months to grow to 600850 lbs using available forages and high roughage feeds grass corn stalks silage types singleowner single site singleowner offsitecontract stocking multiple owners multiple sites maintain a clean quiet uncrowded receiving pen vaccinate and deworm feed high quality grass hay and provide clean water Feedlot Operations gt feed cattle to achieve market weight of 9001400 lbs using harvested feed and grain Most 95 of US beef cattle are in feedlots housing more than 1000 cows commercial feedlots more than 1000 cows cattle turnover 225 times a year farmer feeder less than 1000 cows 1 time capacity business analysis look at facilities investment and purchase price of feeder cattle feed costs nonfeed costs death vet bills labor taxes sale price of feeder cattlegross receipts environmental management control dust through sprinklers odor through pen maintenance flies through composting water quality 9Name the cows estrous cycle length and adv and disadv ofA and natural service when they are bred when should heifers be bred when to check for pregnancy nonseasonally polyestrous ave 21 day cycle Natural Service more cost effective and easier have set short breeding seasons and limited bull exposure Much more common than Al in beef cattle Al safe maximizes use of bull But costly trained labor time equipment bred either in spring or in the fall heifers should be bred at 65 of adult weight at about 15 months old check for pregnancy 4590 days after removal of the bull 10Desoribe procedures for calf processing ear tag dehorning can use caustic paste tube dehorner tattooing branding castration at less than 4 months of age 11What are the factors that affect calf weaning weights calving date available forage for cow and calf creep feed disease or illness genetic selection crossbreeding 1030 increases in lbs calf weaned growth stimulants only in non breeding animals injected subq in ear 12 Why use implantsgrowth promotants Who uses them improve growth rate and feed efficiency generate a leaner carcass makes economic sense to producers less than half for cowcalf 3490 with feedlots less than 1000 and most of feedlots with more than 1000 13Describe the traits economically important in beef cattle reproductive performance weaning weight postweaning growth feed efficiency carcass merit longevity conformation 14What are the factors affecting cow cost feed 5070 of annual cow cost genetics labor cost herd health pasture management 15 Define preconditioning and the procedures involved Pre conditioning management practices implemented around weaning to optimize a calf s immune system and nutritional status and to minimize stress Identification vaccinate parasite control castration dehorning training calves to eat from feed bunkwater trough 16 Cuts of Beef High Value Cuts loin rib round rump Low Value Cuts chuck brisket flank plate shank 17 Describe process of making haylage young respiring plants are cut wilted to 4560 moisture and pH of 70 gt placed in a silo or wrapped with plastic to eliminate exposure to oxygen gt respiratory phase oxygen that s trapped is rapidly consumed by aerobic bacteria gt fermentation phase anaerobic bacteria grows converts plant sugars to organic acids gt accumulation of acid stops bacterial growth fermentation 18How often do we feed haylage or silage to ruminants How often do we vaccinate ruminants against Clostridium feed haylage all the time vaccinate at least once a year but not against the type of bacteria that causes botulism horses are most sensitive to this disease Lectures 17 amp 18 Alternative Agriculture 1 Terminology for rabbits Define coprophagy ratites efficiency of production cria epidermal membrane beserk male syndrome Rabbits buck male doe female kit baby kindling birthing Coprophagy when rabbits eat their stool Ratites flightless birds Efficiency of Production fertility o of fertile eggs x100 divided by of eggs laid Cria baby camelid Epidermal Membrane white keratinized layer over the cria Delivered intact and will dry out Beserk Male Syndrome if males imprint on humans when they are young can become extremely aggressivedangerous when mature 2Rabbit GIT markets housing breeding feeding restraint methods health program GIT monogastric herbivore hindgut fermenters Markets pets show animals meat lab animals wool angora Housing 12 hrs light 12 hrs dark ventilation