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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gigi on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GC 170A at University of Arizona taught by E. Bigio in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO GLOBAL CHANGE in Global Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Lecture 01 Scientific Process and the Keeling Curve 1 Ask a question 2 Make Predictions hypothesis 3 Test Ideasgather data making observations testing hypothesis 4 Draw Conclusions What are the steps of the scientific process What are the scientific observations Mapping measuring preClpltatlon 5n0Wfa gathering datafor studying glaciers temperaturev sampl39ng melt water How do we make other scientific Temperature weather C02 levels vegetation observations to understand environmental Satell39t9539 39Ce Cores change What environmental variable is being measured with the Keeling Curve Measures atmospheric C02 levels What trend does the Keeling Curve Show 1 Levels uctuate daily due to atmospheric circulation 2 C02 levels were higher and more variable at night from plant respiration 3 Afternoon levels were steady at 310 ppm Why was the sampling location chosen Mauna Loa is remote far from vegetation local atmosphere is likely to not in uence What are the units of measurement Ppm parts per million How does the Keeling Curve correspond wtth temperature C02 levels correspond with rising temperatures Lecture 02 CO2 sources and Timeseries plots What is the correspondence of C02 and temperature As C02 levels are rising the temperature is rising What further questions does this prompt Why are C02 levels rising Humans are burning fossil fuels for energy Why does increased C02 cause the temperature to rise 0 Greenhouse effectgh gases trap heat What are the fossil fuels Coal electricity Oil transportation Natural gas home heating electricity cleaner Plant matter buried and compressed into rock Cheap source of energy Burning them produces C02 Understand how data is represented in a timeseries plot Used to see climate change over time y environmental variable X time Know how to draw a mean line Know how to describe the trend in the mean line amplitude and oscillations for a time series plot Mean average of values on x axis Trend slope of mean line if the mean is atno trend increasing or decreasing Amplitude height of uctuations abovebelow the mean described as high or low Periodicity how to describe oscillations uctuatio Periodic perfect oscillations live a wave Quasiperiodic almost regular 0 Random no pattern ruse PLOT 1 Random plot has random oscillations I I constant mean and high amplitude llllllilullllll lll l39r39r1lquot lll39l 7 thrilli l PLOT 2 Quasi periodic plot almost regular oscillations constant mean no trend over time High amplitude MI ll IWWHUWH n I a I l l lllll PLOT 3 Increasing Trendquot plot random irregular oscillations high variability increasing mean and low amplitude PLOT 4 Step changequot plot abruptjump between two series Each time series has random oscillations each step has a constant mean and low amplitude llllllllllllrllif llll lLllllmltll l l PLOT 5 Quasiperiodic with upward trend quasi periodic oscillations 39 i J1 IIIJ I l Ir lncreasing mean and high amplitude I g I 30 M 5D 5D 7 9 5 PLOT 6 lncreasing amplitude Random or high variability of values mean is constant no trend in the data The amplitude increases over time PLOT 7 Increasing mean andl amplitude High variability with increasing mean and Tlhe Keel ing Curve is most like Plot lncreasing ampitude the extremes are getting bigger 7 see 355 350 345 340 335 330 325 320 O02 communion ppm 3215 i H 31in hi i A Plot 1 B Plot 3 C Plot 4 D Plot 5 l ii I I I Il 1 1 t958 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 78 78 BO 82 Ybar 9 And also plot 3 Lecture 03 Forms of energy Electromagnetic Spectrum and radiation Understand the first three steps of the Greenhouse e ect 1 Sun Emits shortwave radiation electromagnetic radiation 2 Earth absorbs it blackbody concept 3 Earth emits long wave radiation electromagnetic Why is the earth s climate just right for us Earth has an atmosphere with just enough greenhouse gases and density to keep us warm Know the forms of energy potential kinetic thermal and electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic energy transmitted as particle streams and waves with both electric and magnetic properties heat transfer Thermal Energy heat rapid movement of molecules Understand how electromagnetic radiation is transmitted through space Travel through space at the speed of light Review how to describe a wave frequency wavelength Frequency number of