JUS 444 - Midterm study guide
JUS 444 - Midterm study guide JUS 444
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kali Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JUS 444 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Richter in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Environmental Justice in Environmental Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Hello class I spoke with Dr Richter and she said that the best way to study is to review our precis and weekly work assignments Included in this study guide are my precis and weekly work assignments Hopefully my works incorporated with your own will help you better understand each article Good luck on the exam Pr cis 1 David Schlosberg author of Distribution and Beyond Conceptions of Justice in Contemporary Theory and Practice argues that in order to get a broader and more comprising understanding of justice we must take into account distribution recognition participatory and capabilities while also keeping both groups and the individual person in mind Schlosberg develops his own theory by combining and contrasting multiple papers by political theorists each discussing different approaches to creating a thorough understanding of justice by removing the weaknesses and adding the advantages from other theories into his own he created a chapter that solely supported his entire theory throughout The author of the book produced this theory to guide readers through the understanding of which pieces and combination of theories worked best together to produce a more proper definition of justice Throughout the chapter it is clear that Schlosberg writes with political theorists and liberals in mind as he is critiquing the theorists works while discussing how the liberals created the traditional concepts of justice WA 1 1 According to Schlosberg what is the concept of distributional justice and what is one drawback to this method Use a specific example from the first reading by the Ehrlichs to illustrate your response According to Schlosberg distributional justice is the fair distribution of social goods to individuals This is achieved when one visualizes not knowing where they will stand in the world once they are born this means that a person s race gender and economic standings are unknown The tactic is if one were to imagine being at the bottom with rules only aiding those at the top then they would continue to change the rules until all potential outcomes of their future were satisfied Therefore with this nonbiased standpoint everyone would equally share social political and economic benefits and risks Distributive justice can be incorporated with the environment when goods such as food and water need to be distributed fairly Currently developed countries receive the benefits of using technology these include creating filtering and distributing food and water Whereas less developed countries tend to receive the risks of technology air and water pollution Using the distributive method Where goods are distributed fairly could help improve the current situation However even though there is currently enough food to feed 9 billion people the method of how and whom it is distributed has shortcomings due to this type of justice only focusing on the individual rather than a larger scale 2 What is the concept of recognition justice and what is one drawback to this method Use a specific example from the first reading by the Ehrlichs to illustrate your response you may use the same example that you used in question 1 The goal of recognition justice is to identify why and how injustices occur among individuals and their groups and then take action to prevent future injustices Common injustices include cultural domination and oppression To prevent this recognition justice states that each individual and their cultural traditions must be free of physical threats and disparage while also given equal political rights A drawback to this approach is that recognition is already considered preconditions of distributive justice because in order to be recognized behind the veil of ignorance one must be recognized and given respect therefore recognition justice is occasionally overlooked When applying this type of justice to the environment it is clear that everyone in the world is experiencing climate change even those who have very little if no effect on the environment However even though a group of people may not be contributing to climate change the drawbacks contaminated water and air and a diminishing food supply tend to have a greater effect on these groups Therefore recognition justice can identify the injustice why it is occurring and figure out how to prevent further inequalities from happening 3 What is the concept of participatory or procedural justice and what is one drawback to this method Use a specific example from the first reading by the Ehrlichs to illustrate your response you may use the same example that you used in question 1 andor 2 According to Schlosberg s article participatory justice focuses on how a person s participation in political orders is affected and diminished when they are given a lack of respect and recognition Simply put if a person is not recognized then they will not participate in the community The idea is that with increased participation issues of distribution and misrecognition will be address however in order for participation to increase these injustices need to be identified and discussed first When and how will these injustices be identified and discussed if the different cultural groups are not participating In terms of the Earth humans are causing an injustice by creating a population that is greater than what the Earth can sustain In order to bring this population down every individual and group needs to participate and come to an agreement on what a proper solution is If the justice system fails to recognize developing countries then not everyone will be participating which will lead to an increasing population Pr cis 2 Eileen McGurty author of From NIMBY to Civil Rights The Origins of the Environmental Justice Movement proves that the uniting of environmental activists with civil rights leaders also known as the creation of the environmental justice movement was triggered due to the poor and people of color protesting against inequality The relationship between these two groups began to change when several hazardous waste events effected people of different backgrounds causing them to stand together and fight the environmental injustice as well as the social injustice these events include illegal dumping alongside the roadsides in North Carolina disposing of toxic soils in Warren Country without consulting the citizens and Love Canal the incident that informed the public in Warren County that hazardous waste was the cause of significant health problems The author s purpose for writing this article is to demonstrate how the birth of environmental justice evolved due to the interconnected relationship between environmental degradation and social marginalization in the article both groups were negatively effected by a hazardous waste event the surrounding environment soils plants and the habitat became polluted while the citizens water supply and economic growth were being threatened by the potential storage of the contaminated