Study Guide 1
Study Guide 1 108-2F
Popular in Human Population Earth Environment
Popular in Environmental Science
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by josiepelham on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 108-2F at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Julie G Price (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Human Population Earth Environment in Environmental Science at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Tist 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 0 Renewable Resources can be replenished over short periods of time 0 Solar energy inexhaustible Wind energy inexhaustible Wave energy inexhaustible Freshwater exhaustible Forest products exhaustible Soils exhaustible We are using renewable resources 50 faster than they are being replenished Nonrenewable Resources unavailable after depletion 0 Crude oil 0 Natural gas 0 Coal 0 Minerals Ecosystem Services arise from the normal functioning of natural services and allow us to survive o Pollination o Insect predators help farmers so we don t have to use so many pesticides o Nutrients cycle Ecological Footprint area of biologically productive land and water to provide resources and disposerecycle waste 0 Overshoot when people have surpassed Earth s capacity to support us 0 Easter Island civilization disappeared because all of the resources were exhausted o Interdisciplinary actions of environmental science 0 Leaded gas 0 Environmentalism social movement to save the planet ObservationalDescriptive Science 0 Info is gathered about organisms materials systems or process that are not well known 0 Used in astronomy paleontology taxonomy molecular biology and genomics Hvoothesisdriven Science oTargeted structured research o Experiments test hypotheses using the scienti c method 0 Scienti c Method testing ideas with observations 0 Observations lead to questions about something 0 Hypothesis statement that tries to answer the question OOOOO 00000 O The hypothesis generates predictions Scientists test predictions by conducting experiments Observation l Question Hypothesis Predictions Test Results Independent Variable can be manipulated Dependent variable depends on the independent variable Control unmanipulated point of comparison 0 quotFollowing the Moneyquot 0 0 Since nding money for research is dif cult scientists who are offered money by big companies might be encouraged lessen the results of the experiment Example a scientist wants to study the effects of paperplastic mills that release chemicals into lakes A paperplastic mill wants to hire this scientist to research their company The company might pressure the scientist to not release their results if they make the company look bad Bene ts The company might take into consideration the results of the study and opt for a cleaner way of releasing waste 0 Theory 0 O 0 Well tested and widely accepted explanation for something Extensively validated through a lot of research Ex Gravity Paradigm dominant view Paradigm Shift when the dominant view is replaced 0 Environmental Ethics application of ethical standards to relationship between humans and nonhumans entities O O Anthropocentrism only humans have rights No bene t to people no value Biocentrism certain things have value opposes development that destroys life Eco centrism whole ecological system has value Preservation Ethics nature deserves protection for its own value people look at nature as a sacred being like a church Conservation Ethics protect forest but still take advantage greatest good for the most people for the longest amount of time Land Ethic Protect all parts of the ecosystem we are obligated to protect the land ethically Environmental Justice fair treatment of all people with respect to the environment regardless of income race or ethnicity Not putting all of the waste facilities in low income places 0 Sustainability 0 0 living within our planet s means leaving our descendants with a rich full world conserving resources developing solutions keeping fully functioning ecosystems Renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels 0 Energyefficient efforts Chapter 2 0 Feedback loops A circular process in which a system s output serves as input to that same system opposite of what you think is good and is bad 0 Negative feedback Stabilizes a system sweating 0 Positive feedback drives a system further toward the extreme warm temps melt ice and the re ection from the water warms the temperature even more causing more ice to melt o Eutrophication nutrient over enrichment o Blooms of algae 0 Increased production of organic matter 0 Ecosystem degradation 0 Example nitrogen and phosphorous enter Chesapeake Bayl phytoplankton growl bacteria eat dead phytoplankton and deplete oxygen other sh ee or suffocate 0 Law of conservation of matter Matter can be transformed from one type of substance into others but it cannot be destroyed or created o It is recycled in