PSYC 316 Exam 1 Study Guide
PSYC 316 Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 316
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PSYC 316 Exam 1 Study Guide CHAPTER 1 Abnormal Psychology Past and Present Key Terms Matching Chapter 1 terms are divided into sections Read the sentences below the terms and write the number that corresponds with the correct term What is Abnormal Psychology Psychological Abnormality Deviance Norms Culture Distressing Dysfunctional Dangerous Abnormal Psychology What is Treatment How was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past Treatment Trephination Humors Asylum Moral Treatment State Hospitals Somatogenic Perspective Psychogenic Perspective General Paresis Hypnosis Psychoanalysis The Changing Trends in Care Psychotropic Medications Deinstitutionalization Private Psychotherapy Prevention Positive Psychology Multicultural Psychology Managed Care Program Studies and Experiments Scientific Method Case Study Correlation Correlational Method Epidemiological Study Incidence Prevalence Longitudinal Study Experiment Independent Variable Dependent Variable Confound Control Group Experimental Group Random Assignment Blind Design Placebo Therapy DoubleBlind Design Quasi Experiment Natural Experiment Analogue Experiment SingleSubject Experimental Design What is Abnormal Psychology 1 Carl s tendency to selfharm when upset is a abnormal Lily reorganizes her pantry every day She rotates canned foods so the labels face the same way Due to this behavior she is frequently late for work and picking up her children from school Her behavior is labeled as a Albert goes on a date When he eats his soup with a fork does not leave a tip at the restaurant even if the service was exceptional he has violated the A generally accepted definition of has not been agreed upon however The Four Ds are one common element of most proposed definitions Caroline is thinking of what to study in college She wants to be able to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns in human functioning She should consider taking classes in the field of The voices in Jean s head are starting to tell her disturbing things This is considered because she is afraid of the voices and worries about what they are going to say next Jean hears voices in her head Since they do not bother her she is not experiencing earn the label of abnormal is defined a group of people s common history values habits skills and arts This is why Patrick after moving to the US from Ireland notices that everyone stares at him when he wears his kilt to the mall he learns that it is abnormal for boys in the US do not wear skirtlike clothing behavior that labels his overall functioning as which would What is Treatment How was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past 1 10 Hippocrates encountered a young man that displayed abnormal behavior Hippocrates then told all of his friends that the abnormal behavior was caused by the imbalance of the four fluids of the body According to unconscious psychological forces are to blame for a person s abnormal mental functioning Followers of the believe that abnormal psychological functioning is caused by something physical Once upon a time a man called Cal exhibited extremely abnormal behavior which lead to a procedure in which a hole is cut in the skull in the hopes of treating severe abnormal behavior Dr John a supporter of the believes that abnormal functioning is caused by something psychological is a procedure that is used to normalize behavior that is considered to be abnormal In the midsixteenth century became the hottest thing in care for the mentally ill No one ever said all of these places were humane havens of healing many had the resemblance of a prison Adam a mentally dysfunctional person in the nineteenth century benefitted from the reform of health care He received an approach that is guided by morals and focuses on humane and respectful treatment Angela is put into a temporary state of heightened relaxation and thus becomes highly suggestible She is now able to experience events in her mind as if they were really happening in the real world Angela is participating in a technique known as Each of the United States is responsible for running a public mental institution known as a The Changing Trends in Care 1 In the 1960s Jerold was one of thousands of patients to be released from public mental institutions in a practice called Due to the increased diversity has been developed to get a better understanding of how behavior and thought differs across race ethnicity gender and culture is a preemptive strike on mental disorders correct causes of the problem to keep it from developing Dr Lawrence employs promoting positive feelings traits development and psychological wellness Drugs like Antipsychotics Antidepressants and Antianxiety Drugs fall under the category of In the 1950s these drugs were found to be useful in reducing many symptoms of mental dysfunction Irene is one of at least 75 of all privately insured US residents enrolled in which has a restricted list of therapists from which the client can choose predetermined session cost and how many sessions for which the client can be reimbursed Ellen pays Dr Jensen a psychotherapist for her counseling services Ellen is participating in an