soils Throughout the article it is clear that McGurty writes with AfricanAmerican s and other minorities in mind this is due to the strong notion that AfricanAmerican s played an important role in the creation of the environmental justice movement as well as changing the environmental policies to include environmental racism and although the people of Warren Country began their protest without a powerful voice they were able to make a huge impact and encourage other minorities to do the same WA 2 1 Discuss two aspects of the social dimensions of population demographics and environmental justice Use two specific examples one for each aspect from the film quotPopulation Paradoxquot to illustrate your answer In India women have little to no say in the process of conceiving a child This is an injustice to women because without an education women do not realize birth control is an option to prevent unwanted pregnancies When husbands force women to have large families the population soon over exceeds the amount of resources available This leads to higher rates of infant mortality poverty and uneducated people which then leads to higher birth rates Therefore educational programs should be created to teach women and provide them with access to birth control which will give women the freedom to decide how many children they want to conceive Limited health care combined with a lack of education leads to an uneven distribution in age in Sub Sahara Africa With 69 of people infected with AIDS and a limited knowledge on how to prevent the spread of disease many children find themselves orphaned at a young age leaving older siblings no choice but to step into the parent s roll If health care and education were provided there would be an increase in life expectancy and an expected decrease in birth rates due to a decrease in infant mortality from the disease 2 Describe one strength and one weakness m of the traditional environmentalist movement and the Civil Right39s movement in relation to environmental justice In other words what did each movement quotbring to the tablequot in engaging with E campaigns and what did each movement have to overcome in order to engage with E campaigns What was originally considered a downfall soon became a strength in engaging with the E campaigns Environmentalist s had little experience with protesting but made the decision to put aside their long history of racial discrimination tensions and sought out black protest leaders for guidance to revive their movement This caused the two movements to collaborate together which lead to the birth of the environmental justice movement However while collaborating with the protest leaders the environmentalist realized they needed to change overcome their movement of selfinterest also known as just another NIMBY resistance Therefore the two groups combined their movements and began fighting against the injustice being made to the environment as well as the citizens whose community was chosen for the landfill site due to racial discrimination As for the civil rights movement environmental injustices were happening to the people of Warren County as well as other black communities due to racial discrimination Due to the blacks taking a stand they contributed to the principle that all races and classes have the right to participate as equal partners However before this the civil rights movement needed to overcome the fact that black residents struggled to gain equal representation in county decisionmaking They overcame this by registering to vote and by 1978 the first AfricanAmerican was elected to the county board which gave the black residents a voice 3 How are the Principles of Environmental Justice violated by the situation in that McGurty describes in Warren County Specifically relate Warren County to TWO of the principles Many of the Principles of Environmental Justice were violated during the incident that happened in Warren County however the two rules that I felt had the greatest injustices were numbers four and seven Rule number four brie y states that everyone should be given protection from hazardous materials and actions that could potentially threaten a persons fundamental right to clean air land water and food However the people in Afton Warren County were in danger of this by having a landfill constructed to store PCBcontaminated soils If the protective liners were to break and they did then chemicals would leech into the water table which would not only contaminate the citizens water supplies but also the soils and land used for potential economic growth and agricultural products therefore this principle was violated Lastly the seventh rule gives the citizens the right to participate in all aspects of the decisionmaking process However David Kelly was certain that regardless of how the citizens of Warren County felt the landfill was going to be constructed It was thought that the site of the landfill was chosen due to Warren County being sparsely populated and occupied by mainly poor and people of color whose public outcry would hardly delay the project Therefore due to a lack of citizen involvement this rule was also violated Pr cis 3 Laura Pulido author of Rethinking Environmental Racism White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California argues that due to white privileges people of color are intentionally concentrated in areas where industrial and residential spaces mix this mixing causes nonwhites to be disproportionately exposed to polluted air and other environmental hazards also known as environmental racism Pulido supports her thesis by presenting several different studies all in which show that more industrial plants are constructed near areas occupied mainly by blacks and the working class Pulido also suggests that blacks are forced into industrial areas because white communities believe that having black neighbors reduces property value The author developed this argument to explain that although places such as California have come a long way with environmental racism there are still distinct lines of segregation that need to be discussed and eliminated these lines of segregation are due to historic practices siting hazardous land uses near black areas Throughout the paper it is clear that Pulido writes with geographers in mind to encourage them to discover why cities are constructed in such a distinct pattern industrial areas joined with residential areas and to understand that policymaking needs to be improved to lessen the severe threat that is imposed on nearby nonwhite residents due to a lack of choice and buffering zones WA 3 1 Why does Laura Pulido believe that siting and intentionality are too narrowly used to define environmentally racist practices What kinds of methods does she support for using instead Use at least one specific example in your response Pulido believes that siting and intentionality are too narrowly used to define environmental racist practices this is because when an environmental hazard such as a toxic facility is sited near a residential area that is populated by blacks and other minorities it becomes difficult to prove that the intentions of the company or state were purposefully discriminative against people of color Therefore Pulido believes that other methods need be taken into account These include the scale