Diversity I Exam 1 Study Guide
Diversity I Exam 1 Study Guide 210
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Diversity of Life Exam 1 Study Guide Date Test 91915 1 Biodiversity a b c Know the different kinds found various levels of biological hierarchy i GeneUc ii Organismal 1 Be sure to know difference between Species Richness and Species EvennessAbundance iii Ecological ecosystem Know the different spatial patterns of biodiversity be able to provide examples of which is which i Alpha Beta and Gamma Methods of Measuring Biodiversity pros and cons of each methodology i Extrapolation estimation based off previous facts 1Canvassing Experts 2Patterns of Species Description 3Using wellstudied areas 4Using wellknown groups Using Models of Richness 1SpeciesArea Curve 2SpeciesBiomass Model Affected by Stress and Competition ii iii Diversity lndices quantitative measurement using species richness amp evenness d e 1ShannonWiener lndex 2Simpson lndex aChoice depends on what is being asked Importance of Biodiversity i Directuse Values ii Indirectuse Values iii Nonuse Values What is the Precautionary Principle What is the average distribution of groups of organisms found on Earth pie chart 2 Taxonomy and Systematics Describing Biodiversity a b Review history of taxonomy Aristotle Greeks and Romans Middle Ages Carolus Linnaeus Presentday Know the various elements of describing a species i Character hair color height distribution leaf shape ii Character State brown hair found mainly in the Northeast iii Know differences between holotype isotype and paratype when discovering organisms c Know basic taxonomic guidelines i Genus and species names must always be italicized or underlined other taxon ranks do not need any of this ii Species names are never capitalized but all other formal names are ill Species names are never written alone the genus name must precede it to provide context iv Intermediate taxonomic levels can be created using appropriate pre xes Subphylum Infraclass d How to Construct a Cladogram character states being used to organize related organisms i synapomorphy a newly derived character state shared by all members of a taxon ii clade a group containing a common ancestor and all taxa descending from it iii Group types iv What is the Parsimony Principle 3 History of Life on Earth a What is the approximate age of Earth b When did the rst lifeforms appear on the planet i Be able to give characteristics of each unique geologic time period what was the climate like what was happening at this point in time types of creatures occupying the planet ii Helpful if you can list time periods in chronological order HADEAN EON 46 38 BYA ARCHEAN EON 38 25 BYA PROTEROZOC EON 258YA 545 MYA Cryogenian Period 850 635 MYA Ediacaran aka Vendian Period 635 545MYA PALEOZOC ERA 545 248 MYA Cambrian Period 545495MYA Ordovician Period 495 443 MYA Silurian Period 443 417 MYA Devonian Period 417 354 MYA Carboniferous Period 354 290 MYA Permian Period 290 248 MYA MESOZOC ERA 248 65 MYA Triassic Period 248 205 MYA jurassic Period 205 142 MYA Cretaceous Period 142 65 MYA CENOZOC ERA 65MYA Present Piestocene Epoch last major ice ages Hoocene Epoch time after last ice age allows for species radiation Antropocene Epoch c Major Evolutionary Themes i Mass Extinction Events when did they occur theories as to how and how much life was wiped out ii Despite mass extinctions fossils show continuous increase in biodiversity iii Earth s life history has NOT been neat and tidy iv Natural selection is not the only driver of evolutionary change Mutations 4 Viral Diversity a De nition what is a virus b What features do all viruses have in common i Useful characters for classi cation c Are Viruses Alive be able to back up your decision d Why should we care about viruses i Look at practical value and applications of viruses 1diagnostic medicine 2driver in evolution and speciation 3Should viruses be included in the tree of life e Know the 6 steps of the Virus quotGrowth Cyclequot and what happens in each step UncoaUng Transcription Translation RepHcann Assembly Release f What kinds of interactions do viruses have with cells don t memorize every single one but focus on the major categories compare and contrast i Cytocidal ii Noncytocidal 1Acute or Persistent aChronic or Latent g Possible theories on how viruses have driven origins of life i Neodarwinism amp Symbiogenesis ii Serial Endosymbiotic Transfer SET iii Viral Eukaryogenesis iv 3 Domains 3 Viruses Hypothesis h What other sources of evidence show viruses contributing to growth amp development of life
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