arrangement known as Studies and Experiments 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 In an experiment Jack and Jill are part of the variable Dr Angelo the experimenter is unaware of which group is the control or the experimental group All of the subjects in both groups are also unaware of which group they were assigned This is considered a an important component to Epidemiological Studies shows the emergence of new cases in a given population in a given time period is the observed variable in an experiment Allie is the subject of a Information of her life family history symptoms and psychological problems are recorded in great detail Dr Callie designs an She induces what resembles abnormal behavior in a lab participant and conducts further studies on that individual to see how the abnormality might translate to life beyond the lab Everyone in Emeryville is showing signs of a specific disorder among their population Dr Rogers conducts an to measure the incidence and prevalence of the disorder in Emeryville In a Blind Design experiment categorized as members of the control group are exposed to something that resembles actual treatment or therapy but does not in fact have any of its key ingredients or components that would actually have any real effect Any changes are caused by the belief that they have received a treatment or therapy Dr Kapp observes and records data about twins John and Jennie They meet up every years to update the doctor s information Dr Kapp is conducting an an important component to Epidemiological Studies shows the total amount of new and existing cases in a given population in a given time period Kyle and Katie are part of the in an experiment and are therefore exposed to the independent variable To ensure that participants are randomly placed in the control or experimental group the experimenters ensure they use The is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter Statistics show that as ice cream sales increase the rate of violence increases These two factors show This does not mean that ice cream sales increase violence A variable other than the independent variable that effects the dependent variable is considered a situation that would the experiment and therefore are not exposed to the independent 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Dr Mack is researching the effects of bullying Since it would be unethical to assign a group of children to be intentionally bullied he needs to make use of a to find existing control and experimental groups In an when one variable is manipulated the effects of the manipulation on an variable are observed recorded A researcher wants to know why ice cream sales increase at the same time rates of violence increase She applies the and arrives at the conclusion that the summer s hot temperatures are the reason for the increased ice cream sales Violence just happens to increase at the same time because the heat makes people more likely to act out violently After the hurricane hit investigators arrived to observe the psychological effects on those that experienced the disaster The experimenters did not have to select participants the hurricane just provided an opportunity for a study For this reason this is very similar to Quasi Experiments Felix is going to participate in an He is observed before and after the independent variable is manipulated Karen is a clinical researcher To gather more information and a better understanding in a study Karen uses the observing forming a hypothesis testing the hypothesis proving or disproving the hypothesis and reproducing the experiments used in testing the hypothesis It George is part of an experiment and he is not aware of whether he is in the control or experimental group he is participating in an experiment Key Contributors Fill in the blank with the correct name Who Said That 1 stated that all forms of therapy consist of three features a sufferer seeking help from a healer a healer that is trained and socially accepted by the sufferer and their social group stated that therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims Answers to Key Terms Matching What is Abnormal Psychology A Abnormal Psychology Psychological Abnormality Deviance Norms Culture Distressing Dysfunctional Dangerous rrrrrrr What is Treatment How Was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past L Treatment A Trephination L Humors L Asylums L Moral Treatment 0 State Hospital Somatogenic Perspective Psychogenic Perspective Hypnosis Psychoanalysis The Changing Trends in Care A Psychotropic Medications L Deinstitutionalization L Private Psychotherapy 1 Prevention A Positive Psychology A Multicultural Psychology A Managed Care Program Studies and Experiments 3 LL 3LL L LL L LL 3 rvrvrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr Scientific Method Case Study Correlation Correlational Method Epidemiological Study Incidence Prevalence Longitudinal Study Experiment Independent Variable Dependent Variable Confound Control Group Experimental Group Random Assignment Blind Design Placebo Therapy DoubleBlind Design Quasi Experiment Natural Experiment Analogue Experiment SingleSubject Experimental Design Answers to Key Contributors Who Said That 1 Jerome Frank 2 Carl Rogers CHAPTER 2 Models of Abnormality Key Terms Matching Chapter 2 