nutrients and ecosystems 0 Can t wish away pollution and waste 0 DH Scale o element chemical substance with a given set of properties nutrients elements that we need to survive compound molecule composed of 2 elements acidic pH less than 7 basic pH greater than 7 neutral 7 osynthesis Occurs in chloroplast lnputs Carbon dioxide Water light Outputs glucose oxygen heat 0 Autotrophs o Organisms that use the sun s energy to produce their own food Heterotrophs o Organisms that gain energy by feeding on others 0 Sun energy flows in one direction through ecosystems Energy is processed and transformed cquot1quot OPh OIOIO O O O O O 0000 Matter is recycled within ecosystems Outputs heat water ow and waste Net Primary Production Energy remaining after respiration Gross primary production cellular respiration Generates biomass Available to heterotrophs Biochemical Cycle Movement of nutrients through ecosystems Pool reservoir where nutrients remain for a period of time Source reservoir that releases more materials than it accepts Sink reservoir that accepts more than it receives Flux rate at which materials move between reservoirs can change 0 Water Cycle 0 00000 Evaporation liquid to gas Transpiration release of water vapor by plants Precipitationrain or snow Aquifers reservoir that holds groundwater Water table uppermost level of groundwater Human effects Damming slows movement ampincreases evaporation Removal of vegetation increases runoff Overdrawing groundwater Air pollution changes precipitation Carbon Cycle 0 O O O Producers move carbon from air to water and organisms Respiration returns it to the air Oceans are second largest reservoir of carbon Decomposition returns carbon to sediment the largest reservoir ofcarbon Human impact Burning fossil fuels uses up carbon in the ground Cutting forests moves carbon from organisms to air 0 Nitrogen Cycle 0 O O O O 0 Makes up 78 of atmosphere Nitrogen gas is inert and can t be used in organisms Potent fertilizer 1Nitrogen fixation lightning xes nitrogen gas into ammonium 2Nitrification bacteria convert ammonium into nitrite ions that plants absorb Animals get nitrogen from eating plants 3Denitrification bacteria convert nitrates into gas and it is released back into atmosphere 0 Industrial xation Fixes nitrogen on a massive scale 0 Human effects Overwhelm nature s denitri cation abilities Hypoxia in coastal areas nasty water and dead sh Fertilizers strip soil of nutrients amp reduces fertility Smog Phosphorous Cycle 0 Most phosphorous is found in rocks 0 Released through weathering 0 Human Effects Runoff increases phytoplankton blooms and hypoxia Riparian zone requires farmers to maintain vegetation on either side of a body of water to buffer runoff Chapter 5 0 Economy Social system that converts resources into goods and services 0 Adam Smith s invisible hand 0 selfinterested economic behavior could bene t society if laws were followed and markets were competitive 0 Classical economics People pursue economic selfinterest in a competitive marketplace market is guided by an quotinvisible handquot Society bene ts 0 Neoclassical economics Examines the psychological factors that underlie consumer choices Market prices re ect consumer preference Supply vs demand Con ict between buyers and sellers leads to Production of the quotrightquot quantities of a product Four assumptions Recourses are replaceable replacements won t be found fossil fuels 0 Costs and bene ts are internal operational expenses ignores social cost of pollution External cost affect other people than just the buyers and sellers 0 Discount longterm effects o All growth is good economic growth is needed to keep jobs and social order but the economy can t endlessly grow 0 Cost bene t analysis Costs of a proposed action are compared to bene ts that result from the action If bene ts gtcosts pursue the action 0 External Costs Affect people other than buyers or sellers lnclude health problems resource depletion property damage 0 Economic Growth 0 Needed to keep jobs and social order o It creates opportunities for poor to become wealthier 0 Progress is measured by economic growth 0 Endless growth cannot be sustained because resources to support growth are ultimately limited Nonmarket values Not included in price of good or service 0 Market failure occurs when 0 Markets ignore the environment 0 Markets ignore the negative effects of activities on the environment or people 0 Government intervention counters market failures through laws and regulations 0 Environmental policy 0 Pertains to human interaction with the environment 0 Regulates resource use or reduces pollution o Tragedy of the commons overuse of natural resources 0 Various factors can obstruct environmental policy Perception that environmental protection means economic sac ce Environmental policies re ect longterm trends but short term interests are often viewed as more important Wealth and power exert disproportionate in uence on policy makers 0 Our