temp control hutchescages nest boxes to use 2728 days after breeding Breeding puberty 45 months for lightwt breeds 58 months for medium wt breeds 810 months for largewt breeds after breeding no defined estrous cycle induced ovulators 1012 hours after breeding gestation is 3031 days average litter size is 810 kits wean 510 wks 4 litters year if does rebred 8 wks 5 litters if does rebred 6 wks preg eval through abdominal palpations at 1214 d kindling provide a nesting box w bedding 2728 days after breeding examine litter within 24 hrs to be sure aliveremove any if necessary monitor for warmth and starvation 710 days open eyes 1920 days start to eat solid food 510 wks weaning Feeding fed hay and grain or pellets feed efficiency is 3 lbs of feed for 1 lb of meat have 11 calcium to phosphorus ratio need fat soluble vitamins dry foragehay is 4080 of diet also can be fed grasses carrots leafy veggies sweet potatoes Restraint Methods support hind legs toweling scruffing Health Program good record keeping clean follows AWA 3Bison production markets meat housing health program breeding feeding processing Production bovidae family large fast strong hardy survive blizzards and extreme heat very efficient grazers gain 2 pounds a day Markets breeding stock hobbyexhibition meat Meat low fat and low cal smaller producer 25100 medium producer 100250 large ranch 100 s to 1000 s Single producer or segmented into cow caffeedlot Not necessarily meat inspection for bison Housing land of less than 23 acres per animal strong fencing corralchute system know state liability and trespass laws Health Program good record keeping vaccination deworming and observation Breeding puberty 2 yrs gt breeding season in fall 1 mature bull for 1015 cows gt gestation is 275 285 days gt calving summer gt weaning 89 months gt no castration dehorning or ear tagging needed Feeding rotational graze in pasture in winter supplement hay protein Rule is 1 lb of roughage per 100 lb of body weight for digestion and 2 lbs of dry matter per 100 lbs live weight for energy Processing live weight 10001100 lb dressing weight 620 lbs 62 4Ratites ostrich emu rhea cassowary kiwi gt Ostrich largest bird long necks small head Africa Male has black and white feathers female has gray feathers height is 79 ft weight is 200350 lbs speed is 3050 mph mature 24 yrs each female lays 15 eggs in communal nest with up to 60 other females incubation period is 4046 days lifespan is 3050 years omnivores breeding male 25 yr female 2 yr monogamous or polygamous dramatic mating behavior breed and begin laying eggs 510 days later then continue laying every other day for up to 15 to 20 eggs Eggs weigh 35 lbs mating season march to september gt Emu 2nd largest bird head and neck are grayish blue feathers are black on head and mottled brown on black plumage is course and hair like Australia height is 56 ft weight is 125150 lbs speed is 30 mph mature at 153 yrs lay 515 eggs per clutch up to 3 clutches per season incubation period is 8 wks lifespan is 1020 yrs in wild 35 yrs in zoo mostly monogamous female is dominantlarger breed and lay an egg every 34 days up to 30 eggs in a clutch Eggs weigh 15 lbs male incubates nest mating season novembermarch gtRhea feathers are pale gray to brown head and neck completely feathered no tail feather long body feathers South America height is 55 ft weight is 4455 lbs females lay 1 egg every other day or every 34 days for 710 days in a ground communal nest of the males design males incubate eggs for 6 wks and care for young gtCassowary no plumage on head or neck skin is bright blue yellow and red large bony crest on top of head brownblack hair feathers on body height is 46 ft speed is 30 mph defense is sharp toenails on inner toes mature 253 yrs eggs laid 35 per clutch incubation period is 4956 days Lifespan is 1219 yrs in wild 40 yrs in zoo gt Kiwi 3 species small heads and slender bills brown or gray feathers very fast height is 1 ft tall weight is 2759 lbs females mature 23 yrs males at 1418 months lay 12 eggs per clutch 13 clutches per year incubation period is 75 85 days lifespan is 50 yrs in wild 30 yrs in zoo 5Ratite marketing facilities feeding health maintenance getting started in the business Market meat skin fat feathers eggs Facilities can be very dangerous high fenceswalls 143 acres per breeding pair Feeding first few