Study Guide 1 with Answers
Study Guide 1 with Answers 414
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Date Created: 09/20/15
ANTH 414514 Archaeologv of Mesoamerica Studv Guide 1 Lectures 1 4 and associated readings NAME Instructions 80 Questions worth 05 point each for a total of 40 points Answers do not have to be in complete sentences but all information needed to answer the question should be included in the answer All information should be available from the slides lectures and the textbook DO NOT use online or other sources You may work with a partner but turn in your own assignment Assignments that are exactly the same wordfor wordverbatim will earn zeros for all parties involved Electronic emailed to Dr Sagebiel ksagebielniuedu as a Word document is preferred or hard copy versions are acceptable Study Guide 1 is due Thursday January 29 at class time Late assignments will lose 2 pointsday beginning at 1045 am on January 291 Lecture 1 Mesoamerican Climate Ecologv and Geogranhv Tuesday January 13 1 What is the difference between Middle or Central America and Mesoamerica Central America is a Geographic zone vs Middle America which is a Cultural Zone 2 What generally defines Mesoamerica hint see Evans s mnemonic name for Mesoamerica Where cornmaize cultivation results in reliable harvests maizeoamerica 3 What is the triumvirate in Mesoamerica Maizecorn beans squash maize beans Complete protein 4 What nations today make up all or part of Mesoamerica Mexico Guatemala Belize Honduras El Salvador Nicaragua 5 What is unique about the environment of Mesoamerica Extreme amount of environmental diversity in a relatively small area Distinct wet and dry seasons 6 What are the two major mountain ranges of Mesoamerica And what two key resources do they provide Sierra Madre Oriental Sierra Madre Occidental fertile soil and obsidian 7 What is the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and why is it important Geographic and cultural divide of Mesoamerica west is dry east is wet also led to different cultural developments in the Initial Formative particularly in regards to settlementsedentism earlier to the east with wild resources and agriculture early west with maize with less settlementsedentism 8 What are the four main keys to climate Latitude altitude temperature rainfall 9 What are the three environmental types in Mesoamerica and what is distinctive about each What two things combine to form an environmental type Tierra caliente tropical rainforest tierra templada deciduous scrub evergreen forests tierra fria montane forest Environmental zones and climate combine to form an environmental type 10 What are the two primary vegetation types in Mesoamerica Where do they occur What is distinctive about them Why are they important Neartic arid desert west of the Isthmus high altitude sedentism due to seeds fruits small animals early farming Neotropical tropical forests humid east of Isthmus low altitude sedentism around wild water resources 11 According to Evans what defines the northern boundary of Mesoamerica Why is the southern boundary so difficult to define The northern boundary is basically where the boundary of sufficient rainfall for maize agriculture falls The southern boundary tends to be more cultural but varied because of the broken topography of the mountains in that area Lecture g The Basics of Archgeoloav Chron0102v and Theorv of Complexitv Thursdav January 15 12 What is culture according to this class Adaptive behavior patterns that humans use to enhance our ability to survive and prosper beliefs language ideology religion food production systems material culture technology political systems identity and social organization 13 How does complexity differ from civilization Complexity when people within society differ in social stationstatus wealth and political in uencepower Civilization a set of traits that develop from complex society art style intellectual achievements monumental architecture these are mostly elite traits 14 What are the 6 primary civilizationscomplex societies that developed in the prehistoric world What is meant by a primary civilization What major natural feature played a role in the 4 primary civilizations of the Old World but not in the two of the New World Mesopotamia Egypt India China Mesoamerica Andes They developed independently of outside in uence Major rivers played a greater role in the Old World complex societiescivilizations 15 How and why does social complexity develop What are the elements in the social complexity feedback loop 1Population growth leads to con ict fissioning if possible 2hierarchical control 3agricultural surplus leaders have to be supported with agricultural surplus and specialists as well as labor to do both leaders replace traditional leaders and modes of interaction 16 Why isn t cultural evolution linear Societies collapse back to simpler states or even jump up or down a level 17 How do bandstribes and chiefdoms differ Huntergatherersforagershorticulturalists vs farmersintensive collectors no craft specialization vs some craft specialization egalitarian vs ranked kin groups no wealth