New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

COSD exam 3 study guide

by: Maycie Tidwell

COSD exam 3 study guide COSD 10303

Maycie Tidwell
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This is a review/study guide for what will be covered on the third exam.
Survey of Communication Disorders
Study Guide
COSD, Exam 3, communication, disorders
50 ?




Popular in Survey of Communication Disorders

Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences

This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COSD 10303 at Texas Christian University taught by Watson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Survey of Communication Disorders in Nursing and Health Sciences at Texas Christian University.

Similar to COSD 10303 at TCU

Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences


Reviews for COSD exam 3 study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/15/16
COSD 10303: Survey of Communication Disorders Review for Exam III Chapter 9: Disorders of Articulation and Phonology 1) What are phonotactic rules?  The phonemes for American English, or other languages.  Ex: 26 letters for 41- 43 different speech sounds in English  Phonemes combine by following certain phonotactic rules. And this is very language specific. (letters represent different sounds)  IPA is what SLPs use (international phonetic alphabet) What is a phoneme and allophone?  Phoneme: speech sound. Phonemes combine by following certain phonotactic rules. And this is very language specific. (letters represent different sounds) Phonemes are either vowels are consonants.  Allophone: variations of phonemes. Ex: vowels preceding a nasal are nasalized, ham vs. had. How do we classify consonants? Why is it important to have such a classification system? Place: where is it being produced in the vocal tract Voicing: whether there is vibration or not Manner: how we produce a sound (descriptive) plosive or fricative  What structures are used when looking at the place where a phoneme is produced?  Bilabial: 2 lips  Labial dental: lips and teeth ex- “ff”  Interdental: use your teeth  Alveolar: use alveolar ridge “ll” or “ts”  Palatal: use your palate  Velar: in the back  Glottal: ex- “hh” What are the different ways phonemes can be produced according to the “manner of production?”  Stop ex: “g”  Fricative ex: “sss”  Affricate ex: “ch”  Resonants:  Nasals  Approximates  -glides (“y”)  -liquids (“l”, “r”) What is the difference between voiced and voiceless phonemes? Voiced ex: “dg” Voiceless ex: “shh” Voiced makes your vocal cords vibrate. How do tongue and lip positions and tension impact production and classification of vowels?  All English vowels are normally voiced and not nasal.  Tongue position refers to part of tongue: front, center, and back. & Height: high, mid, low.  Lip position may be rounded or retracted.  Vowels are tense or lax.  What is a diphthong?  a combination of two vowels produced in close proximity and treated as a single phoneme.  Ex: front and closed “bead” open “bat” What is distinctive feature analysis? What is an example of two distinctive features?  All phonemes can theoretically be described based on the presence [+] or absence [-] of each of the distinctive features, such as nasal, anterior, distributed. Ex: “m” or “n.” What is the progression of speech sound development from infancy to school-aged? Give a brief description and example for each stage (i.e., prespeech, toddler speech, preschool speech, and school-age speech). How much of a 3 year old’s speech should we be able to understand?  Pre-speech  Toddler speech  Preschool speech  School-age speech  Pre-speech: Newborns: Reflexive and Vegetative Crying helps them to get a feeling a vocalization in their vocal folds 2 mo: cooing/going: non-distress sounds -sounds similar to back (velum) sounds “k” and “g” 3 mo: vocalizations in response to others 5-12 mo: progressively more complex --babbling stops “b” “p” “t” “d” nasal “m” “n” --reduplicated babbling ( the twin babies) strings of CV repetitions --echolalia (8-10 mo.) repeating or echoing --Jargon (saying random sounds really fast like they’re talking) --Phonetically consistent forms (PCFs) “ba” for “pacifier” ; “iggy” for “gimme” Toddler Speech: st 12 mo: 1 recognizable word --words with CV structure are the easiest ex: “baba” “mama” “dada” “wawa” they may also omit final consonants (CVC becomes CV) --may