days nothing for chicks gt starter ration from 23 days fiber and protein gt grower ration from 23 months of age to maturity gt breeder ration from maturity through egg laying Health Maintenance knowledgable vet disease prevention high mortality from less than 6 months so need special care Getting Started in the Business buy eggs hatch them buy sexed chicks yearling pairs of males and females and 2 yrold breeding pair 6Describe the process of artificial incubation collect eggs daily store at 5565 degrees 75 humidity turn 3 times a day gt incubate within 7 days of collection Temp 97599 humidity 2540 gt ostrich eggs 39 to 59 days ave 42 emu egg 4656 days ave 50 days gt move to hatcher 12 days before hatching 70 ostrich eggs and 5080 emu eggs gt chicks are moved to a brooder start at 90 degrees then decreases temp by 5 degrees every 2 weeks until supplement not needed gtweigh leg band microchip DNA identification tattoo gt determine sex at 12 months of age 7 Camelids gt Llama live 1525 yrs weigh 250550 lbs 56 ft tall Used for pack animal fiber meat guard animal and fuel gt Alpaca live 1525 yrs weigh 120200 lbs 45 ft tall Used for pack animals fiber meat exhibition and fuel breeds are huacaya and suri gt Vicuna live 1520 yrs 3 ft tall weigh 99120 lbs gt Guanaco live 1525 yrs 4 ft tall weigh 210265 lbs speed of 40 mph and can swim chew cud and spit fermentspit foregut fermenters with 3 stomach chambers Breeding no estrous cycle induced ovulator breed in sternal recumbency puberty at 6 months of age gestation ave 11 months pregnancy carried in left uterine horn parturition occurs early in the morning 70 of females stay standing for delivery After Criation colostrum cria should gain 051 lb a day should start to eat solid food by 23 wks of age ruminate 46 wks of age weaned at 45 months Male Management fighting teeth erupt at 1824 months of age can be filed surgical castration is performed at 1824 months Feeding efficient so dont overfeed total feed intake of 182 of body weight crude fiber content of 25 moderate pasture last months of pregnancy pack animals and first months of lactation grain Handing Restraint halter neckchinjaw hold physical structures spit rag ear hold no direct eye contact Lecture 19 Aquaculture 1 Define aquaculture production unit Aquaculture the farming of aquatic organisms for food restocking habitats commercial fisheries pets Production Unit segmented into units named according to the stages in the animal s life cycle 2WorldUS trends in aquaculture annual worldwide growth rate of 83 less than 50 of seafood consumed is produced from aquaculture US leading global importer of fishfish products and is a major player in supplying advanced technology feed and investment to aquaculture catfish most popular in us MSALARTX raised in channels 3 Animal Management Plan waste management stress feed disease control 4 Fish Anatomy no pancreas lymph node lungs Have scales swim bladder head and tail kidneys muscle 5 Managed Life Cycle hatchery gt maintain the broodstock spawn the broodstock hatch fertilized eggs gt nurture larvae to appropriate stage then move to nursery nursery gt raise the young fry fish postlarvae shrimp prawns or spat shellfish to the juvenile stage juveniles gt reach a size at which they can be used to stock a production or growout unit 6 Choosing Fish based on produced expertise water supply species biology marketability location 7 Housing Levee Ponds gt standing water impoundments built by excavating the pond area to shallow depth and use soil to build a perimeter Costly to build 02 at bottom Watershed Pond gt standing water impoundments built by damming ravines or small valleys Lack 02 less cost lots of space required RacewaysFlow through tanks gt long channels or tanks with continuous flow of water easy to harvest fish and manage waste Recirculating System gt tank system which filters and re uses water Control environment need constant attention Cages gt floating enclosure uses existing water but vulnerable to disease environmental factors 8 Water Quality Factors temp gt most species cold blooded critical to growthsurvival salinity gt fresh water fish hypertonic saltwater fish hypotonic dissolved oxygen gt absorption from air aquatic plants photosynthesis Affected by temp time of day nutrient and thermal pollution ammonia nitrates pH alkalinity base present in water