Study Guide for First Exam
Study Guide for First Exam INR3003
Popular in Intro to International Affairs
Popular in International Studies
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Beatriz Arteaga on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to INR3003 at Florida State University taught by Whitney Bendeck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 266 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Study guide INR3003 First exam 0 Both World Wars started in Europe 0 Enlightenment began in Europe spread Humanism Separation of Church and State Human rights voting freedom of speech etc Realism Theory 0 Dominant theory until after the Cold War 1970s 0 A quest for power practicing of realpolitik 0 Realpolitik power politics 0 Stated that states seek survival all decisions are made to ensure the securitysurvival of the state 0 For realist the state is the primary actor work for the state are never more powerful Classical Realism 0 Hans Morgenthau Classical realism considered to be the father of classical realism Wrote quotPolitics Among Nationsquot 1948 0 Follows President Woodrow Wilson aka Architect of American Idealism ldealists believed that WWI started due to poor leadership ldealists thought the poorcorrupt government could be fixed Wilson39s 14 points in the League of Nations gtcommunication was the key gtrespect the soveirgenty of each other gtbelieved that the spread of Democracy could reduce war 0 Classical Realists agreed that There were poorflawed leaders and systems Did NOT think you could fix it by communication Argued that states were after power and power hunger leads to war Believe that the best way to avoid war is to be prepared for war state shouldn39t seem weak NeoRealism Structured Realism Kenneth Waltz quotTheory of International Politicsquot 1979 0 More about security ensuring the survival of the state 0 Thought the problem wasn39t poor leaderssystems but the STRUCTURE of the systems 0 Waltz focused on the fact that we lived in anarchy no global power who can exhort authority over the states quotStates have a selfhelp mentalityquot have to do it for themselves because no one else will helpprotect them 0 Believe that state behavior can be predicted by the structure of the system NOT the individual views of the leader 0 NeoRealism is the dominant form of realism today 0 quotPoster childquot for a realist state is Israel 0 Each state is an individual expect them to act in an individual manner that are focused on ensuring the security of the state 0 MOST IMPORTANT GOAL OF STATES IS TO SEEK SECURITY 0 No global authority quotanarchyquot state is in charge of own security BUT anarchy breeds insecurity States do not trust other states naturally suspicious 0 Realist today say that the best way to avoid war is to createseek a balance of power Forming alliances 0 Never get into an alliance you can39t get out of alliances can backfire eg being drawn into a war due to the powerful state 0 Small states will flock to powerful states to share their protection Smal states seem vulnerable can be conquered 0 Nature of states is to seek balance 0 Once balance of power is established it SHOULD lead to stability 0 A new state can upset the balance of power or state fallingtechnology nuclear weapons Polarity 1 Unipolarity Hegemonic Stability Theory one major power today39s polarity USA 0 Major concern is that the other states will come together to take down major power 2 Bipolarity What realists prefer 0 Two major poles sides offset each other Eg Cold War USRussia 3 Multipolarity multiple polls of power within international system 0 What we are moving towards ChinaIndiaBrazil rising up 0 Realists believe that multipolarity is less stable Less clear where loyalties liechances of miscalculations increasetoo shifting of a system due to too many poles Security Dilemma Prisoner39s Dilemma Game Theory 0 State feels as if it is threatened security dilemma 0 A canonical example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two purely quotrationalquot individualsstates might not cooperate even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so Relative Gains Zero Sum Absolute Gains Nonzero Sum Relative Gains One state gets all the other gets nothing zero One side is gaining the other comes out as a zero sum Absolute Gains Both parties win Both sides get somethinggain something Nobody ends up with zero nonzero WWI Unification of Germany 1871 Catalyst for WWI Otto von Bismarck chancellor of new unified Germanymade a strong Germany Made treaties solely for defensive purposes protecting new German state 0 Two systems of alliance Triple Entente Great Britain France Russia Triple Alliance Germany Austria Hungary Italy Reaists say during a power transition war is likely to happen rose Russia Rising Theory Germany wanted to wage a war to prevent Russia from becoming a quotmega power39 Great Britain was the strongest power at the time as Britain39s power waned Germany39s power Germany surpassed Great Britain in the 190039s 0 Germany showed offense first starting WWI and prevent a threat Nationaism increased animosity between the powers WW was the most