contain various phonological processes when a child substitutes a stop for a fricative ex: “pat” for “fat” “pum” for “thumb” Preschool Speech: Most phonological processes disappear by age 4 -- Consonant blends may continue to be difficult E.g., spoon, street, draw, squirrel -- Generalizations regarding sound acquisition Vowels are easier than consonants Sounds first appear in initial position Stops and nasals are acquired first Many individual differences --Order of sound mastery School-aged Speech: Should resemble adult speech. Multiple consonant blends are still hard to do. Morphophonemic contrasts. -change in pronunciation resulting from morphological changes. TEST Q: at 3 years of age, you should be able to understand 75 to 90% of their speech.  Define phonology and articulation.  Phonology: study and knowledge of sounds of language and rules governing their production and combination.  Articulation: actual production of these sounds. How are articulation disorders typically characterized?  Phonological or articulation impairments. Phonological impairments: disorders of conceptualization or language rules  Classes of sounds & sound patterns  Phonology disorder saying “tup” instead of “cup”  Or saying “did” instead of “dig”  Articulation impairments: disorders of production  Substitutions, omissions, distortions, & additions  Not being able to pronounce certain sounds such as “r” in “friends” or “l” in “life” What are phonological processes? What is an example of a phonological process?  Patterns of sound errors that typically developing children use to simplify speech as they are learning to talk. They do this because they don't have the ability to coordinate the lips, tongue, teeth, palate and jaw for clear speech.  What is the difference between a functional and organic cause of sound production problems?  Functional: unknown cause, intact mechanism, and no neurological damage.  Organic: mechanism is challenged in some way, neurological damage. What is the difference between an articulation delay and an articulation disorder?  Delayed: articulation resembles that of much younger child  Disordered: articulation is idiosyncratic (peculiar)  Distinction often difficult. How do the following associated disorders impact articulation and phonology? Language impairments: About 60% of children who are hard to understand have articulation + general language deficits.  Some have learning disabilities  They might use simpler and less grammatically correct speech.  Intelligence normal, but special help needed.  This might impair their reading/writing skills. Hearing impairments: Affected by:  Age of onset (developmental vs. acquired)  The later the age of onset, the better chance they will be fine.  Degree and type of earing loss History of otitis media is often a factor. Neuromuscular disorders: Known cause:  Motor speech disorder caused by neuromuscular deficits that result in weakness or paralysis and/or poor coordination of the speech musculature.  Spastic: Slow rate, imprecise articulation, harsh voice, hypernasality, prosodic abnormalities  75-85% of children with cerebral palsy have impaired speech.  Later onset due to muscular dystrophy, stroke, tumor, degenerative disease, e.g. Parkinson’s disease.  Articulation: imprecise; consistent errors. Apraxia of Speech:  The planning of speech, nothing is wrong with the motor of the speech.  Neurological cause: impairment in programming speech musculature  Errors inconsistent, poor imitation, vowel + consonant misarticulations, groping when producing sounds on command, rate/rhythm and prosody abnormalities. Groping for words (word finding problems to plan out the rest of the sentence)  Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)  Adults: damage to left side of brain from degenerative disease, tumor, stroke, other trauma. (damage to left side of brain wouldn’t affect speech)  CAS and adult onset apraxia may be distinct disorders because of different etiology. Cleft Palate:  Often detrimental to speech. Affects the soft and hard palate. Other Organic Abnormalities i. Lips ii. Teeth iii. Tongue English as a second language: 1. Recognize cultural differences 2. Evaluate phonological competence in relevant language when possible 3. Select appropriate assessment tools 4. Use non-standard assessments often, with help of bilingual assistants 5. Describe phonological patterns 6. Diagnose phonological disorders that exist  Goal: To improve intelligibility and communicative effectiveness, not eliminate accent or dialect.  **not a disorder, it is a difference!! What are the goals of phonological assessment? What are some procedures for reaching those goals (e.g., get case history, complete standardized tests)? o Describe speech-sound inventory o Identify error patterns o Determine impact of errors on communicative effectiveness o Identify etiological factors o Plan treatment when appropriate o Make prognosis o Monitor change over time Case history, interview, oral peripheral exam, hearing screening, collect baseline data. What are some prognostic indicators for success in therapy? Prognostic Indicators: Lack of consistency, stimulability, error sound discrimination ability, external & internal Poorer Prognosis:  Lack of consistency in errors  Lack of stimulability for correct production  Inability to discriminate error sound from the target sound  External (i.e., interpersonal)  Internal (i.e., intrapersonal)  The major goal of phonologic/articulation therapy is to increase intelligibility, make client easier to understand.  In reaching that goal, the clinician must decide on which targets (e.g., speech sounds) to work on. What are the issues s/he may consider in choosing the therapy targets? Consider:  Importance of possible targets to client  Frequency of targets within the language  Likelihood of success: Ease of mastery & stimulability (However, greater generalization to non-target phonemes occurs when targets are more difficult) Describe and give an example for each of the following intervention approaches: Bottom-Up Drill :  Progress from simple to more complex  Target one sound at a time  Speech assignments for generalization Traditional Motor Approach Four stages: 1. Ear Training (identification, location, stimulation, discrimination) 2. Production Training (isolation, syllables, words, phrases, sentences) 3. Stabilization (reinforcement and review) 4. Transfer or carry-over Sensory-Motor Approach 3 stages: 1. Production Training (isolation, syllables, words, phrases, sentences) 2. Stabilization (reinforcement and review) 3. Transfer or carry-over Language Based:  Instruction is implicit -Within language activities (ie. Reading a book)  Has proven to generalize to conversational speech -Following drill-type therapy Phonological-Based: Cycles approach: (just cycle through all words they have trouble with). Minimal pair contrasts. Multiple Oppositions Approach: Maximal contrasts (contrast “tink” with “sink” or “think”) “no you’re not tinking you’re thinking.” Metaphon Approach: Metaphonological skills. Complexity Approach:  Training the more difficult sounds first sounds leads to generalization of easier, untrained sounds.  More efficient  May take more time initially  Success depends on  Severity  Frustration level  Overall therapy goal Explain the following treatments for neurologically based motor-speech disorders: Dynamic Temporal and Tactile Cueing:  Intensive, motor-based, drill-type treatment for severe childhood AOS (say chair, char, chair, chair.)  Simultaneous production, imitation, delayed imitation, spontaneous production Lee Silverman Voice Treatment:  Designed to increase loudness in adults with PD (parkinsons)  Effective with modifications for children with CP Computer Applications:  Computer programs and games  In conjunction with direct therapy  Opportunity for daily practice  Can involve family members in treatment process Chapter 8: Voice and Resonance Disorders 1) Explain the normal phonation process.  Proper voice and resonance. 2) Describe how the pitch of one’s voice changes with age.  The length of vocal folds increase with age, which changes the pitch. 3) Explain how one changes the pitch of the voice.  Pitch change is done by changing the VF length and tension. 4) Define:  Habitual pitch: speaker’s average fundamental frequency  Optimal Pitch: most suitable for your size, gender and age.  *Goal is for your habitual pitch to match your optimal pitch.  Average F – 0undamental frequency: number of times the VFs open and close per second  Adult Males: 125 Hz  Adult females: 250 Hz  Young children: up to 500 Hz 5) Explain how one changes the loudness of the voice.  Increasing subglottic/ alveolar pressure.  (Below the level of the glottis and the VF stay closed longer when they’re vibrating)  ***that’s why it can hurt when you’re screaming a lot. 6) Describe the perceptual signs of a voice disorder  Pitch: monopitch or too high or too low  Vocal Loudness: monoloudness, or too loud or too soft  Vocal Quality: hoarseness, breathiness, tremor, and strain  Nonphonatory vocal disorders: (not when you’re talking) -Stridor -Excessive Throat clearing -Consistent aphonia (without a voice): someone who consistently talks in a whisper. -Episodic aphonia (uncontrolled aphonia) Perceptual signs of disorders of voice: 1. Pitch 2. Loudness 3. Quality 4. Nonphonatory 5. Aphonia TEST Q: Frequency and intensity is what you measure. What you hear is pitch and loudness. 7) Describe voice disorders that are associated with vocal misuse or abuse.  Vocal nodules:  Start soft and become hard  Usually bilateral  At the junction of anterior 1/3 and posterior 2/3  Mostly females 20 – 50 years and children  Hoarseness; breathiness  Need to alter vocal behavior  Kids can also get this if they abuse their voice a lot  If you have hoarseness for 2 weeks, then you should go to the doctor and get it checked out.  Contact ulcers:  Posterior surface of fold  Bilateral  Can be painful  Use to think aggressive speech, now gastric reflux  Mild hoarseness to aphonia; breathiness  Occur more often in men  The bump makes patient have breathiness  Ulcers are harder and painful compared to nodules. They are also farther back on the vocal folds.  Vocal polyps:  Caused by trauma by vocal misuse/abuse  Feel something in throat  Unilateral, longer than nodule & vascular (fluid filled)  Prone to hemorrhage (bleed)  2 kinds: Sessile & pedunculated  Hoarseness; breathiness’ roughness  Acute and chronic laryngitis:  Inflammation of folds  Exposure to noxious agents (Clorox), allergies or vocal abuse  Acute: temporary swelling- hoarseness  If you have acute but you continue to yell it can lead to chronic  Chronic: vocal abuse during acute laryngitis  If persists atrophy of folds  From mild hoarseness to aphonia (without a voice)  Surgery and then voice therapy 8) What are some behaviors that are considered vocal misuse or abuse? Misuse: -abrupt voicing onsets -high laryngeal position -lack of pitch variability Abuse: -screaming or yelling -excessive alcohol -excessive throat clearing or coughing 9) Describe voice disorders associated with certain medical or physical conditions, including disorders associated with hypoadduction and hyperadduction. Hypoadduction: not adducting or closing enough  Parkinson’s disease: Voice symptoms  Monopitch, monoloudness, harshness, breathiness  Vocal fold paralysis: recurrent nerve (CN X: cranial nerve 10)  Hoarse, weak, breathy  Unilateral (one VF doesn’t move to come together)  Diplophonia (perception of 2 frequencies)  Bilateral (both VF don’t come together)  Weak or absent voice  After 6 mos., surgery/Teflon or collagen Hyperadduction: over-adducting or closing  Spastic dysarthia:  Great difficulty swallowing and speaking  Harshness, pitch breaks, strained or strangled voice quality  Emotional lability (no tie to real emotions or feelings)  Bilateral brain damage  Spasmodic dysphonia:  Strained, effortful, tight voice, intermittent voice  Neurological, psychological, idiopathic (unknown cause) Laryngeal papillomas: Wart-like growths  Caused by papovavirus (causes warts)  Common in children < 6 years  Noncancerous  Surgically removed – Often recurring Congenital laryngeal webbing: -Can interfere with breathing -Must be removed surgically -High pitch, hoarse voice Laryngeal cancer: Esophageal speech  Electolarynx  Written communication  Tracheoesophageal puncture / shunt (TEP)  Signs: persistent hoarseness (no cold/allergies)  Remove larynx-stoma Tips for talking to people with laryngectomy: -Listen carefully -Keep eye contact -Focus -Be aware of ambient noise Granuloma: -Due to trauma – like surgical intubation - Requires surgery 10) Describe voice disorders associated with certain psychological conditions. Also referred to as (psychogenic voice disorders)  Conversion disorders: showing psychological stress in physical ways. Ex: numbness.  Conversion aphonia: Psychogenic disorder. Very rare, caused by psychological disorder. 11) Describe resonance disorders.  Hypernasality: too much nasality. Audible nasal emissions. (onn high pressure consonants)  Hyponasality: partial blockage of naso-pharynx or nasal cavity. 