terms are divided into sections Read the sentences below the terms and write the number that corresponds with the correct term The Biological Model Model Neuron Synapse Neurotransmitter Receptors Endocrine System Hormone Gene Evolution Psychotropic Medication The Psychodynamic Model Electroconvulsive Therapy Psychosurgery Unconscious Id Ego Ego Defense Mechanism Superego Fixation Ego Theory Self Theory Object Relations Theory Free Association Resistance Transference Dream Catharsis Working Through ShortTerm Psychodynamic Therapies Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy The Behavioral Model Conditioning Operant Conditioning Modeling Classical Conditioning Systematic Desensitization SelfEfficacy CognitiveBehavioral Therapies Cognitive Therapy New Wave of Cognitive Therapies Acceptance and Commitment Therapy The HumanisticExistential Model SelfActualization ClientCentered Therapy Gestalt Therapy Spiritual Interventions Existential Therapy The Sociocultural Model FamilySocial and Multicultural Perspectives FamilySocial Perspective Family Systems Theory Group Therapy SelfHelp Group Family Therapy Couple Therapy Community Mental Health Treatment Multicultural Perspective CultureSensitive Therapy GenderSensitive Therapy DiathesisStress Explanation The Biological Model QONFDSNFPONT 10 11 12 The lobotomy is one example of are chromosome segments that determine what traits we inherit A nerve cell is also known as an Neurons travel to a neighboring neuron s Four major site used in therapy include antianxiety drugs antidepressants and antibipolar drugs An or a paradigm is a set of basic assumptions and concepts that is used to explain events An is the gap between one neuron s nerve ending and another neuron s dendrite Three factors have been used to explain why some individuals have different brain structures or biochemical activities than others These factors include viral infections genetics and Mental disorders have been found to be related to abnormal chemical activity in the body s This system s glands work with neurons to control growth heart rate body temperature and response to stress The endocrine system releases into the bloodstream When released by a neuron an crosses the synaptic gap to the receptor sites on dendrites of other neurons Daniel is depressed His condition has not improved with any other treatment so he decides to undergo two electrodes are attached to his forehead and electrical currents will be passed through his brain The Psychodynamic Model 1 10 11 12 13 14 Carla is a big supporter of the because she believes that humans are driven by a need to have relationships This theory still holds firm to the belief that abnormal development stems from problematic relationships between children and their caretakers Freud believed that if adjustments are not made in the face of challenges throughout our development the individual may become at an early stage of development Many psychodynamic therapists believe that interpreting can bring out things that the patient has repressed unconscious wishes and desires Thanks to the we develop values standards and guilt a conscience n therapy Janice is asked to start talking about anything saying what ever comes to mind even if she thinks its unimportant Her therapist will then analyze her responses Jeremy wants to eat a cookie This is an impulse because it operates on the pleasure principle Dr Gonzalez offers in which he discloses his reactions and input to establish a more meaningful relationship with his patients Dr Johnson wants his patient to engage in internal conflicts Kara knows that it is not acceptable to steal a laptop from the office so she leaves it on the desk The force at work is Kara s Nora s therapist asks her to talk about her troubled childhood Unconsciously Nora refuses to participate and changes the subject to a lessupsetting issue Nora is showing Helen engages in Through her short sessions of psychodynamic therapy she works on a dynamic focus her tendency to argue with her friends and the related psychodynamic issues Joey does not want to think about trying to steal his roommate s girlfriend so he employs an himself of the unacceptable thoughts According to Freud all forces that shape the personality operate at the level Dr Lane believes that the ego has a bigger role than Freud theorized She believes that it is more powerful and independent She is a supporter of to confront her problems and come to terms with her to rid 15 Tracy talks to her therapist about the anger she feels towards her mother Tracy gets angry and passive aggressive towards her therapist in the same way she treats her mother Tracy has demonstrated 16 unlike Ego Theorists believe the strongest role is the self people are most motivated to strengthen their wholeness 17 Gina and her therapist are gain greater clarity by focusing on the same issues elaborating and expanding on them to The Behavioral Model 1 Kevin is afraid of cats He begins a treatment known as in which he learns to react calmly to first reading the word cat hearing a cat meow seeing a picture of a cat and eventually being around a cat 2 Sally is confident that she can perform needed behaviors when she needs to Sally has achieved a positive sense of 3 is a simple form of learning 4 Developed by Aaron Beck helps individuals