catastrophic war up to that point Russian Ottoman AutoHungarian NewlyGerman Empires all fell 0 WWI was still Germany39s fault through this theory Pyrrhic victory victory cost so muchwasn39t worth the victory Death toll was so staggering all powers were in a state of shock Economies were severely impacted France was destroyed Great Britain was a declining power US came out strongest of the powers but went into isolation After WWI no one was in the position to play the strongest power quotFree for allquot Critical for realists NO BALANCE OF POWER NO STABILITY League of Nations Nations Their goal was to get the powers to cooperate Did not have a military by design Could impose sanctions could vote to use force from the states involved Britain and France US Congress didn t want to be drawn into someone else39s war US wasn39t in the League of REALISTS DO NOT BLAME THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS did not believe it would work in the first place 0 Japan Manchukuo will oppose the League of Nations first 1931 Japan decided to expand expanded into China territory League of Nations condemned Japan as an aggressor Japan left the League of Nations renamed Manchuria 0 Italy October 1935 Italy would move to take over Ethiopia tried in 1896 Ethiopia appealed to the League of Nations for help League of Nations condemned Italy but didn39t do anything else minimal sanctions no oil embargo Mussolini promised war is they imposed an embargo 1936 Britain and France recognized Ethiopia as conquered League of Nations didn t stop the aggressor Nazi Germany as a Revisionist State Mearsheimer39s viewpoint From the readings Mearsheimer says quotStates could never be sure about another state39s intentionsquot quotSurvival is the primary goal of statesquot and quotStates are rational actors they will be calculating what they need to do to ensure their securityquot Mearsheimer also says states are likely to act offensively to each other and not likely to cooperate selfhelp Germany removed itself from the League of Nations 1933 1935 violates treaty from WWI and rearmed itself No one was able to stop Germany Britain was not strong enough this leads to security dilemma September 1938 Munich Conference expanding into the Sudentenland which was part of Czechoslovakia 0 Appeasement Britain and France will give Germany Sudentenland No balance of power Germany acts to keep powersecurity Germany was a revisionist state revise the order wanted to be the major power of Europe Cold War According to realists Cold War stayed quotcoldquot because the world was bipolar and therefore there was a balance of power Realists focus on the STRUCTURE of the system and coming out of WWII there were two major powers US and USSR nuclear arms race From the reading Mearsheimer states that a hegiment wants to be the only hegiment if there are two they will compete The Suez Canal Crisis Egypt Geography is incredibly important Two majors both sought to maintain the balance of power and avoid a nuclear war Suez canal important for trade control of the canal means oil Great Britain used to control the canal Nasser came into power 195039s Primary goal was to ensure Egypt39s survival Relationships between US and Egypt soured Egypt was working with the Soviets and taking a lot of aid from them Nasser recognized China at the time the US did not US pulled funding from Egypt Suez War 1956 Nasser nationalized Suez Canal meant Egypt took full control Britain was out Algerian39s were inspired by Nasser and rose up against France Algeria was a colony of France Egypt formed a military and alliances that threatened Israel Great Britain France and Israel were pissed off and formed an alliance and planned a war on Egypt US did not help its allies too risky to allow it to escalate Soviet Union threatened to strike Britain and France US had a quotCold War Policyquot if the Soviets struck Britain or France the US would strike back US supported UN in imposing sanctions and told our allies to back off Small state can play a REALLY big role Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Castro Khrushchev and Kennedy Castro was communist Bay of Pigs Soviet Union saw an immediate opportunity in Cuba since it39s off the coast of the US Soviets established missile sites in Cuba all in striking range of nuclear missiles Levels of escalation at the first conflict you do not threaten a nuclear strike you hope your opponent will back down US told USSR to back off by a certain date and if not there would be a nuclear war Soviets backed off dismantled the sites Move into a period of d tente quotcooling offquot with the Soviets Both powers maintained nuclear deterrence Bipolarity Led to stability No state makes war against another power if they don39t think they can win it Before war a state always calculates the stakes of that war Conventional vs Nuclear Wars In a conventional war the losing state will still survive in a nuclear war survival is not guaranteed Ending the Cold War US and Soviet Union tied off communications Gorbachev reformer Berlin wall comes down Intro to NeoLiberalism Liberalism Westphalia Treaty Each state recognized that