in which racism exists spatiality how pollution concentrations are a key aspect to the racially segregated zones of industrial suburbs and downtown areas and white privileges Pulido argues that white privileges the benefits that white people acquire due to their skin color needs to be further examined when discussing environmental racism This is because although whites may not intend to discriminate against or hurt people of color they eventually do due to receiving the social and economic benefits of white privileges Therefore if white privileges were further studied and acknowledged during these racial discriminations we could produce a more structural and just system 2 What are two similarities between the situation that Pulido describes in Los Angeles and the EJ issues in Phoenix that Bolin et al describe Use specific examples in your response Pulido and Bolin both discuss how the current segregated patterns of Los Angeles and Phoenix continue to be in uenced by historical practices In the early to mid twentieth century both cities intentionally concentrated blacks and minorities into the city center where they were disproportionally exposed to environmental hazards due to the mixing of industrial areas with residential areas This concentration was mainly caused by a term called white ight where white people had the privileges and ability to move out of the city center and into suburban areas where they could escape the toxic waste TSDF s and air pollution As air pollution got increasingly worse many blacks attempted to leave the city center and move into suburban houses however both cities prevented this In Los Angeles blacks were not allowed to move into white suburban communities because many believed this reduced property value To prevent this from happening blacks could only purchase a house in a welldefined area generally the city center which was termed redlining Additionally in Phoenix a similar term called bank redlining was created Bank redlining meant that banks would not give loans to people of color to prevent them from being able to move out of the city center In both cases blacks were unable to move away from the environmental hazards due to a type of redlining Pr cis 4 Ulrich Beck author of Living in the World Risk Society argues that risk the anticipation of danger has evolved into something that is no longer affecting only one geographic location but is instead present everywhere regardless of nationstate lines it is also no longer calculable which means the affects of the risk can only be hypothesized rather than predicted Beck supports his thesis by explaining how risks such as climate change illnesses and radioactive waste extend past the nationstate lines in which countries have become accustomed too this changes the risks from national to global which then forces different cultures and countries to collaborate and find a solution to prevent these risks from turning into catastrophes real events The author developed this article to help the different nations come to the conclusion that a solution to these global risks cannot be developed with only the individual in mind but rather society as a whole Throughout the article it is clear that Beck writes with the political power of all nations in mind he explains how global risks such as climate change something that is already in motion and is no longer predicted cannot be ignored because in doing so the risk evolves into a catastrophe therefore all nations need to come together to develop solutions to the rising problems WA 4 1 How are race and power linked together in relation to understandings of personal and environmental risk and whether challenges relating to E are successful or not Specifically use one example EACH relating to the ASL and the proposed LES uranium facility in your response During the LES case in the 1980 s to 1990 s a city in Louisiana allowed for a uranium enrichment facility to be built nearby Meetings consisted of those who would not be negatively affected by the site location however a community closest to the proposed site consisting of poor AfricanAmerican s was excluded from the decision making The AfricanAmerican community protested against the facility and was able to secure legal support from many local national and international groups In doing so the community combined race with power which created a successful argument that addressed both personal risks racial discrimination and health concerns along with environmental risks nuclear waste As for challenges related to environmental justice being successful or not the LES case was successful This was due to the combination of a racial injustice being made an organized protest an attainable nondisplacing goal and plenty of outside support During the ASL case a neighborhood was built on top of an old municipal waste dump As residents moved in they began to realize that the area was not safe The residents consulted politicians who wrote letters of support to have the community relocated However the city was not considered dangerous enough to carry out the relocation likely because there were few outside resources who could put pressure on the federal agencies to relocate the community In this case the residents had neither race nor power which lead to a weak case that portrayed few to no personal or environmental risks The community also did not have a well thought out plan no media coverage and their end goal of relocation was very expensive and not considered plausible Therefore due to not presenting a strong environmental justice case they did not get their end goal of relocation 2 Using specific examples from Wangari Maathai39s speech in Lillehammer discuss Beck39s idea of quotdelocalizationquot of risk What is one spatial one temporal and one social aspect of delocalized risk that she describes Risks have evolved into dangers that are no longer affecting only one geographic location but are instead present everywhere regardless of nationstate lines Regarding the spatial context of delocalized risks Maathai uses the example of forest degradation She explains that even though areas such as the tropics are the ones who are losing the forests everyone globally experiences the effects of increasing greenhouse gases global warming and poor air quality At the temporal level she suggests that humans need to stop thinking about today and instead being thinking at least one generation into the future She suggests this because as we degrade and destroy biological systems and resources to feed and support our present population we are taking from our future generations and preventing them from surviving sustainably Lastly delocalization of risk at the social level discusses how countries cannot solve climate change and other riskscatastrophes on their own but instead need to consult all other nations Maathai discusses this social aspect when she talks about third world countries that have high birth rates little to no food or water and curable diseases These countries are unable to help themselves however with help from other nations these types of problems can be reduced Works Cited Heard Kali Precis 14 environmental justice Arizona State University 2015 Heard Kali Weekly Assignments 14 environmental justice Arizona State University 2015
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