understand their problematic thinking processes 5 helped clients change their counterproductive behaviors in addition to modifying their dysfunctional thought processes 6 Fred hates going to the doctor He feels anxious while in the waiting room and smells the strong odor of a disinfectant He has associated the odor with the doctor s office Any time he smells something similar to the disinfectant he smelled at the doctor s office he immediately experiences anxiety Fred has been subject to 7 Alex learns a behavior through when his father performs an activity that Alex will imitate 8 helps clients to be aware of of their troubling thoughts and learn to accept them without attempting to control judge change or act on them 9 a term coined by BF Skinner involves a learning process in which an individual s behavior is controlled or affected by its consequences 10 have developed in response to the limitations of the older cognitive therapies The HumanisticExistential Model 1 Humanists believe that all people are driven to to be good and successful in their growth and lead a life in which they recognize and accept their strengths and weaknesses 2 Gerry is participating in His therapist encourages him to accept responsibility for his life and his problems Gerry learns to understand that he is in control of the path his life will follow 3 Edith is actively motivated by her therapist to achieve selfrecognition and selfacceptance With this type of therapy a humanistic approach called Edith and her therapist work towards her goals through role playing selfdiscovery and skillful frustration 4 In the 1940s Carl Rogers developed Such therapists are supportive and warm towards their patients This method is very different from the psychodynamic techniques in use at the time 5 Freud arguing against these stated that religious beliefs were defense mechanisms that helped people tolerate their helplessness The Sociocultural Model FamilySocial and Multicultural Perspectives 1 Ryan Rachel and Rick are in a band They have all been having trouble communicating and cooperating They decide to start to build their communication skills strengthen feelings of selfworth and develop important insights together 10 11 Residents of Gavintown decide to seek from Dr Clark after the residents noticed a rising rate of psychological disorders Dr Clark recognizes that other towns like this may need his help He reaches out to other areas and plans to utilize three types of prevention primary the attempt to prevent psychological disorders altogether secondary pinpointing and treating the disorders before they become too serious and tertiary providing effective treatment as soon as possible The Farley family has been experiencing distressing behaviors and other issues in their relationships with each other They decide to start to point out what problems they can change for the better Since Jessica feels a lot of pressure due to the fact that she is a woman She decides to seek treatment and finds that will be most helpful One of the perspectives of the Sociocultural Model heavily emphasizes the importance of the broader forces that directly affect an individual through their lifetime These theorists focus on social labels and roles social networks and family structure and communication Natasha s parents are immigrants She feels that her struggles are different from those of her American born friends She decides to seek because therapists that offer this type of treatment have a better understanding of the issues faced by members of cultural minority groups and awareness of the values of other cultures Ben and Jessica have been dating for almost fifteen years They have been having many disagreements over small matters and can t seem to figure out why they can t get along They decide to start to find a way to embrace their relationship in spite of behaviors that they cannot change Dr Cameron along with other supporters of views a family as systems of interacting parts This theory holds that interactions between members of a family will show their own patterns of structure and communication that may seem abnormal to other families According to individuals must FIRST present a biological psychological or sociocultural predisposition to develop a disorder and THEN display episodes of severe stress This explanation attempts to make sense of how various factors genetic biological developmental behavioral cognitive social cultural and societal influences work together to cause abnormal functioning A group of people with an addiction to cigarettes come together without a professional clinician and discuss their struggles and support each other This type of therapy is considered to be an Theorists of the believe that since diversity is growing it is important to understand how factors such as culture race ethnicity and gender affect behavior and thought They also try to find how members of different cultures races ethnicities and genders differ psychologically Key Contributors Fill in the blank with the correct name Who Did That 1 first developed the psychodynamic model He believed that there were three forces that shaped the personality id ego and superego These three forces were believed to be interactive and operate at the unconscious level demonstrated his very wellknown classical conditioning