each state was a sovereign state Liberals see opportunities to come together and cooperate Concert of Europe 1815 come together to cooperate Believe that if they begin to talk to each other they39ll stop attacking each other League of Nations applied to the world not just Europe UN since the UN there have no been no major power wars Liberals believe that we live under anarchy but can still cooperate with one another Hugo Grotius international law John Locke rights of individuals Adam Smith capitalism David Ricardo comparative advantage Immanuel Kant spreading democracy Enlightenment movement ideals bring about political social and economic change that begins in Europe and then spreads Classical Liberalism The Enlightenment Political social economic movement Classical liberals wanted to empower the individuals 1800s Europe voting rights limiting the power of governments Free enterprise individuals should be able to buy and sell property Freedom NeoLiberalism Theory of international affairs Primary concerned with democratization spreading democracy Focused on cooperation and institutions See organizations as very powerful actors Liberals don t agree with the Realists view of quotindividual security Liberals believe the world has become TOO interconnected to only worry about yourself Doesn39t make sense to engage in war since states benefit from one another trade tourism Interests are no longer singular Cooperation under Anarchy Liberals believe that cooperation is possible and a must After WWII democracy spread quickly around the world Ultimately t boils down to how states treat each other Liberals don39t care about power or ideology ideology also does not matter to Realists Believe that a democratic state can cooperate with a communist one If we treat a state with respect the RECIPROCAL action is that they do the same vice versa Can expect peace to come from positive reciprocity Liberals say the more frequently that states interact the more likely they are to cooperate Interdependence The more interconnected states are to one another the more likely their economies are as well 0 For example China and the US when China39s economy falls so does ours Mutual dependence therefore cooperation Liberals say we have linked our states through international organizations Makes us more interdependent Liberals are also advocates of collective goods things we can ONLY achieve by working together Trade tourism no war security Absolute NonZero Sum Gains in contrast to RelativeZeroSum Gains Never implies that we all benefit EQUALLY just means we all gain something Nobody is left with nothing nobody is left with ZERO nonzero Liberals focus on Absolute Gains Realists focus on Relative Gains Prisoners39 Dilemma According to the Liberals For Realists they use the model to show how states don39t trust other states play for themselves and don39t engage with other states Liberals don39t believe in Prisoners39 Dilemma because there is always conversation and engagement Mutuality of interest for prisoners to get out ofjail for states can be collective goods Players do meettalk just like how states use diplomacy A Shadow of the Future Come to understand what to expect of the personstate Not only do they expect to meet again but they have an expectation of how that encounter will be like Liberals believe that through this communication we are more likely to build trust and work together B Cost Defection Increases when the relationship between the peoplestates increases It is incentive for states to behave and seek cooperation Liberals point out that states that do not get along might still find areas where to cooperate mutual areas of interest Robert Axelrod Study 1970s Study the different strategies of the Prisoners39 Dilemma He ran the study and found that it was quottitfortatquot TitforTat What you do to me I do you help betray All based on reciprocity but the first move is positive Causes cooperation to continue steady ability to work together 0 What the Liberals get out of this When you have repeated interaction it encourages positive reciprocity cooperation Ways to Increase the Costs of Defection Reputation Costs There is an expected behavior from each state Liberals believe that there are consequences from having reputation costs A state with a bad reputation does not get much trade ex North Korea Monitoring States have trouble hiding things States must comply with one another if suspicious activity is suspected Noncompliance states will have sanctions set on them maybe even war 0 Ex Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty NPT drafted in 1968 Effort to control nuclear weapons Nuclear Powers US Great Britain Russia China France The five powers CANNOT help anyone else become a nuclear power The five powers MUST eliminate the production of more nuclear weapons and cannot seek to become offensive powers Signed by every country except Israel India Pakistan and South Sudan WILD CARD North Korea signed the NPT in 1985 but pulled out in 2003 AND tested a nuclear weapon NPT is enforced through monitoring on the ground and satellites Liberals say that organizations like this along with the