Practice Exam 2 and Concepts
Practice Exam 2 and Concepts biology 1305
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by star ornelas on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to biology 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Horacio O. Gonzalez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 829 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Biology 1305 2nd TEST CONCEPTS KNOW THE DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS FOR THE FOLLOWING 1 Cell fundamental units of life All organisms are composed of cells All cells come from preexisting cells 2 Cell theory first unifying theory of biology Studying cell biology is the same as studying life Life is continuous 3 Light microscope use glass lenses and light 4 Electron microscope electromagnets focus an electron beam 5 Surface areatovolume ratio Most cells are tiny in order to maintain The volume of a cell determines its metabolic activity relative to time The surface area of a cell determines the number of substances that can enter or leave the cell 6 Plasma membrane ls a selectively permeable barrier that allows cells to maintain a constant internal environment ls important in communication and receiving signals Often has proteins for binding and adhering to adjacent cells separates the cell from its environment and regulates traffic of materials into and out of the cell 7 Prokaryotic cell are without membraneenclosed compartments 8 Eukaryotic cell have membraneenclosed compartments 10 times larger 9 Cytoplasm have membraneenclosed compartments 10 times larger 10 Cytosol water and dissolved material and suspended particles 11 Ribosomes sites of protein synthesis are the structures in which genetic information is used to make proteins 12 Cell wall is the site of most cellular DNA which with associated proteins comprises chromatin supports the plant cell 13 Cytoskeleton composed of microtubules intermediate filaments and microfilaments Supports and maintains cell shape Holds organelles in position Moves organelles s involved in cytoplasmic streaming nteracts with extracellular structures to anchor cell in place Organellemembraneenclosed compartment 15 Nucleus is usually the largest organelle It is the location of DNA and of DNA replication It is the site where DNA is transcribed to RNA 16 Mitochondria are cell39s power plants chemical energy is converted to energyrich ATP 17 Rough Endoplasmic reticulumis the site of much protein synthesis 18 Smooth Endoplasmic reticulumchemical modification of small molecules including drugs and pesticides 19 Lysosomes A small round cell structure containing chemicals that break down large food particles into smaller ones 20 Vacuoles occur in some eukaryotes but mainly in plants and fungi 21 Chloroplasts harvest the energy of sunlight to produce sugar 22 Peroxisomes break down toxic peroxides colect and break down toxic byproducts of metabolism such as H202 using specialized enzymes 23 Golgi apparatus processes and packages proteins 24 Thylakoids A chloroplast is enclosed within two membranes with a series of internal membranes which granum is a stack of 25 Microfilaments Filaments made of actin help in cell movement and stabilization 26 Intermediate filaments Filaments made of keratin anchor structures and resist tension Anchor cell structures in place 27 Microtubules A hollow rod composed of tubulin proteins that makes up part of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells and is found in cilia and flagella 28 Centrioles Associated with the nuclear division animal cell 29 Extracellular matrix The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides 30 Endosymbiosis theory proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated from bacteria that took up residence within a primordial eukaryotic cell 31 Fluid Mosaic Model Membrane is a fluid structure with a quotmosaicquot of various proteins embedded in or attached to a bilayer of phospholipids 32 Phospholipid A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes 33 Phospholipid bilayer A double layer of phospholipids that makes up plasma and organelle membranes 34 Integral Protein Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane 35 Peripheral proteins Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer 36 Cholesterol A fat like substance found in meats dairy products and egg yolks 37 Glycolipids carbohydrates covalently bonded to lipids 38 Glycoproteins proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them 39 Tight junctions Membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together preventing leakage of extracellular fluid 40 Desmosomes Anchoring junctions found in areas subjected to pulling forces 41 Gap junctions Communicating Junctions channels that allow small molecules to flow through proteinlined pores between cells 42 Passive transport no outside energy requireddiffusion 43 Active transport energy required directional and moves a substance against its concentration gradient 44 Diffusion the process of random movement toward equilibrium 45 Osmosis the diffusion of water depends on the of solute particles present not the type of particles 46 lsotonic A solution with equal solute concentration as compared to another solution Hypertonic A solution with a higher solute concentration as compared to another solution Hypotonic A solution with lower solute concentration as compared to another solution 47 Ion channel