studies with dogs Colleagues and proposed that the best way to understand abnormal functioning is by examining cognitive processes developed clientcentered therapy The Biological Model 6 Model 3 Neuron 7 Synapse 11 Neurotransmitter 4 Receptors 9 Endocrine System 10 Hormones 2 Gene 8 Evolution 5 Psychotropic Medications 12 Electroconvulsive Therapy 1 Psychosurgery The Psychodynamic Model 13 Unconscious 6 Id 9 Ego 12 Ego Defense Mechanism 4 Superego 2 Fixation 14 Ego Theory 16 Self Theory 1 Object Relations Theory 5 Free Association 10 Resistance 15 Transference 3 Dream 8 Catharsis 17 Working Through 11 ShortTerm Psychodynamic Therapies 7 Relational Psychoanalytic Therapy Who Did That 1 Freud 2 Pavlov 3 Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck 4 Carl Rogers Answers to Key Terms Matching The Behavioral Model Conditioning Operant Conditioning Modeling Classical Conditioning Systematic Desensitization SelfEfficacy CognitiveBehavioral Therapies Cognitive Therapy 10 New Wave of Cognitive Therapies 8 Acceptance and Commitment Therapy hU lN LCDVGDOO The HumanisticExistential Model 1 SelfActualization 4 ClientCentered Therapy 3 Gestalt Therapy 5 Spiritual Interventions 2 Existential Therapy The Sociocultural Model FamilySocial and Multicultural Perspectives 5 FamilySocial Perspective 8 Family Systems Theory 1 Group Therapy 10 SelfHelp Group 3 Family Therapy 7 Couple Therapy 2 Community Mental Health Treatment 11 Multicultural Perspective 6 CultureSensitive Therapy 4 GenderSensitive Therapy 9 DiathesisStress Explanation Answers to Key Contributors CHAPTER 3 Clinical Assessment Diagnosis and Treatment Key Terms Matching Chapter 3 terms are divided into sections Read the sentences below the terms and write the number that corresponds with the correct term Clinical Assessment How and Why Does the Client Behave Abnormally ldiographic Understanding Assessment Standardization Reliability Validity Clinical Interview Mental Status Exam Test Projective Test Rorschach Test Thematic Apperception Test Personal Inventory Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Response Inventories Psychophysiological Test Neurological Test EEG CAT Scan Neuroimaging Techniques PET Scan MRI fMRI Neuropsychological Test Battery Intelligence Test Intelligence Quotient Naturalistic Observation Analog Observation SelfMonitoring Diagnosis Does the Client s Syndrome Match a Known Disorder Diagnosis Syndrome Classification System DSM5 Categorical Information Dimensional Information Treatment How Might the Client Be Helped Empirically Supported Treatment Therapy Outcome Study Rapprochement Movement Psychopharmacologist Clinical Assessment How and Why Does the Client Behave Abnormally 1 0 39gt0 D N95 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Rita s clinician asks her to draw a person describe what image she sees in an inkblot and describe the story behind an ambiguous picture Rita has just participated in a Dr Cathy conducts an to measure her patient s brain structures and activity Lance is doing an an collecting relevant information in the hopes of reaching a conclusion Helen is subjected to an getting an X ray of her brain at different angles A test is administered to a large group The participants performance serves as a norm that can be used to compare against any other individual s results This entire process is called If a client is observed in a clinical office or laboratory an artificial setting this is considered an Dr Lee conducts a structured interview including an to understand the degree and nature of his client s abnormal functioning This part of the interview uses a set of questions that systematically evaluate aspects such as the client s awareness memory thought processes and mood An provides a motion picture of chemical activity in the brain with the help of a computer Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon produced the a test that measures an individual s intellectual ability The collects information about an individual s behavior emotions and beliefs by providing a list of statements that the individual must indicate whether or not the statement applies to them A series of neuropsychological tests that target specific skills is known as an An is used to gather information about an individual s psychological functions to infer broader information provides a picture of a functioning brain by converting MRI images into a picture that shows neuron activity Carrie meets with her clinician for the first time Carrie is asked to discuss details of her emotions lifestyle relationships and her problems The clinician has conducted an The general score from an Intelligence Test is called an Dr Aaron uses an to record the electrical activity taking place within the brain in response to firing neurons refers to individual information about a client Clinical practitioners gather this type of information to build a general understanding of abnormal functioning If a test accurately measures what it is supposed to measure it is considered to have are tests that provide information about a brain s structure or activity through the use of CT scans PET scans MRls or fMRls Paul s heart rate and muscle tension is measured to provide a possible indication of psychological problems Paul has just taken an Harold a clinician observes his client in