accumulation vs some wealth accumulation particularly by the chief family based nuclear family organization vs lineagekin group based organization mobile vs sedentary 18 What are the hallmarks of a statelevel society Farming markets craft specialization hereditary elite class system laws and physical coercion cities 19 Compare and contrast processual and postprocessual archaeological viewpoints Processual stresses economics environment and materialism as culturally determinative and explanatory Postprocessual stresses individual agency ideology and the immaterial as culturally determinative and explanatory 20 Who is Julian Steward and what was the theoretical viewpoint that he developed Cultural ecology theory that environment plays a strong role in cultural development Cultural ecology studies how cultures adapt to their environment 21 What is meant by the term culture core Those technological organizational and ideological features most directly related to meeting the most important material needs food water shelter etc of a society Those features interact dynamically with the environment as each exploits and constrains the other feedback loop 22 What is environmental determinism Critique of cultural ecology stating it gives the environment too much of a role in determining culture 23 What is animism Why was it important in Mesoamerica Seeing the natural world all living and nonliving things as imbued with spirits and power It explains the world viewreligion of Mesoamerica that stresses humannatural world reciprocity Due to natural activity earthquakes hurricanes volcanoes 24 What are material remains Artifacts anything that preserves in the archaeological record including structures land modifications etc 25 What kinds of things tend to preserve in the archaeological record What does not preserve What methods are used by archaeologists to infer and understand all the parts of culture that do not preserve Preserve Pottery stone bone burials trash etc Do not preserve Beliefs thoughts language ideology political systems perishable goods Methods crosscultural analogy ethnoarchaeology ethnohistory and ethnographic analogy 26 What are context and association in archaeology and why they are important Context Where an artifact or feature was found in space horizontally and vertically stratigraphy Association What the artifact or feature was found with These are particularly important for inferring chronology and function and other inferences about the past 27 Why is time or chronology so important to archaeologists Because it allows us to examine mechanisms of cultural change the causes and effects of change Lecture 3 Paleoindmnd the Early Archaic Tuesdav January 20 28 What is carrying capacity How is it related to the Law of Biotic Potential see Evans P 62 Carrying capacity the number of people who can live in an area without changing their foodgetting technology causing serious con ict or causing environmental degradation Relation to Law of Biotic Potential The number of people who can be supported in a particular environment will be reached eventually by humans because we have many children in order to ensure that at least some survive 29 What are the four major controversies or questions relating to Paleoindians Where EUROPE when PRECLOVIS routes megafauna extinction 30 What is the evidence that Native Americans came from Northeast Asia Is there good evidence for a European origin Why or why not Epicanthic fold over the eye Shovelshaped incisors and other tooth morphology Sinodonty Blood groups Mitochondrial DNA 5 haplogroups A B C D and X Ychromosome mutations Beliefs shamanism view of the structure of the universe divinatory practices astronomical practices the rabbit inthemoon New World languages derive from Northeast Asia No Solutrean is 5000 years earlier The Solutrean people also lived fairly far south in Europe and did not have a maritime adaptation that would have allowed them to boat 3100 miles to North America 31 Why is it difficult to date Paleoindian culture They were mobile with few possessions Their population was low and dispersed Large amount of time has elapsed allowing decay burial erosion of sites and inundation of coastal sites 32 What is meant by PreClovis What does that period date to Period of occupation before Clovis culturepoints ca 20000 11000 ya 33 What is the best current evidence for the timing and routes of human dispersal through the New World Based on DNA and archaeology people were in Alaska by 20000 ya but were blocked from moving farther south by the ice sheets Coastal migration routes opened up ca 16000 ya and people rapidly expanded down the coast to South America Inland routes opened up by 1500 ya and a second migration moved out of the Alaska area into North America via that icefree corridor 34 Describe Clovis culture What does it date to Clovis points are very finelymade uted points They have ground ends for hafting onto spears Used with spearthrowers or atlatls Stone sometimes brought or traded from hundreds of miles away 13200 11900 ya 35 Why was hunting so important so important to Paleoindians Meat is highly valued for its