monitoring are VERY effective Liberals feel that the deeper the connection between states the more likely we will cooperate Realists feel that the MORE we link our interests with others the more vulnerable we become Economic interdependence cons the Great Depression US economy affected the entire globes Another con if someone39s economy is crashing ours goes down with it drawn into other peoples39 conflicts International Organizations Liberals see them as very important Believe they can really impact and influence states and political decisions It is through the organizations that states link their differences Realists say they are very ineffective 0 Ex Germany Italy Japan all pulled out of the League of Nations right before WWII Critiques on Liberalism Ethnocentrism When you believe that your way is the best way 0 Ex US wants to spread democracy because we think it39s the best form of government other states don39t On Size Fits All Model quotOur model works for us it should work for you alsoquot quotIf you39re still facing problems then you did it wrongquot China History of China A Qing Dynasty 16441912 1 Opium Wars 1st SinoJapanese War Boxer Rebellion China begins to weaken and its relationship with surrounding states began to sour Boxer rebellion allows the West to see how WEAK China really is 2 Belated Reform Halfhearted attempted to reform but it was too late Due to the attempt to reform and how weak China was the Qing dynasty fell Rough transition from 2000 years of dynasty to new government B Nationalist Period Guomindang Sun Yatsen quotFather of Modern Chinaquot Chiang Kaishek became the head of the new nationalist government 1 Civil War 192749 Between the nationalists and the communists Went on the entire time the nationalist government was in power 2 2nd SinoJapanese War WWII China and Japan The atrocities that took place were aimed towards civilians not armiesgovernments Came to an end in 1945 when the US beat Japan Nationalists fell from power communists rose to power People39s Republic of China Communist Era 1949 Present Mao Zedong39s Policies Mao is the father of communist China Death toll attributed to Mao is 77 million due to poor policies Mao made US the number 1 enemy in China Surprisingly the relations between China and the USSR weren39t all that great Soviets wanted China to adopt their exact model of communism but Mao had his own vision of China The friendship was always rather shaky Great Leap Forward policy ended relationships with USSR Soviets were furious Increase industrialization surpass Great Britain in steel production in only 15 years Let the peasants make steel in their backyards steel furnaces but then they stopped farming the land 1959 China and Soviets split completes in 1960 1966 was the Cultural Revolution quotpurificationquot quotpurgequot all the members of society who weren39t 100 with Mao Kids called quotThe Red Guardquot went around and found people who weren39t communist quotbloody messquot 30 million people die Relations with the US Once China wasn39t friendly with Soviets US begins having relations with China While Cultural Revolution was going on China opened the door for the US for two reasons 1 Mao39s idea to industrialize failed He needed the US to supply China with the tech and the experts 2 China Peoples Republic of China wanted in on the UN An offer was made 1971 Kissinger flew to China and met with Mao to open doors for diplomatic relations Paved the way for Nixon to go to China didn39t want China as an enemy or to go back to USSR due to the Cold War going on 1971 China gained a PERMANENT seat in the UN and Taiwan loses its seat There are only 5 permanent seats Security Council because they are all NUCLEAR POWERS 1972 Nixon traveled to China and met with Mao US did not recognize China until 1979 Deng Xiaoping quotlittle manquot Was purged twice came back twice Opened the doors to China was now open for business Wanted to stay communist and have a capitalist form of economy State controlled capitalism Opened the doors to foreign investments huge transfer of technology knowledge expertise etc Deng said quotTo get rich is gloriousquot wanted to make China great again Tiananmen Square 1989 Protests lead to massacre Climax of a growing democracy movement in China Majority of the protestors were educated elites Deng sent the military in and fired on the people who were UNARMED Damaging business with China and its relations with the Western world admonished as a HUGE violation of human rights Lost the ability to hold the Olympics due to this Other leaders of China Jiang Zemin not very popular Hu Jintao was called quotcold as icequot responsible for the huge internet firewall in China Xi Jinping current general secretary and president of the government and head of military in China 0 lst and most important title in China is General Secretary Is China a Threat Realist and Liberal predictions Realists are a bit concerned with China39s rise transfer or power most likely leads to war Rising power may act aggressively to show dominance May result in conflict between the U5 and China China39s military is largest in terms of man power 25 