important channel proteins Allow ions to diffuse down concentration gradien 48 Carrier proteins a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane 49 Primary active transport Energy from ATP causes shape change in transport protein so that the solutes can be pumped across membrane The pump is the 39SodiumPotassium pump 50 Secondary active transport Form of active transport which does not use ATP as an energy source rather transport is coupled to ion diffusion down a concentration gradient established by primary active transport 51 Sodiumpotassium pump A transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell 52 Endocytosis A process that transport materials to the exterior of cells Active transport process where a cell engulfs materials with a portion of the cell39s plasma membrane and releases the contents inside of the cell 53 Phagocytosis cells that take materials into the cell and break them down quotcell eatingquot 54 Pinocytosis A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes Cell drinking 55 Receptormediated endocytosis The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles The vesicles contain proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in 56 Exocytosis Moves materials out of the cell in vesicles important in the secretion of substances made in the cell 57 Signal transduction pathway sequence of molecular events that respond to a signal 58 Autocrine signals affect the same cell that release them 59 Paracrine signals diffuse to and affect nearby cells 60 Receptor can be classified by their location in the cell 61 Kinase An enzyme that transfers phosphate ions from one molecule to another 62 G proteinlinked receptors expose a site that can bind to a membrane protein partially inserted in the lipid bilayer and partially exposed on the cytoplasmic surface Biology 1305 Practice Test 2 1 The roles of biological membranes in eukaryotic cells include which of the functions listed below A Separating a cell from its environment B Selecting what goes into and out of the cell C Maintaining a constant internal environment D Communicating with adjacent cells 2 A large organelle found in eukaryotic cells that genetically controls the cell39s activities is the A chloroplast C agellum D vacuole E centriole 3 Of the following structures of an animal cell the one with the largest volume is the A cilium B mitochondrion C lysosome E ribosome 4 The membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum are continuous with the membranes of the I B Golgi apparatus C nucleolus D plasma membrane E mitochondria Page 1 Ribosomes are the structures in which A chemical energy is stored by making ATP B cell division is controlled D sunlight energy is converted into chemical energy E new organelles are made The rough ER is the portion of the ER that A lacks ribosomes B contains genetic information D is connected to the Golgi apparatus E is the site of steroid synthesis Lysosomes are important to eukaryotic cells because they contain A photosynthetic pigments B starch molecules for energy storage C their own DNA molecules D nucleolus Which of the following organelles were once independent prokaryote organisms A Mitochondria and lysosomes C Chloroplasts and Golgi apparatus D Golgi apparatus and ribosomes E Ribosomes and lysosomes Page 2 9 10 ll 12 Diagram The very large organelle shown below has genetic control of the cell39s activities his structure A mitochondrion B endoplasmic reticulum D E vacuole Golgi apparatus The compounds in biological membranes that form a barrier to the movement of hydrophilic materials across the membrane are A B I D E integral membrane proteins carbohydrates nucleic acids peripheral membrane proteins In biological membranes the phospholipids are arranged in a B bilayer with the fatty acids facing outward C single layer with the fatty acids facing the interior of the cell D single layer with the phosphoruscontaining region facing the interior of the cell E bilayer with the phosphorus groups in the interior of the membrane When vesicles from the Golgi apparatus deliver their contents to the exterior of the cell they add their membranes to the plasma membrane The plasma membrane does not increase in size because A B some vesicles from the Golgi apparatus fuse with the lysosomes membrane vesicles carry proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus D new phospholipids are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum E the phospholipids become more tightly packed together in the membrane Page 3 13 Are membranes present in prokaryotes B Both external and internal membranes are present C No prokaryoyes lack a plasma membrane D Sometimes a membrane is present and sometimes is absent E Yes but only for a short time before being degraded 14 Which of the following is not a function of plasma membranes A Conversion of glucose energy to ATP B Arrangement of enzymes C Turning off of a specific cell function D Conduction of nerve impulses 15 What is the main function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum A protein synthesis and modifications B transport of oxygen to tissues C provides protections and guides cellular signaling D selective restriction of alcohol molecules in cells 16 The Golgi has several roles including A It concentrates packages and sorts proteins B It adds some carbohydrates to proteins C It is Where some polysaccharides for plants are synthesized E None of the above 17 What