12) Describe the embryological development of the face and palate. Facial Development: th th -Mandible forms during 4 and 5 weeks of gestation. -Upper face structures form during 5 and 8th weeks. th th -Hard and soft palate fusion during the 8 – 12 week -Face forms from 4 to 12th week. 13) How are clefts classified? Veau system:  Class 1-4:  Class 1: soft palate only  Class 2: hard and soft palate all the way to incisive foramen.  Class 3: Complete unilateral cleft of soft & hard pal and lip and alveolar ridge on 1 side. (steven)  Class 4: Complete bilateral cleft of the soft and hard pal and/or lip and alveolar ridge on both sides  Cleft of lip alone: minor “V” shape. (rare) 14) What causes clefts of the lip and palate?  Genetic disorders (steven) th  Chromosomal aberrations (trisomy 13: no 13 chromosome)  Teratogenically induced disorders (ex: if parent took drugs)  Mechanically induced abnormalities (twins being crammed) (external) 15) How often do these clefts occur?  1 in 750 live births. TEST Q  2 times more often in males  Differences in racial/ethnic groups  Black: less common  Native Americans: more frequent  Whites: average/ in the middle  Seems to be increasing (prenatal care, increased gene pool) 16) Who serves on the cleft palate team? Name 6  Nurses, nutritionist, occupational therapist, SLPs, parents, oral and plastic surgeon, geneticist, prosthodontics, pediatrician, radiologist, anesthesiologist, 17) What are the primary and secondary surgeries associated with cleft lip and palate? Primary  Lip surgery: 11 weeks  Repair of cleft: 11 months Secondary  Pharyngeal flap to correct  Velopharyngeal incompetence 11 month:  Palatal repair  Left a fistula  Asymmetrical velum 18) Describe the dental and audiological issues associated with cleft lip and palate. Dental  Orthodontics  Prosthodontist- obturator Audiological  Higher incidence of hearing disorders  Usually a conductive loss (middle ear)  Otitis media  Testing needs to be done every 3-6 months 19) Describe the communication problems associated with clefts of the lip and palate. 14 month: working on sound production  articulation  hypernasality  nasal emission 80%: reasonably good speech Voice disorders (may happen) Resonance disorders (Will happen) Articulation Disorders (Will happen) Language Disorders (does NOT always happen with cleft lip) (not typical) 20) What are other problems that may be present in children who have a cleft lip and palate?  Child and parents response lead to social and emotional problems  Academic performance  Parental responses  Childs needs  Feeding problems  Middle ear disease  Hearing impairment  Dental problems 21) What is the role of the speech and language pathologist on the cleft palate team?  Speech therapy  Correct distorted sounds  Make sure language is correct. 22) What procedures are unique to the voice assessment?  Acoustic measurements, etc. 23) What is the basic treatment for voice disorders associated with Medical or physical conditions:  Focus is on helping achieve best possible or alternative voice  Assess effects of medication or surgery  Voice therapy has limited effectiveness Psychological or stress conditions:  Treatment is effective if individual is convinced there is nothing physically wrong  Voice can return to normal quickly  Psychiatric referral often not need 24) Describe the major goals of therapy for voice disorders associated with misuse or abuse.  Restore VF to healthy condition  Regain clear and full vocal function  Identify and eliminate abusive behaviors  Establish improved vocal habits  Discover the “best” voice person is capable of using (i.e., after surgery)  Make environmental changes as needed   What are some behaviors that promote good vocal hygiene?  Not yelling or screaming  Take care of voice when sick 25) Describe treatment options for resonance disorders.  Medical management  Prosthetic management  Behavioral management  What is CPAR?  Continuous Positive airway Pressure 26) Discuss the efficacy of voice therapy.  Voice therapy has limited effectiveness 27) What tips should we think of when interacting with a patient who has had a laryngectomy? Tips for talking to people with laryngectomy: -Listen carefully -Keep eye contact -Focus -Be aware of ambient noise Bonus: “Sounds of speech” app to help non-English speakers understand phonetics and how to make specific articulation sounds and language processes.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.