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MUH 2019 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Heya_Lanayia

MUH 2019 Exam 2 Study Guide MUH 2019

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Completed study guide for Exam 2
Modern Popular Music
Chris Orr
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Heya_Lanayia on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUH 2019 at Florida State University taught by Chris Orr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 671 views. For similar materials see Modern Popular Music in Music at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 03/15/16
MUH 2019 Exam 2 Study Guide Motown Records - Berry Gordon &Motown ideology He wanted to create African American music that was performed and managed by black artist, that would appeal to the mainstream without “selling out” - *General musical characteristics of label’s recording Lacked 12 bars blues - The Funk Brothers They were a very successful musical group from Detroit. They were also the foundation/ essence of the ‘Motown Sound’, because without the Funk Brothers the ‘Motown Sound’ wouldn’t exist. Early Soul - Social and Political associations For the most part crucial social and political events taking place within the African American community. o Assassination of Malcolm X, Black power movement, and Sam Cook’s “Change is Gonna Come”, passing of the Voting Rights Act, March from Selma to Montgomery, Civil Rights Act/ movement - Sam Cooke 1960s singer, sang in a cool smooth vocal style, very short life  Also, some people believed that he violated gospel music by using it’s style to sing about romance, others believed that he simply added a spiritual aspect to soul and rock ‘n’ roll. o “Change is Gonna Come” Written by Sam Cooke, and is his most political song  Social Significance The song became adopted as the anthem of the Civil Rights Movement o “You Send Me”  Musical Characteristic and basic form Fits under both soul and rock ‘n’ roll, broad audience appeal, gentle romantic crooning, and classic Tin Pan Alley AABA form. It also opens with subdued rhythm section and lush vocal background. o Vocal style***Use of Melisma ( aka runs; stretching a single word or syllable out over multiple pitches), as well as a very cool and smooth voice - Ray Charles o Musical influences and vocal styles  Musical influences African American sacred music/ Gospel, blues &jazz  Vocal style Very emotional, “preachy” way o Career overview Constantly present on the blues and R&B chart during the 1950s, but his break didn’t come until 1959 when he established himself as mass market artist o “Georgia on My Mind” A very successful country song that Ray Charles covered. It made number 1 on the pop charts and number 3 on the R&B chart  Charles’ adaptation of the song and musical characteristics He keeps the excessive sentimental aspect of the song by keeping the background singers, orchestra, jazz piano feel, and his Gospel influenced voice. However, he incorporates new elements such as deep blues aspects (moans and intense vocal timbre).  He also used constant syncopation, and incorporated call and response (backing chorus echoing his words) - Stax Records o Connections to soul and broader social realities of the mid- to late 1960s Connected to soul and social realities of the time by creating music that appealed to Black America (the ones who identified the most with soul, and were most aware of social realities) o Points of comparison with Motown Records, musically and ideologically While Motown had a highly produced sound that was aimed at young American, Stax Records advocated a down-home sound that was marketed specifically to Black America. - James Brown o General musical style, innovations to soul and musical legacy  General music style maximalist emotion, and minimalist groves via abandonment of harmonic changes, and instead focusing on rhythm and timbre (usually through heavy repetition of single words and syncopated syllables.  Innovations to soul and musical legacy Highly emotional and dramatic performances, with lots of shouting, and theatrical elements Race and Popular Music - **Paul Gilroy, idea of “changing same” Urban Folk Revival (characterized by social awareness in terms of political and social issues of the day. Also characterized by storytelling and folk instruments; banjo and acoustic guitar. Audience consisted of college aged people, minority groups, poor, and oppressed people) - Bob Dylan o His role in the urban folk revival  One of the most creative and individual urban folk artist, which gave him a lot of influence when enthusiastically promoting folk music, and in turn bring about the revival. o His distinctiveness as an artist  Originality and intensity of song writing/ gift for poetry (which explains his abstract and imagery lyrics),  Frequently covered by other performers  Hard rambling performance and rough performance style  Used both tradition and original material  Very approachable and accessible to NYC fans/ o Controversy surrounding Dylan “going electric” His fans hated it because they felt it was a deep betrayal of the essence of the folk movement. However, it’s not all bad because it helped shape the heavy electric guitar base rock ‘n’ roll as we know today. o “Like a Rolling Stone”  Distinctive and innovative features of the song, both musical and textual  Musical o Heavy use of organ and piano (that dominated texture even more than the electric guitars, bass, and drums o Aggressive “In your face” vocal style that cut through thick instrumental texture. On the edge between rhythmic speech and pitched song.  Textual o Lyrics range from blunt realism to surreal imagery o Chorus never offers a resolution, only another question Late 1960s counterculture - Important music festivals of the late 1960s discussed in class o Woodstock August 1969 Bethel NY, seen as pinnacle of counter cultural movement, logistical problems but still a success, few women and few African American performers, but Jimi Hendrix was there o Altamont San Francisco, huge disaster, symbolic of dissolution of social movement of the 60s, and the fragmentation of pop music. - The Beatles’ album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band o General artistic vision and musical characteristics of the album, ways in which it embodied the ideals of the counterculture  Conceived as a single work, not a collection of songs. It embodied the ideals of counterculture by addressing the listener as a community via creating the scene of a live performance.  