her everyday environment This technique is called an If a test has it consistently yields the same results every time it is given in the same situation Chris is instructed to observe his own behaviors In other words he engages in The procedure that a uses certain atoms magnetic properties to create a detailed picture of a brain s structure is known as an The was developed when the creator of the test discovered that people see other images in inkblots and this information appeared to correspond to their psychological state Dr Varga conducts an It measures the individual s perceptual motor and cognitive performance to detect any possible brain impairment 27 Beth is shown 30 blackandwhite pictures of people in different situations She is asked to tell the story behind the picture what happened before what is shown in the picture who are the people what are they feeling or thinking and how will the story end This is a 28 are designed to focus on one specific area of functioning such as one s social skills cognitive processes or emotions 29 The has ten scales Hypochondriasis depression hysteria psychopathic deviate masculinity femininity paranoia psych asthenia schizophrenia hypomania and social introversion Diagnosis Does the Client s Syndrome Match a Known Disorder 1 An is a list of diagnostic categories with descriptions of the symptoms and guidelines for which individuals can be assigned to which category 2 The is a list of around 400 mental disorders It is a classification system written by the American Psychiatric Association 3 Fran has received a 39 the identification and labeling of her disorder 4 refers to the name of the disorder or category indicated by an individual s symptoms 5 is a rating of how severe a client s symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across personality dimensions 6 The presence of multiple symptoms that are all characteristic with those of a specific disorder is considered to be an Treatment How Might the Client Be Helped 1 Therapy Outcome 2 is a movement that helps identify which therapies have earned the most support for specific disorders It also serves to develop guidelines for treatment and to spread the information to clinicians 3 Dr Han is a psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications She is an 4 The involves identifying common strategies that apply to all different kinds of therapy Key Contributors Fill in the blank with the correct name Who Did That 1 In 1883 developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior which served as the foundation for the DSM Answers to Key Terms Matching Clinical Assessment How and Why Does the Client Behave Abnormally 17 Idiographic Understanding 3 Assessment 5 Standardization 22 Reliability 18 Validity 14 Clinical Interview 7 Mental Status Exam 12 Test 1 Projective Test 25 Rorschach Test 27 Thematic Apperception Test 10 Personal Inventory 29 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 28 Response Inventories 20 Psychophysiological Test 2 Neurological Test 16 EEG 4 CAT Scan 19 Neuroimaging Techniques 8 PET Scan 24 MRI 13 fMRI 26 Neuropsychological Test 11 Battery 9 Intelligence Test 15 Intelligence Quotient 21 Naturalistic Observation 6 Analog Observation 23 SelfMonitoring Diagnosis Does the Client s Syndrome Match a Known Disorder U lhN LCDOO Diagnosis Syndrome Classification System DSM5 Categorical Information Dimensional Information Treatment How Might the Client Be Helped 2 Empirically Supported Treatment 1 Therapy Outcome Study 4 3 Rapprochement Movement Psychopharmacologist Answers to Key Contributors Who Did That 1 Kraepelin CHAPTER 4 Anxiety ObsessiveCompulsive and Related Disorders Key Terms Matching Chapter 4 terms are divided into sections Read the sentences below the terms and write the number that corresponds with the correct term The answers can be found at the end of the study guide Generalized Anxiety Disorder Fear Anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder Realistic Anxiety Neurotic Anxiety Moral Anxiety Unconditional Positive Regard ClientCentered Therapy Maladaptive Assumptions Basic irrational Assumptions Metacognitive Therapy Intolerance of Uncertainty Theory Avoidance Theory RationalEmotive Therapy MindfulnessBased Cognitive Therapy Family Pedigree Studies Benzodiazepines GammaAminobutyric Acid GABA Brain Circuits SedativeHypnotic Drugs Relaxation Training Biofeedback Electromyograph EMG Phobias Phobia Specific Phobia Agoraphobia Classical Conditioning Modeling Stimulus Generalization Preparedness Exposure Treatments Systematic Desensitization Flooding Social Anxiety Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder Social Skills Training Panic Disorder Panic Attacks Panic Disorder Norepinephrine Locus Ceruleus Biological Challenge Test Anxiety Sensitivity ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder Obsession Compulsion ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder Exposure and Response Prevention Neutralizing Serotonin Orbitofrontal Cortex Caudate Nuclei ObsessiveCompulsiveRelated Disorders Hoarding Disorder HairPulling Disorder Excoriation Disorder Body Dysmorphic Disorder Stress Management Program Generalized Anxiety Disorder 1 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 a research design under the Biological Perspective tries to determine