Chemistry 101 Exam 1 Study Guide
Chemistry 101 Exam 1 Study Guide 101
Popular in Chemistry
Popular in Chemistry
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Satori Le on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 101 at Washington State University taught by Michael Finnegan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 333 views. For similar materials see Chemistry in Chemistry at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chem 101 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1116 of The fundamentls of General Oragnic and Biological Che r Physical and chemical changes 0 Physical change the substance changes its form but not identity 0 Ex salt in the water solid liquid gas changes dissolving 0 Chemical change a reaction substances are converted into other substances 0 Reactants initial substances are converted into products the substances created by the reaction 0 Element a substance made up of only one type of atom 0 Compound A pure substance made up of more than one type of atom held together by chemical bonds Solids Liquids and Gases 0 Solid the atoms ions or molecules are locked into place with respect to each other 0 Liquid the atoms ions or molecules move around each other but remain near each other 0 Gas the atoms ions or molecules are separated from each other and move independently Chemical formula 0 The number of atoms of each element is represented by a subscript after the symbol of that element 0 What elements are present and how many atoms of each element are in one unit of NH42503 o Nitrogen 2 atoms 0 Hydrogen 8 atoms 0 Sulfur 1 atom 0 Oxygen 3 atoms The atomic model Theory Section 21 o Atoms are composed of subatomic particles protons neutrons electrons o Protons and neutrons packed in nucleus 0 Electrons on outer side surrounding nucleus 0 Electrons are too small to know where they are where they are going Atomic Mass NumberWeight 0 Atomic number 0 Represented by 2 o Tells us the number of protons in nucleus 0 Mass number 0 Represented by A o Protons neutrons mass number A o How to find number of neutrons 0 Atomic number mass number of neutrons Atomic weight 0 The average mass of an atom of that element as found in nature Isotopes o Atoms of a given element always have the same atomic number but may have different mass numbers In other words they can have different numbers of neutrons o Atoms with identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers are called isotopes o if it was 50 35Cl and 50 17Cl the average would be 36 o 50 35 50 37100 36 Chemical symbols showing the atomic and mass number of a specific isotope 0 AZ X o The element name is followed by the mass number 0 Name A 0 Oxygen 18 9 1880 0 An atom that contains 26 protons and electrons 31 neutrons 9 5725 Fe bottom is protons neutrons atomic Atomic Nlumber or Protonl 2 Nlumbemzl mass Elemental H number Element e Symbol I quot S mb l 7 Atomic Massinl atomu m 2 F amul number Orbitals Shells and Subshells 0 Energy level an orbital 0 An orbital can hold two electrons o Orbital shells o Shells are given a number n 0 First shell n1 is the closest to the nucleus and the lowest energy 0 Second shell n2 is a little farther out and higher in energy and so on o Subshells o Orbitals within a shell are organized into subshells based on the shape of the orbital 0 Each shape is identified by a letter s p d or f 9 Energy order sltpltdltf 0 Each shell will have as many subshells as its number I I shell one can only have one subshell s I shell two can only have two subshells sp etc S orbital is found in a set of 1 P orbitals are found in sets of 3 D orbitals are found in sets of 5 F orbitals are found in sets of 7 0000 Electron Con gurations in the Perodic Table configuration should add up to atomic CobaH Write the complete electron configuration for tin 0 Sn 9 1522522p63sz3p64sz3d1 4p65524d105p2 0 Sn 9 Kr Ssz4d1 5p2 Only noble gas is allowed in brackets co 9 1522522p63523p64523d7 Iodine 9 Kr 5524d105p5 Valence Electrons to find an elements amount of valence electrons refer to the element on the periodic table the column number that it is in represents its amount of valence electrons o fluorine has 7 valence electrons because it is in column 7 Cations and anions Cation Positively charged on the atom lost electrons Anion Negatively charged ion the atom gained electrons non metals form anions Name Lewis structure AXE Class E lone pairs around central atom X branching off structures refer to the Lewis structure Geometry Shape Bond polarity 3D SKetch O SeO AX2E1 Trigonal Bent Se 0 SE planar SeOz 9 O O CHZO O AX3E0 Trigonal Trigonal C O O planar planar C H H c H 9 C H H CH3C Cl AX4E0 Tetrahedral Tetrahedral C Cl e in H c H C H H l H I 6 Hl H HCN H C N AXZEO Linear Linear C N H C N 9 9 C H Polar PBr3 Br P Br AX3E1L Tetrahedral Trigonal P Br 222m I pyram39d 9 Bro 1M1 Br Br Br CCI4 Cl AX4E0 Tetrahedral Tetrahedral 9 I C CI 7 a my h Cl Cl C Cl Cl CIOZ39 OCl AXZEZ Tetrahedral Bent Cl 0 Cl O39 9 OO
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