PSYX 250 Test 2 Review
PSYX 250 Test 2 Review PSYX 250N - 01
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jo Ann Choong on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYX 250N - 01 at University of Montana taught by Robert Stuart Hall (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Fund Biol Psyc in Psychlogy at University of Montana.
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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Jo!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter 7 1 What are the structures of the ear a Outer Pinna auditory canal b Middle Eardrum Amplification system Hammer and Anvil Stapes c Inner cochlea oval window sends vibration to cochlea 2 What is the cochlea a It is adjacent to the semicircular canal b It has hair cells in the basilar membrane The sound waves caused the vibration in the cochlea which opens the ion channels and fires the action potential 3 What is the auditory pathway a Cochlea gt Cochlear nucleusgt superior olivary nucleus gt inferior colliculus gt medial geniculategt auditory cortex 4 What is pitch perception a Frequency theory the firing of action potentials according to the vibrations However it can reach up to 100Hz Humans can hear up to 20000 Hz b Volley Principle The combination of the action potentials of various neurons c Place theory The vibration occurring at a specific location on the basilar membrane 5 How do we localize sound a Differential loudness between both ears b Difference in time of arrival between both ears c Difference in phase between both ears 6 What is the vestibular system a To detect the movement and position of the head The vestibular organ is the semicircular canal in the ear adjacent to the cochlea Chapter 6 1 What is the retina a Photoreceptors When struck by light the chemical 11cisretinal is converted to all transretinal in the photopigments little sacks in rods and cones This hyperpolarization causes a change in photoreceptors i Cones Color and fine detail concentrated in the fovea 1to1 relationship in the fovea ii Rods Movement depth perception faint light large overall pattern in other areas but the fovea b Bipolar cells c Ganglion cells Axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve i Parvocellular color and fine detail like cones ii Magnocellular movement depth perception luminance contrast overall pattern like rods iii Koniocellular recently discovered iv Blind spot Optic Disk 2 What is the visual pathway a Visual field gt optic nerve gt optic chiasm crossing over gt optic tract gt LGN gt optic radiations gt V1 3 What are the cortical areas of the visual pathway a V1 Pattern feature detectors Map of the body i Simple cells Orientation ii Complex cells Orientation and movement iii Hypercomplex cells Orientation movement and instop link b V2 Bilateral processing c Dorsal steam and ventral stream 4 What is the difference between dorsal stream and ventral stream a The dorsal stream is the quotwherequot It moves up To parietal lobe b Ventral stream is the quotwhatquot and it moves down to the temporal lobe 5 What is V4 a Color constancy b Lesion see the world in blackwhite Unable to remember color 6 What is VS a Motion direction speed b Lesion dog vanishing unable to see dog 39in motion 7 What is the inferior temporal cortex a Visual recognition Details of shape Damage visual agnosia b Lesion in Fusiform Gyrus prosopagnosia 8 What is depth perception a Stereoscopic perception of depth b Brain compares slightly different inputs from both eyes c Relies on retinal disparity gt helps us understand depth d Shaped through experience 9 What are receptive fields a When lights hit either the inhibitory or excitatory It occurs in the neurons They are circular center surround Receptive field of any neuron in the visual system is the area of the visual field that excites or inhibits it b LGN and ganglion cells 10 What is color perception a Trichromatic theory Relative rate of response by three kinds of cones Wavelength gt long medium short Happens at the photoreceptor level retina b Opponent Process theory In terms of Paired opposites Happens at the bipolar level retina c Retinex theory Explains color constancy Cortex Adjust the color and brightness by comparing the information received in the retina gtV4 Chapter 8 1 What is the dorsal column pathway a It transports fine touch and proprioception information to primary somatosensory cortex b Enters via the dorsal root c Crosses in the medulla d Ascends the dorsal column of the spinal cord to the VP thalamus e VP thalamus projects to the primary somatosensory cortex 2 What is the spinothalamic tract a It transports pain and temperature b Enters via the dorsal root and crosses immediately c Ascends the anterolateral path of the spinal cord to the VP thalamus d VP thalamus projects to the primary somatosensory cortex 3 Descending control of pain What is Gate theory a Pain perception Pain is a complex behavior It has immediate emotional response longterm emotional consequences b Descending control of pain Pain can be blocked from being perceived when interneurons are activated in the spinal cord i Evidence Opiates inhibits the activity of neurons in the periaqueductal gray increases the activity of neurons in the raphe nucleus ii Descending neurons from raphe activate interneurons in the spinal cord that block incoming pain signals by pre and postsynaptic inhibition 4 What is the neuromuscularjunction a It is the connection between the nervous system and the muscular system via the synapses of the efferent nerve fibers and muscle fibers b Motor Endplate special receptor that respond to lower motor neuron c Acetylcholine is releasedby motor neuronsgt produces muscle contraction 5 What is the dorsolateral tract a From the cortexgt crosses in the medulla gt stays contralateral b Movement of periphery of bodygt hands fingers toes c Finegrained intricate movements 6 What is the ventromedial tract a From the cortexgt stays ipsilateral b IN THE SPINAL CORD PROJECT BILATERALLY AND CONTROL MUSCLES OF MIDLINE OF BODY c Movement of midline of bodygt stomach posture 7 What are mirror neurons a In the premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobe b Activate when i Watching ii Imitating iii Thinking iv Sound c To identify understand and imitate a movement Understand people39s intentions 8 What are central pattern generators a Neural mechanisms in the spinal cord that generate rhythmic patterns Eg wing flapping in birds 9 What is a motor program a A fixed sequence that is learned or built into the nervous system From beginning to end automatically Interfered when thinking or talking about it 10 What is the basal ganglia a Caudate nucleus putamen and globus pallidus b Input Substantia nigra and cortex c Output Globus pallidus gt thalamus gtmotor cortex d Engaged in preparation of movement organizing planning initiating e Active prior to movement f Should treat basal ganglia instead of substantia nigra 11 What is the cerebellum a Balance b Coordination c Aiming and timing of rapid movements d Alternating movements e Turns slow deliberate movements into rapid wellpracticed habits 12 What is Parkinson39s Disease a When the pathway between substantia nigra and basal ganglia is degenerated Dopamine is not released to the basal ganglia b Tremor when at rest rigidity in movements Masklike face Stoop posture Difficult to stop once started and difficult to start once stopped c LDopa deep brain stimulation stem cell plantation 13 Huntington39s Disease a Cortical atrophy Involuntary Ballistic movement Choreiform movements b Atrophy of basal ganglia c Autosomal dominant transmission 4 14 Myasthenia Gravis a Autoimmune disorder b Progressive weakness c Rapid fatigue of muscles d Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor as treatment
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