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Study Guide for Unit 2

by: Monica Dinnsen

Study Guide for Unit 2 HLTH 1000

Monica Dinnsen
Health in Modern Society
Jeffrey Patterson

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About this Document

This is a completed study guide for Unit 2 for our upcoming exam. It covers everything that will be on the test.
Health in Modern Society
Jeffrey Patterson
Study Guide
HLTH 1000, HLTH, Health in Modern Society
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Monica Dinnsen on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HLTH 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Jeffrey Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Health in Modern Society in Nursing and Health Sciences at East Carolina University.

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Date Created: 03/15/16
Chapter 1 Accessing Your Health 1 Just as health problems can create impediments to success in life improving your health can lead to better Academicperformance greater career success more relationship satisfaction and more joy in living Another benefit of healthful choices is that they increase your healthy life expectancy that is the number of years of full health you enjoy without disability chronic pain or significant illness Our current model of health has broadened from a focus on the individual physical body to an understanding of health as a re ection not only of ourselves and our mental and emotional wellbeing but also the health and safety of our communities Individual behaviors can help you attain maintain or regain good health or they can deteriorate your health and promote disease Chapter 13 Protecting Against Infectious Diseases 1 2 When it comes to your health and wellbeing it is best to be proactive instead of reactive Health is not merely the absence of disease or infirmity but a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing Define infectious communicable disease A disease that is caused by pathogens and can be spread from one person to another The hands are the greatest source of infectious disease transmission What are the six links in the Chain of Infection Pathogen reservoir portal of exit means of transmission portal of entry and new host Pathogens diseasecausing agents are everywhere We inhale them swallow them rub them in our eyes and are constantly in a hidden highstakes battle with them Historically infectious diseases have wiped out whole groups of people through epidemics such as the Black Death or bubonic plague which killed up to onethird of the population of Europe in the 1300s Pandemics or global epidemics continue to cause premature death throughout the world The more easily pathogens can gain a foothold in the body and sustain themselves the more virulent or aggressive they may be in causing disease 10 11 12 13 i 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Too much stress inadequate nutrition a lowfitness level lack of sleep misuse or abuse of drugs poor personal hygiene and highrisk behavior significantly increase the risk for many diseases To gain entry into your body pathogens must overcome barriers that prevent them from entering your body mechanisms that weaken organisms and substances that counteract the threat that these organisms pose Your body s first line of defense and one of the most critical barriers between you and an infectious agent is your skin Any substance capable of triggering an immune response a virus a bacterium a fungus a parasite a toxin or a tissue or cell from another organism is called an antigen When invaded by antigens the body forms substances called antibodies that mark them for destruction Improper use and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance and the development of super bugs Once people have survived certain infectious diseases they will likely not develop them again thanks to memory b and t cells The advent of vaccinations has been recognized as one of the most monumental developments in modern medical history because they allow the person to acquire immunity without ever becoming ill Of the several thousand known species of bacteria only over 100 cause disease in humans A person can be colonized and then spread the infection to others yet NEVER develop the disease The reasons for vaccination far outweigh any arguments against them Viral diseases can be difficult to treat because many can withstand heat formaldehyde and large doses of radiation with little effect on their structure Some have incubation periods the length of time required to develop fully and cause symptoms in their hosts that last for years which delays diagnosis Viruses are unique in that they must invade a host cell to replicate Colds are endemic always present to some degree held in check until immune defenses are weakened 23 Treatment for in uenza is only palliative meaning you can only treat the symptoms 24 The CDC recommends everyone over the age of 6 months get the u vaccine annually 25 Fungal diseases typically transmit via physical contact so avoid going barefoot in public showers hotel rooms and other areas where fungus may be present 26 Although our immune systems are adept at responding to challenges microbes and other pathogens constantly evolve and try to gain an edge Chapter 12 Reducing Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Cancer and Diabetes 1 When it comes to reducing your risk of developing chronic diseases behavior is key because it is easier to change behaviors now than have to change behaviors later 2 The American Heart Association AHA has begun to focus more on ideal cardiovascular health rather than mortality rates and the disease process ICH is defined as the absence of clinical indicators of CVD and the simultaneous presence of the following seven behavioral and health factor metrics Behaviors 0 Not smoking 0 Sufficient physical activity 0 A healthy diet pattern 0 An appropriate energy balance and normal body weight Health Factors 0 Having optimal total cholesterol without medication 0 Having optimal blood pressure without medication 0 Having optimal fasting blood glucose without medication 3 Clearly the best defense against CVD is to reduce your risks and prevent it from developing in the first place 4 Hypertension is known as a silent killer because it has few clear symptoms 5 The underlying cause of many cardiovascular health problems is arteriosclerosis 6 Of all forms of cardiovascular disease coronary heart disease is the greatest killer and can lead to a heart attack myocardial infarction 7 The earlier a stroke is recognized and treatment is started best results are seen if treatment begins within the first 2 hours the more effective treatment will be The four keys in recognizing a stroke can be remembered with the acronym FAST What does each letter stand for 10 ll 12 13 14 Face Has their face fallen on one side Can they smile Arms