Album covered included pictures of many countercultural figures o “Eleanor Rigby” (to be played in class) – (not from Sgt. Pepper)  General musical characteristics orchestral string confined to steady. Repeated chords and brief rhythmic figures. The harmonies are also dislocated (starts off on bog major chord, and then suddenly settles into unexpected minor chord, and these tow chord alternate. However, due to its form, the song is believed to be a ballad  Subject matter of the song text and connections to the music  Subject matter is loneliness, but in terms of lack of human interaction from a philosophical and spiritual perspective instead of a romantic one.  The subject matter of the song is carried through the music arrangement. For example, Eleanor Rigby and Cather McKenzie are introduced in two separate verse and remain isolated each other. Later on, Eleanor Rigby dies and only Father McKenzie notices. In the third verse Farther McKenzie and Eleanor Rigby “meet” again in the 3 stanza. - Jimmy Hendrix o Career and musical artistry  African American rock musician, his career took off upon moving to the UK (where they were more accepting of him defying the social norms of being an African American and playing rock music.  Also known as sculpture of sound he incorporated feedback, distortion, and aggressive dissonance.  Music vs. noise He blurred the line here, his guitar playing sat on the fine line between music and noise. o “Star Spangled Banner” performance at Woodstock Good example of him blurring the line between music and noise. He imitated bombs and rocket and air crafts in a way that came off more as noise than as music. This was done to add more realistic sound effects, but beyond that to protest the Vietnam War. 1970s: Rock Comes of Age - Major changes in American culture in the early 1970s Major turning inward of American culture, hence the 1970s also being called the “Me Decade” - Major changes to rock from the late 1960s to the 1970s o Maturing of genre/ maturing of listener o Self-consciously artistic songwriting o Experimentation and fragmentation into new hybrid subgenres (folk rock, country rock, etc) o Influenced by social changes (Civil rights movement, Vietnam war, feeling of instability and changing attitudes towards sex) - Art rock and progressive rock (both mean the same thing) spawn of psychedelic rock and European art music (classical music). This genre is distinguished by high authenticity, and overt references to classical music form and texture o The concept album  “The Who Sell out” o Emerson, Lake, and Palmer  a band that rearranged classical works and based their new work off this new arrangement. They successful combined the aesthetics of classical music with a rock sound.  Idea behind and organization of Pictures at an Exhibition (Emerson, Lake, and Palmer album)  Adopts main theme and some structural elements from Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky, who was inspired by a walk through an art gallery (hence the name of the album) Led Zeppelin - “Stairway to Heaven” (to be played in class) o Basic Form  Four and eight bar phrases  Section A ABABAA, Section B BAXBAXB (Reverse of section A), X is the brief one measure linking phrase, Section C= longest one and used up half of song time, and reads CXBCX. After a one measure pause guitar solo is played, and then vocals return o Overall musical features Combines two of their very juxtaposing sounds: heavy metal and folk music o Subject matter/general characteristics of lyrics References mythological beings and rural images in order to create an enchanted and mysterious mood. o Marketing strategy of the song and album The song was never released as single, therefore if you wanted the song you had to buy the entire album Funk - Musical characteristics: the “core” elements of the funk sound (see powerpoint) o Strong rhythmic groove o Electric bass o Bass drum hit on all four beats, snare on back beats o Interlocking, repeated patterns - Sly and the Family Stone o Early ideology and sound of the group Pro radical black power movement. They also adopted James Brown’s rhythmic approach and extended it by adding innovations such as a fragment doo-wop vocal style. o Musical/ideological changes in 1971 album There’s a Riot Goin’ On (see worksheet questions) The music on the album was not casual or contain casual demands, instead it usually forced black musicians (and therefore black music) to reject or live up to these demands. 1990s Alternative Rock: Seattle Grunge - Definition of ‘alternative’ in rock during the 1990s, tensions surrounding the term o It’s really hard to come up with the “one size fits all” definition. On one hand it means underground or independent. However, the term alternative can also be used to denote the choices available to consumers via record stores, radio, cable, etc. - Emergence of the Seattle Grunge scene (accredited to Green River- a band formed in 1983 o Musical characteristics/sound of grunge combines elements of hardcore punk and heavy metal. Usually characterized by “dirty” guitar, riffs, heavy drumming, and apathetic or deep anxiety/ dread filled lyrics. - Nirvana o Overview of group’s career through 1994 Formed in 1987, created first breakthrough for alternative rock in 1992. Between 1992-1994 they released two more multiplatinum that really helped put alternative rock into the mainstream. o “Smells Like Teen Spirit” (to be played in class)  Overview of song’s subject matter Apathy and sarcasm  General musical form as outlined on powerpoint Made up of four, eight, and twelve bars sections, and this is combines wit a four chord harmonic progression. The overall structure of the song includes a verse of 8 bars (A), two repeated sections (B), and (C) Early Hip Hop - Socioeconomic context of early hip hop in New York City o Postindustrial city condition (little federal funding, housing crisis, “urban decay”) o Post-Civil Rights era (new equalities for African Americans) - Four pillars of hip hop culture o Graffiti o Breakdancing o DJ o MC (rapping) - Kool Herc Jamaican, one of the first DJs to have an MC. Practiced “break spinning” ( in clubs and parks - Grandmaster Flash Pioneer DJ that helped developed disc jockey technique for hip hop including spinning, scratching, back spinning, and punch phrasing - Afrika Bambaataa Pioneering hip hop DJ that founded Zulu Nation and sought to use hip hop as a positive force for local youth (fought against crime and gang culture). ***techno sound, “planet rock” - Terms: Break beats, scratching, back spinning (ch. 71 Brackett) o Break beats The repeating of a drum beat taken from the middle of a recording o Scratching Moving the needle rapidly back and forth across the grooves of a record o Backspinning Manually using enough force on a vinyl record (that’s already on the turn table) to make it spin backwards. This allows DJs to manipulate recorded sounds - “The Message”  Track by Melle Mel, Grandmaster flash, and his Furious Five o Significance of the song for the genre of hip hop that is credited with establish social realism in hip hop.


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