are microfilaments B Filaments made of keratin anchor structures and resist tension C Hollow cylinders made of tubulin provide rigidity and facilitate movements D Filaments and cylinders provide uidity to the cytosol E Protein networks provide porosity to plasma membranes 18 What are intermediate filaments A Filaments made of actin help in cell movement and stabilization C Hollow cylinders made of tubulin provide rigidity and facilitate movements W D Filaments and cylinders provide uidity to the cytosol Page 4 E Protein networks provide porosity to plasma membranes 19 Define microtubules A Filaments made of actin help in cell movement and stabilization B Filaments made of keratin anchor structures and resist tension D Filaments and cylinders provide uidity to the cytosol E Protein networks provide porosity to plasma membranes 20 What biochemical property allows phospholipids to create a bilayer in cells A Phospolipids are an essential component of nucleic acids C Phospholipids oat freely in the cytsol D Phospolipids dissolve in water very rapidly E Phospholipids are rigid and provide protection in membranes 21 Two important factors that affect membrane uidity are B Energy and entropy C Protein composition and gravity D Atomic structure and humidity E None of the above 22 What is the difference between integral and peripheral proteins A Peripheral proteins are embedded in the membrane integral proteins are external B Peripheral proteins produce water during osmosis integral proteins are dry D There is no difference both are identical proteins E Integral proteins are in chromosomes peripheral are in mitochondria 23 What is the difference between active and passive transport A Active transport requires entropy passive transport requires energy input B Active transport uses enzymes passive transport involves lipid signaling D Active transport occurs in the nucleus passive transport occurs in mitochondria E Active transport is very slow passive transport is fast Page 5 24 What is a hypertonic solution A A solution with a higher solute concentration as compared to another solution B A solution with equal solute concentration as compared to another solution D A solution with low diffusion rates E A solution in which osmosis takes place 25 What is a isotonic solution A A solution with a higher solute concentration as compared to another solution C A solution with lower solute concentration as compared to another solution D A solution with low diffusion rates E A solution in which osmosis takes place 26 What is a hypotonic solution B A solution with equal solute concentration as compared to another solution C A solution with lower solute concentration as compared to another solution D A solution with low diffusion rates E A solution in which osmosis takes place 27 When placed in a hypertonic solution animal cells B swell C burst D grow E reproduce 28 Some functions of ion channels include A Respiration within the mitochondria B Electrical activity of the nervous system C Opening the pores in leaves D Allow diffusion of polar molecules Page 6 29 30 31 32 33 34 Define primary active transport B A form of transport that use gradients established by primary active transport C A form of transport in which diffusion is enhanced by increased polarity D The random movement of molecules toward equilibrium E The increase in entropy of a system Define secondary active transport A A form of transport that involves the use of ATP as energy source C A form of transport in which diffusion is enhanced by increased polarity D The random movement of molecules toward equilibrium E The increase in entropy of a system Secondary active transport is involved in A The transport of potassium ions in cells B The transport of sodium ions in cells C The uptake of aminoacids D The uptake of sugars What is endocytosis A A process that transport materials to the exterior of cells B A mechanism that regulates osmosic pressure in cells C The maintenance of an internal equilibrium in cells E A process that brings small ions into cells Define phagocytosis B Cellular drinking C Cellular capture of specific macromolecules using receptors D Cellular traffic E Cell death Define pinocytosis A Cellular eating C Cellular capture of specific macromolecules using receptors Page 7 D Cellular traffic E Cell death 35 Define receptormediated pinocytosis 36 A Cellular eating B Cellular drinking D Cellular traffic E Cell death The process by which materials are secreted in vesicles from the cell is called B Phagocytosis C Pinocytosis D Receptosis E Endocytosis 37 A signal transduction pathway is 38 A The metabolic reactions occurring in cells B The pathway that produces sugars from sun energy C A signal that is stored in the nucleus of cells D A process of transport of materials within cells Autocrine signals A affect all cells in an organism B travel to distant parts of the body D are neutral signals with no effects E diffuse to and affect nearby cells 39 Paracrine signals A affect all cells in an organism B travel to distant parts of the body C affect the same cell that release them D are neutral signals with no effects a3 39FT I j L U E i Page 8 40 What is a protein kinase A A protein that catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur group B A protein that is embedded in the plasma memberane C A protein that transfers carboxyl groups D A protein that interacts With lipids to produce energy Page 9