Can they raise both arms and keep them there Speech Is their speech slurred Time If you see any one of these signs time to call 911 What group of conditions makes up the metabolic syndrome which together increases a person s risk of heart disease stroke and diabetes Abdominal obesity waist measurement of more than 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women Elevated blood fat triglycerides greater than 150 Low levels of HDL good cholesterol less than 40 in men and less than 50 in women Elevated blood pressure greater than 13585 Elevated fasting glucose greater than lOOmgdL a sign of insulin resistance or glucose intolerance Your past and future lifestyle choices may haunt you as you enter your middle and later years in life Behaviors you choose today and over the coming decades can actively reduce or promote your risk for CVD Jessica engages in several healthrisk behaviors including smoking lack of physical activity and poor diet If she chooses to change only one of these behaviors which change will have the biggest impact on reducing her risk of developing a chronic disease Jessica needs to stop smoking This will have the biggest impact on reducing her risk of developing a chronic disease You ve probably heard that red wine in moderation can reduce your risk of CVD Research initially seemed to support this claim However newer research has been con icting Considering that alcohol consumption increases chance of injury and raises the risk of certain cancers you may want to rethink a drink a day keeps the doctor away High levels of good cholesterol Highdensity lipoprotein or HDL appear to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis In general the higher your blood pressure the greater is your risk for CVD Treatment for hypertension can involve dietary changes medication regular exercise controlling stress and getting enough sleep Apple shaped people who are thicker around their upper body and waist are more at risk for cardiovascular disease than pear shaped people who are thicker around their hips and thighs 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 List some examples of hearthealthy super foods Fish high in omega3 fatty acids olive oil whole grains and fiber plant sterols and stanols nuts dark chocolate and green tea Newer research has focused on studying the interactions between nutrition and genes nutrigenetics and the role that diet may play in increasing or decreasing risks among certain genetic profiles Damage to the lining of the arteries initiates an in ammation response at the damaged site and a cry for help to the body to repair it Repeated damage and repair can end up decreasing blood ow which can lead to a heart attack or stroke What can potentially damage the inner linings of the arteries Creactive proteins Cancer is exceeded only by heart disease as the greatest killer in the United States The process by which cancer spreads from one area to different areas of the body is called metastasis By the time they are diagnosed malignant tumors have frequently metastasized through the body making treatment extremely difficult A mutation to the genetic material of a skin cell triggers abnormal cell division and changes cell formation resulting in a cancerous tumor Causes of cancer are generally divided into two categories of risk factors hereditary and acquired environmental Over the years researchers have found that diet a sedentary lifestyle alcohol tobacco use and stress play a key role in the incidence of cancer Cancers are grouped into four broad categories based on the type of tissue from which each arise What are they Carcinomas epithelial tissues tissues covering body surfaces and lining most body cavities Sarcomas mesodermal or middle layers of tissue for example in bones muscles and general connective tissue Lymphomas lymphatic system the infectionfighting regions of the body Leukemias bloodforming parts of the body particularly the bone marrow and sleen 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths for both men and women in the United States When evaluating skin for changes in moles what does ABCD stand for Asymmetry Border Irregularity Color Diameter A woman who began to have sex at an early age may be at risk for cervical cancer The earlier cancer is diagnosed the better the prospect for survival Diabetes is the fastestgrowing chronic disease ever to affect Americans Excess sugar in your diet can lead to insulin resistance Studies have shown that people with prediabetes can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes by up to 58 through lifestyle changes including modest weight loss through a healthy diet and regular exercise Losing 57 of body weight can cause significant reductions in blood glucose levels and help prevent diabetes You may think you are too young to worry about developing diabetes but the statistics say otherwise In the past decade cases of type 2 diabetes in people under the age of 20 have risen to the tens of thousands Overall the risk of death among people with diabetes is about twice that of people of similar age without diabetes Chapter 9 Eating for a Healthier You 1 We need about 30 grams of fiber per day but the average American only gets about 11 grams per day The average American consumes about 200 pounds of sugar a year with most of not coming from natural food sources but from added sugars Despites it s many forms sugar is sugar no matter what form it s in or name it carries The biggest single source of sugar in the American diets is soft drinks The first place to start when you look at the Nutrition Facts label is the serving size and the number of servings in the package Then ask yourself How many servings am I eating 10 11 12 13 14 15 Most people in the United Sates don t know true hunger most of us eat because of our appetite a learned psychological desire to consume food Individual needs for water vary drastically according to dietary factors age size overall health environmental temperature and humidity levels and exercise The general recommendations for daily water intake are approximately 9 cups for the average woman and 13 cups for the average man Fiber is the reason why fruit sugars are not as dangerous as refined sugar as it prevents the sugars from being rapidly broken down and stored and provides you with a sense of fullness Fats are perhaps the most misunderstood of the body s required nutrients Triglycerides which make up about 95 percent of total body fat are the most common form of fat in foods When we consume too many calories from any source the liver converts the excess into triglycerides which are stored throughout our bodies Seen in the ingredients list of food labels as partially hydrogenated oils in products like crackers cookies and coffee creamers trans fats pose the highest risks for obesity and heart disease as they raise bad cholesterol and lower good cholesterol levels What are