hardness measure of divalent ions toxins 9 Health Management water and feed quality housing stocking density infectious disease gt can treat through dipping tank flushing bathing feeding Lecture 20 Wildlife Zoo Exotic 1 Define wildlife zoo exotic conservation preservation Wildlife Rehabilitation Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna CITES Animal Welfare Act AWA Endangered Species Act ESA American Zoo and Aquarium Association Wildlife free living non domesticated animals Zoo confined exhibited non domesticated animals Exotic confinedowned non domesticated pets Conservation an effort to maintain and use natural resources wisely to ensure that resources will be available for future generations Preservation an effort to maintain the integrity of an ecosystem andor animal populations Wildlife Rehabilitators individuals vets and organizations that have been granted Wildlife Rehabilitation permitslicenses in accordance with state laws permitted individuals may legally posses and treat birds mammals reptiles etc and can not charge a few for services CITES international agreement between governments to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival Voluntary to participate AWA regulates warm blooded animals except rats biomedical researcg and teaching using covered species and covers the procurement handling housing treatment and transportation of covered animals ESA authorizes the determination and listing of species as endangeredthreatened prohibits unauthorized taking possession sale and transport of endangered species American Zoo and Aquarium Association organization of zoos and related facilities regulates the zoo industry through voluntary standards zoos must be accredited to become a member 2Components of Wildlife Management nutrition housing reproduction health waste mgt handlingrestraint marketing labor 3Describe the US Fish and Wildlife Service a bureau within the Department of Interior Work to conserve protect and enhance fish wildlife and plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people enforce federal wildlife laws protect endangered species manage migratory birds conserve and restore wildlife habitats 4Exotic Pet Management uniqueinteresting limited housingexercise hypoallergenic nutrition housing repro health lawsregulations finances handlingrestraint 5 Zoo Animal Management Old confinedisplay wild animals as entertainment menageries New provide habitats for non domesticated animals educateentertain people conserve captivewild animals Hierarchy membershipconcessionsvolunteers gt educatorsecurity gt vetcurators keepers gtdirector nutrition housing repro lawsregulations marketing labor finances health handling Lecture 21 Contraception 1 Define contraception GonaCon Zona Pellucida Contraception prevention of pregnancy through the use of surgical procedures or nonsurgical methods including devices practices chemicals and drugs GonaCon gnrh vaccine developed by USDA not 100 effective effectiveness decreases over time Zona Pellucida glyoprotein membrane around the oocyte plasma membrane block sperm receptors to inhibit fertilization 2 Management of Reproduction Increase Population provide resources assisted reproduction Decrease Population lethal means hunting trapping nonlethal means trapping and relocation 3Contraception Options for Males and Females Males surgical gt castration vasectomy removal of segment of ducts defren epididymectomy removal of section of epididymis nonsurgical intratesticular injection gt rapid to administer permanent effective expensive risk of tissue damage hormones gt reproductive steroids that cause negative feedback shut down hypothaamicpituitary gonadal axis immunocontraception gt use of an animals immune system system to prevent fertilization Females surgical gt ovariohysterecomy remove ovariesuterus ovariectomy remove ovaries nonsurgical gt hormones can do SQ of progesterone or megestrol acetate orally Progesterone can be reversed but retreatment is required and is also species specific can also do gnrh agonist deslorelin lutrelin through IM or SO injection is reversible nonsurgical effecive but retreatment is needed Low risk devices horse embryo transuterine migration gt hormones stimulate local contraction amp relaxation of the uterine muscle to propel the embryo
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