wave crests Wavelength distance between wave crests What are the wavelength bands which are relevant for global change Middle of the spectrum is relevant for Global Change 4 Increasing Energy UV radiation visible light Infrared Radiation gt Increasing wavelength Which wavelengths are emitted by the sun and earth Sun emits short wave radiation UV Visible light infrared Earth is all infrared What is the relationship between wavelength and energy transmitted Shorter greater energy Longerlower energy What is the concept of flux Flux intensity of radiation amount of energy that passes a perpendicular surface per unit of time Energy per area Lower uxess energy How does the flux depend on angle of the surface to the incoming radiation Flux is less when surface is not perpendicular How does this a ect the climate over the earth surface More radiation is absorbed at equator Polar regions are cooler than tropics because suns rays strike the ground at a higher angle at the poles Lecture 04 Radiation Laws How do the radiation laws relate to the first three steps of the greenhouse e ect Radiation laws describe the total amount and intensity of radiation that is emitted by sun and earth and how it relates to temperature What is the relationship between wavelength and energy emitted by a blackbody e g what are the axes of the Planck function graph Shorter wave greater energy emitted Axis are wavelength vs radiation ux Why is the Planck function for the earth smaller to than the sun and at a smaller wavelength Because the sun emits shorter waves with more energy What will happen to the Planck function if the earth s temperature increases The plank function will move to the left and grow taller Why is the total energy for the earth very sensitive to changes in temperature Total energy increases rapidly with increasing temperature because a higher temperature means a shorter wave Why are the radiation laws important Weather and storms result from redistribution of energygulf stream moves energy around earth in summary Radiation flux Planck function blackbody radiation come Radiation flux Distribution of energy E Wavelength Law 2 Planck Function relates intensity of radiation to the wavelengths emitted lby a blackbody emits at AILL wavelengths The shorter the wavelength the higher the energy 33995 I Afinite 39 T Planck function Pealk and temperature Wavelength Law 33 Wien s Law The re is one wavelength where a lblacklbody emits a maximum amount of radiation and it is related to temperature The maximum radiation ux lpeak occurs at a wavelength that is inversely related to the temperature Radiation lilux Area under ou rue it i Planck function Total energy and temperature Wavelength 4 The StefanBoltzmann Law Total energy emitted is proportional to the tam peratu re of the body Total energy is sensitive to temperature because it is proportional to the fourth power Lecture 5 Atmospheric structure and Composition Know the four layers of the Troposphere Stratosphere atmosphere mesosphere thermosphere How does temperature change within TrOPOSPherei temp decreases With each layer height Stratosphere temp Increases Mesosphere decreases Thermosphere increasing What are the main features of the Tropospherei troposphere and stratosphere Contains most of water vapor Most gh gases dense Weather occurs from mix of warm and cold air masses Stratosphere 0 Very dry almost no water vapor 0 Very uniform no mixing 0 Contains ozone layer Where are the greenhouse gases Troposphere concentrated Where is the ozone layer Stratosphere Which greenhouse gases have the C02 and H20 highest concentrations in the atmosphere What is one way to reduce your Carbon Drive leSS ecological footprint in each FOOdE Farmers markets Gate 0 Housmg Sustainable furnishings g Iquot Goods and Services buy local recycle What factors contribute to lower L955 carbon from biCYCIGS not footprints in western Europe and much imported dense population developing nations Lecture 06 Heat Transfer Learn the three processes of heat transfer and think of examples for each Conduction direct contact heat ows from hot to cold Pot and coils Convection circulation within a uidgas heated from below warm water rises Ex troposphere leads to cloud formation pot boiling water inside and the steam Radiation heat transfer by electromagnetic radiation not heat energy it becomes heat when absorbed by the object 0 Ex waves off the boiling pot How does convection bring warm air from the surface upwards in the atmosphere Heat causes expansion of a substancemakes a substance less densewarm air is less dense and rises cold air sinks Monsoon storms
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