some good sources of healthy fats p 267 Fatty fish soy oil olive oil peanut oil canola oil green leafy vegetables walnuts walnut oil and ground axseed How do you know if you are eating healthy How do you judge the quality of your diet A good place to start is with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines They are designed to help bridge the gap between the standard American diet and the key recommendations that aim to combat the growing obesity epidemic by balancing calories with adequate physical activity According to My Plate meat and other protein foods should fill 25 of your plate MyPlate encourages consumers to eat for health through three general areas of recommendation 1 Balance calories Enjoy your food but eat less Avoid oversized portions 2 Increase foods Make half your plate fruits and vegetables Make at least half your grains whole Switch to fatfree or 1 milk 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 3 Reduce foods Compare sodium in foods like soup bread and frozen meals and choose the foods with lower numbers Drink water instead of sugary drinks Foods that contain mainly fat andor sugar and have little or no nutritional value such as ice cream and soda are said to consist of empty calories and lead to unwanted weight gain If you want to eat healthier it is important that you always know what you are putting in your body and you make nutrientdense food choices T or P All calories are created equal False MyPlate recommends we limit sugar and fatladen items as part of a healthy diet Strive to be physically active for at least 30 minutes daily preferably with moderate to vigorous activity levels on most days Many college students find it hard to fit a wellbalanced meal into the day but eating breakfast and lunch are important if you are to keep energy levels up and get the most out of your classes Eating a complete breakfast that includes complex carbohydrates protein and healthy unsaturated fat such as a banana peanut butter and whole grain bread sandwich or a dry fruit and nut mix without added sugar or salt is key Skipping meals is not a good idea as it slows down your metabolic rate and can lead to weight gain If you want to eat healthier in the dining hall what steps can you take to do so Choose lean proteins like turkey chicken fish beans and hummus Choose whole grain breads and pastas Choose egg whites at omelet station Chapter 10 Reaching and Maintaining a Healthy Weight 1 2 T or F When it comes to losing weight nutrition is more important than exercise True If you are trying to lose weight it is important to understand that it is a hard process that takes a lot of dedication and discipline Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States but obesity is rapidly gaining ground Poor diet and physical activity continue to be major contributing factors to the 10 ll 12 13 14 15 16 overweightobesity problem in America Environmental factors have come to play a large role in weight maintenance Time our grandparents may have spent going for a walk after dinner is now more frequently devoted to watching television playing video games viewing social media etc Although heredity metabolism and environment all have an impact on weight management the increasingly high rate of overweight and obesity in the past decades is largely due to the way we live our lives If you exercise it is best not to use weight as a means in assessing your health risk because it doesn t differentiate fat weight from fat free muscle weight A BMI of 25 to 29 indicates overweight and 30 or above is classified at obese which pose significant health risks When trying to lose weight you should be more concerned about your body fat percentage and how your weight is carried and less concerned with what the scale says A waistline greater than 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women may be particularly indicative of greater health risk A waist to hip ratio greater than 1 in men and 8 in women indicates increased health risks Generally men who exceed 22 percent body fat and women who exceed 35 percent are considered overweight but these ranges vary with age and stages of life There is no magic cure for years of overconsumption Careful attention to portions healthy choices from all of the food groups and regular exercise are the best options for sustained weight loss Before you can change a behavior you must first determine what causes it Identify at least 3 triggers that pertain to you 0 Stressful situations 0 Feeling upset 0 Feeling bored or tired Weight loss is difficult for many people and may require lots of effort as well as supportive friends relatives and community resources What are the 3 keys to successful weight management 17 18 19 20 21 22 Make a plan Change your habits Incorporate Exercise Having a healthy body image is a key indicator of selfesteem and can contribute to reduced stress an increase sense of personal empowerment and more joyful living People with body dysmorphic disorder may try to fix their perceived aws through abuse of steroids excessive body building repeated cosmetic surgeries extreme tattooing or other appearancealtering behaviors An individual with an eating disorder may also have other psychiatric problems which is another reason why professional help is often needed Although they lose weight people with anorexia nervosa never seem to feel thin enough and constantly identify body parts that are too fat Because eating disorders are caused by a combination of many factors there are no quick or simple solutions Without treatment 20 percent of people with a serious eating disorder will die from it When talking to a friend you suspect has an eating disorder or disordered eating patterns avoid casting blame preaching or offering unsolicited advice Instead be a good listener let the person know that you care and offer your support Chapter 11 Improving Your Personal Fitness 1 Regular participation in physical activity improves more than 50 different physiological metabolic and psychological aspects of human life In addition to reducing your risk of chronic diseases becoming physical fit has many immediate benefits It can help improve your physical appearance and sense of self esteem boost your resistance to diseases like colds and us reduce your stress level improve your sleep and help you concentrate In addition to the calories expended during physical activity being regularly physically active has a direct positive effect on metabolic rate keeping it elevated for several hours following vigorous physical activities Aerobic exercise the primary category of physical activity known to improve cardiorespiratory fitness improves the functioning of the heart lungs and blood vessels The most successful physical activity program is one that you enjoy and is realistic and appropriate for your skill level and needs


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