how many and which relatives have the same disorder as a certain individual proposes that individuals suffering from generalized anxiety disorder believe worrying is useful because it is safer to anticipate threats while believing on the other hand that worrying is considered a bad thing This leads to worrying about worrying Dr Raff connects his patient to monitors that provide a visual representation of how her body reacts to different situations Eventually she may learn to control her physiological responses in times of stress Dana continuously feels anxious and worries about almost anything She is diagnosed with Children experience when they are prevented from expressing their id impulses Carl Rogers involves practitioners empathizing and showing unconditional positive regard for their clients is a common neurotransmitter in the brain that carries inhibitory messages It is usually received by benzodiazepine receptors Casey faces a serious threat and her wellbeing is in danger Her central nervous system s physiological and emotional response is argues that people with generalized anxiety disorder have greater bodily arousal than others It suggests that worrying reduces the arousal because it may serve as a distraction from their unpleasant physical sensations focuses on helping the patient recognize their tendency to worry They are made aware of their thought processes as they happen and learn to accept their thoughts for what they are instead of fighting them According to Carl Rogers children may become too critical of themselves and develop harsh self standards if they do not receive Vanessa s therapist helps her recognize her irrational assumptions and suggests more appropriate ones She is assigned homework to challenge their old assumptions and apply the more appropriate ones This form of therapy is called Networks of brain structures that trigger each other into action with neurotransmitters and produce different kinds of emotional reactions These systems are known as When children face actual danger they experience The is the most commonly used device involved in biofeedback It shows the level of muscle tension with data gathered from electrodes attached to the client s muscles Cognitive theorists had suggested that generalized anxiety disorder stems from a person s Albert Ellis stated that many people can be guided by irrational beliefs that lead to inappropriate actions and behaviors Wanda engages in a nonchemical biological technique known as to treat her generalized anxiety disorder She learns how to physically relax whenever she chooses so she can eventually apply this ability at a time when she is in a stressful situation Eric experiences his central nervous system s response to a vague sense of danger According to the knowledge that negative events may occur however unlikely is intolerable Valium and Xanax are two examples of the most common group of antianxiety medications When children are punished for expressing their id impulses they experience Irene has been prescribed drugs that calm her when she takes a small dose They help her fall asleep when she takes a higher dose These benzodiazepines were originally marketed as in the 1950s Phobias 1 N When Andy s very large and fluffy brown dog sat on him and nearly suffocated him Andy developed which caused him to expand his fear from his large dog to anything with brown fur or a soft texture Omar endures to get over his fear of mice The behavioral approaches to this form of treatment includes desensitization flooding and modeling Joseph Wolpe developed a technique that teaches individuals to relax while facing their fear James suffers from an intense fear of small dogs with brown fur James is suffering from a Without any preparation or training Brandon is suddenly and repeatedly exposed to his fear The goal of this procedure known as is that Brandon will eventually react calmly when he realizes that the object of his fear is harmless The idea that humans are predisposed to the development of certain fears is known as Zena has a persistent and unreasonable fear of carnivals This type of fear is considered to be a Mrs Balor is afraid of being in a situation in which she cannot call for help She is afraid of leaving her house She has Social Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder 1 Pam experiences sudden and short episodes of panic that reach a peak within minutes and gradually pass This is a Amanda has a high degree of she constantly focuses on her bodily sensations develop illogical assessments of them and interprets the sensations as harmful One panic attack does not mean that the individual has This type of anxiety disorder is marked by repeated and unpredictable panic attacks In order for an individual to be diagnosed with they must experience a 6 months period of marked disproportionate and persistent fear or anxiety about multiple social situation in which they are vulnerable to judgement fear of being judged or being offensive to others anxiety when exposed to the social situation avoidance of the social situation notable distress or impairment Roger and his therapist practice appropriate social behaviors through modeling and rehearsal In these sessions Roger receives honest feedback and praise for proper performance from his therapist There is a link between