nation s strength depends on proper use of science 0 Free riders people who are tempted to cheat and not participate in sacri cing to protect the environment US pioneered innovative policies 0 Federal government is mirrored at the state level 0 State law cannot violate principles of constitution 0 AL Department of Environmental Management makes sure our water and air are clean to federal standards 0 First wave General land ordinances encouraged people to move west These people believed the land was in nite and inexhaustible 0 Second wave Yellowstone was the rst ever national park 1872 1964 Wilderness Act preserves land 0 Third wave 20th century air pollution dirty water more waste than in the past Rachel Carson Silent Spring 1962 Book about chemicals and pesticides 0 Today US health is better protected and the air and water are cleaner mainly because of policies of the 19605 0 Environmental Protection Agency EPA 1970 Conducts and evaluates research Monitors environmental quality Sets and enforces standards for pollution levels Assists states in meeting standards and goals Educates the public 0 Green taxes 0 Taxes on environmentally harmful products 0 Businesses reimburse the public for damage they cause 0 The more pollution the higher the tax payment 0 Polluter Pays Principle 0 party that does the pollution pays for the damage it causes Subsidy government giveaway of money or resources to promote industry or activity 0 Eco labeling tells consumers which brands have been grown using sustainable resources Chapter 3 0 Natural Selection main driving force of revolution that we can see 0 Enhanced survival and reproduction genes are passed on 0 Central case study Hawii s native birds 0 Species populationgroup of populations whose members share characteristics and can breed with each other to produce fertile offspring 0 Molecular species change this de nition slimy salamander Population group of individuals of a species that live in the same area at the same time 0 Evolution O O O 0 Change over time Biological evolution Genetic change in population overtime Genetic changes often lead to modi cations in appearance or behavior Evolutionary processes in uence agriculture pesticide resistance medications health and diseases Adaptations characteristics that promote reproductive success Mutations accidental DNA changes Nonlethal mutations provide genetic variations on which natural selection acts Sexual reproductions new DNA Changes take time Divergent evolution Overtime change that derived from one ancestor Arti cial selection Selection conducted under human direction 0 Biodiversity O O O O The variety of life across all levels of biological organization Genes Species Populations Communities 18 Million species that we know of Speciation generating new species Allopatric speciation Species form because of physical separation of population 0 Main mode of speciation Population can be separated by glaciers rivers mountains 0 Each population with its own set of mutations diverges Phylogenetic trees Diagram that shows relationships among species groups genes etc o Taxonomists O O Classify organisms according to genetic makeup and physical appearance Hierarchy system Domain Kingdom Philip Class Order Family Genus Species o Endemic Species Exists only in certain areas Very susceptible to extinction Population is small Causes of extinction 0 Climate change new species specialized species destroying habitats pollution overhunting Ecology study of interaction among organisms o Organismal individuals and environment Population population changes Community species diversity and interactions Ecosystem living and nonliving Landscape how and why ecosystems community and populations are distributed Habitat environment where organisms live living and nonliving o Niche functional role in a community Specialist has speci c niche Generalist broad niche 0 Habitat selection process by which organisms actively select habitats Criteria food shelter breeding sites and mates Population size number of individuals present at a given time Population density number of individuals in a population per unit area 0 High densities high competition and vulnerability to predation and diseases 0 Low densities heard to nd mates but more space Sex ratio male to female Age structure predict population growth Natality births within a population Mortality deaths within population lmmigration arrival from outside of population Emigration leaving a population Rate of natural increase birth rate minus death rate Exponential growth xed percent Limiting factors physical and chemical Carrying capacity amp collard doves Species Interaction 0 Interaction is the backbone of community 0000 0 Type 0 Effect on 0 Effect on species 1 species 2 0 Competition 0 o o Predation o o Parasitism Herbivory o Mutualism o o Producers consumers primary secondary tertiary depravities and decomposers Study the different biomes
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