million and is spending about 200 billion a year for military budget Realists say that resources may cause a conflict oil Many disagreements with China over human rights issues China wants Taiwan and the U5 has made it clear that if China is the aggressor we will step in The U5 is obligated BY TREATY to fight with Japan if China and Japan get into another war A lot of the US39s debt is owed TO China which is very very very bad Liberals say China39s rise will be within the context of cooperation and will not result in conflict Expect us to continue to work with China Yes China39s military expenses has been going up but the US military FAR surpasses China39s Yes China39s economy has been growing but the US is still surpassing China US and China are both a part of many international organizations which makes us partners China might become stronger than the US economically it will never be stronger than the entire West which is linked together tightly The connection between US and China means that we will cooperate China39s holding of US debt China want us to be able to pay off the debt therefore they will not let us fall economically Liberals expect continued cooperation and peace Nationalism and the NationState Nation State New Concept World is now organized in states to be recognized by the UN you must be a state Vertical and Horizontal Legitimacy As states began to increase power beyond their borders they had to increase connection between the leader and the people Requires legitimacy Vertical legitimacy connects the leadership to the people and people to the leadership up and down 0 Leadership39s ability to establish its right to rule and establishing that right within the border of the territorial state Horizontal legitimacy who belongs there side to side 0 Ex France People in France are French speak French their ancestors and probably French 0 Common history share the same culture 0 Nation is defined by community not borders Vertical is to state Horizontal is to community Hard vs Soft Power Nye Power doesn39t necessarily mean force Power is also how states influence others Hard power Coercive power wielded through inducements or threats 0 Military 0 Coercive diplomacy quotdo this or elsequot threat of punishment to get what we want 0 Large powers are the ones that can affectiver wield hard power Soft power the capacity to persuade others to do what one wants 0 No threats simply to persuade 0 Persuasion comes from the attraction and immulation of intangible power 0 Weaker states are more likely to rely on soft power PreNation State PoliticalReligious empires Holy Roman Empire City states A Feudalism Not as powerful as states are today King or Queen wasn39t recognized the Feudal Lord was Borders were not clearly defined Capacity of the states was weak King controlled the aristocrats aristocrats controlled the people In feudalism the people were subjects they had no say in who became KingQueen Creation of the Modern NationState Creating borders and recognizing them Treaty of Westphalia after 30 years war European powers agreed to recognize each other s borders and respect them as sovereign France Louis XIV Wanted to strengthen France and project French power but needed a strong large army Started getting money for an army through taxing the people had to create the direct link between King and people vertical power Centralization process he begins to centralize power within borders with direct links to the people Allowed him to build a standing army comprised of the people gave them an act of role in the empire Wanted to make France more French France was made the ONLY language in schools government etc forced people to learn French National identity nationalism French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars Revolution and Napoleonic wars start this sense of nationalism Napoleon was fighting with citizen armies armies made up of CITIZENS NOT SUBJECTS French began to spread the nationalism inspired the rest of Europe Nationalism became real powerful in Italy and Germany states begin to turn into NationStates WWI Era 0 Spark where WWI ignites is Serbia and AustriaHungary 0 Core problem was nationalism Role of Nationalism Became a problem with multiethnic empires Slovaks Serbia thought they should rule themselves not under AustriaHungary Austria declared war on Serbia All the ethnic groups in AustriaHungary wanted to be their own NationState rule themselves Post WWI Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes Yugoslavia Different people groups different religions Differences caused Yugoslavia to fall apart Ethnic violence Armenia Armenian massacre by the Turks because they didn39t belong in the community what would be Turkey 15 million Armenians killed WWII Era Germany and the Holocaust Hitler wanted to create a better Germany quotAll Germans should be part of Germanyquot Nazi regime was intolerant of nonGermans directed at Jews 6 million Jews were killed 7 million nonJews were also killed as Nazis tried to create a quotpurequot Germany All states in Europe were nation states except Yugoslavia and USSR
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