abnormal activity of the neurotransmitter and panic disorder and depression Vince endures in which panic is induced by drugs or other methods to produce panic sensations through certain thoughts or vigorous exercise The appears to be active in regulating emotions Many of its neurons use norepinephrine ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 1 Elaine engages in behaviors when she pushes away thoughts of hitting her sister with good thoughts that she hopes will keep her from blaming herself for having these troubling thoughts and believing that those thoughts will cause something terrible to happen lda constantly picks at her skin causing sores to appear She is suffering from Behavioral theorists use exposing the patient to the thoughts or situations that cause their anxiety and preventing them from engaging in their compulsive actions Located in the basal ganglia the helps convert sensory information into thoughts and actions In search of treatment individuals that suffer from ObsessiveCompulsive and similar disorders are helped by which combines cognitive techniques relaxation training and biofeedback 11 12 13 14 Wendy was diagnosed with after her obsessions over sanitation and cleanliness and compulsive handwashing became excessive and unreasonable caused distress became too timeconsuming and impaired her daily functioning Julia is highly driven by obsessivelike concerns that lead her to perform repetitive and excessive behaviors that disrupt her daily functioning She is diagnosed with an Abnormal activity is linked to depression obsessivecompulsive disorder and eating disorders An is a persistent thought urge or image that invades an individual s consciousness Dana is preoccupied with the belief that the pores on her face are abnormally large her nose is too large and that her shoulders are uneven This preoccupation with flaws in her physical appearance are characteristics of Garret starts pulling out his eyelashes He is diagnosed with Trichotillomania or Repetitive and rigid behaviors or thoughts that an individual believes they must perform to reduce or prevent their anxiety is known as an lmpulses involving primitive activities such as excretion sexuality and violence come from the brain Barbara feels that she needs to keep every newspaper that is delivered to her house When her daughter comes to visit and tries to throw away the piles of accumulated papers Barbara becomes extremely distressed She displays of the Key Contributors Fill in the blank with the correct name Who Did That 1 According to a child may develop general anxiety disorder when the child is overwhelmed by neurotic or moral anxiety Practitioners that use s clientcentered therapy approach provide their client with empathy and unconditional positive regard believed that people are guided by basic irrational assumptions irrational beliefs that cause them to act inappropriately He also developed rationalemotive therapy in which the client is made aware of their irrational assumptions and learn more appropriate assumptions Homework is given to the individuals they are to challenge their old views and apply the new ones they learned throughout their therapy sessions a cognitive theorist believed that people with generalized anxiety disorder constantly hold maladaptive assumptions that suggest they are constantly in danger Systematic desensitization was developed by This technique helps patients learn to relax while they face the objects of their fears believed that individuals with anxiety disorder have overwhelming social fears and that they often lack social skills necessary to communicate their needs and meeting those of other individuals believed that obsessivecompulsive disorder resulted from traumatic events occurring at the anal stage of development Answers to Key Terms Matching Generalized Anxiety Disorder 8 Fear 19 Anxiety 4 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 14 Realistic Anxiety 5 Neurotic Anxiety 22 Moral Anxiety 11 Unconditional Positive Regard 6 ClientCentered Therapy 16 Maladaptive Assumptions 17 Basic irrational Assumptions 2 Metacognitive Therapy 20 Intolerance of Uncertainty Theory 9 Avoidance Theory 12 RationalEmotive Therapy 10 MindfulnessBased Cognitive Therapy 1 Family Pedigree Studies 21 Benzodiazepines 7 GammaAminobutyric Acid GABA 13 Brain Circuits 23 SedativeHypnotic Drugs 18 Relaxation Training 3 Biofeedback 15 Electromyograph EMG Phobias Phobia Specific Phobia Agoraphobia Stimulus Generalization Preparedness Exposure Treatments Systematic Desensitization Flooding U lOONCD LCDLV Social Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder Social Skills Training Panic Attacks Panic Disorder Norepinephrine Locus Ceruleus Biological Challenge Test Anxiety Sensitivity NVCDOUOO LU Ih ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 9 Obsession 12 Compulsion 6 ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 3 Exposure and Response Prevention 1 Neutralizing 8 Serotonin 13 Orbitofrontal Cortex 4 Caudate Nuclei 7 ObsessiveCompulsiveRelated Disorders 14 Hoarding Disorder 11 HairPulling Disorder 2 Excoriation Disorder 10 Body Dysmorphic Disorder 5 Stress Management Program Answers to Key Contributors Who Did That 1 Freud 2 Rogers 3 Ellis 4 Beck 5 Wolpe 6 Beck
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