protein and fat hunting leads to male bonding hunters get prestige through sharing food paying off debts and establishing mutual obligations feasting brought people together for socializing this included trade courtship the awe factor of bringing down such large and dangerous animals 36 What is Folsom culture and what does it date to 11000 9000 ya Developed with the extinction of megafauna Re ects a shift to bison hunting as a primary focus The Folsom point is also uted but the ute extends much farther nearly the entire length of the point 37 What is megafauna How was it hunted When did it go extinct Megafauna large animals included mammoth mastodon giant sloth giant bison horse and camels Hunted with a spearthrower or atlatl Hunting large game with a spearthrower is very dangerous The hunter has to be relatively close to the animal Spearthrowers are not as accurate as the bow and arrow Death is usually due to blood loss rather than a direct hit to a vital organ This is why animals were often driven into box canyons over cliffs and into swamps Extinction by 11000 ya 38 What is the Overkill Hypothesis What are the arguments for and against it Humans entered a landscape in North America of large game that was not used to humans Humans could easily kill the game which caused human population to rapidly grow Eventually along with environmental changes occurring as the Ice Age was giving way to the warmer Holocene megafauna went extinct Arguments Against Overkill The warming climate of the Holocene caused extinction in North America There were not enough people then to cause extinction Other smaller animals also went extinct Arguments for Overkill Large game had survived several other episodes of warming climate Most of the large game in the Americas went extinct before the climate was all that warm Simulation models show that even a small number of humans could have caused major extinctions within as little as 800 years Sporomiella fungus which thrives on herbivore dung also had a major dieoff around 14800 ya 39 What are some of the important cultural transitions during the Archaic particularly the Early Archaic Through the Archaic there was a gradual increase in use of plants leading to domestication and sedentism Diet changed to antelope deer rabbit cactus fruit grass seeds and pods Ground stone tools mortars pestles milling stones More basketry etc 40 What is the difference between Archaic adaptations East and West of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec West of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec is where most of our evidence comes from mostly because of good preservation in a dry climate and lots of caves Used Nearctic plants st of Isthmus of Tehuantepec few sites due to poor preservation but also because it is not a good area for huntingforaging More evidence of maritimecoastal adaptations Used Neotropical plants 41 What are some of the important environmental transitions during the Archaic Warmer and wetter Rainy summers dry winters Megafauna are extinct More microenvironments and ecological diversity 42 What new technology was developed during the Archaic Ground stone tools also more wood and basketry 43 What particular kinds of foods lists of specific names were eaten during the Archaic see class notes and Evans Why was there a growing emphasis on those foods What key attributes do these foods tend to have particularly the plant foods Insects Larvae Eggs fish fowl reptiles Acorns rabbits amaranth teosinte manioc maguey Need to replace megafauna High in proteinfat large fruiting bodies long seasons when harvestable seeds or fruits not easily knocked loose by wind rain or animals 44 What is Leibig s Law of the Minimum How does that interact with the Law of Biotic Potential What consequences do those two things have for human populations The Law of Biotic Potential Animals and humans will produce more offspring than the environment can support to insure there will be a next generation Leibig s Law of the Minimum the necessary resource in least supply will limit the operation of a living being So how to balance overproduction of people with scarcity of resources limit offspring secure resources 45 How do the Law of Least Effort and Romer s Rule explain the slow but steady pace of human cultural evolution Romer s Rule cultural innovations originate as a way of maintaining a lifestyle not necessarily to change it Because of the Law of Least effort humans will minimize laboreffort 46 How do hunterforagers tend to limit their fertility and number of offspring Sexual taboosabstinence eg no sex as long as an infant is nursing Breastfeeding for extended periods of time reduces fertility Abortion Infanticide 47 How did Archaic populations ensure a secure and stable food supply What consequences did those measures eventually have Secured food supply by Minimizing risk Increasing efficiency Consequences Domestication Sedentism Population growth Eventually greater social complexity 48 What is a microband What is a macroband How was status achieved in a bandlevel society What roles did men and women have The macroband a set of related microbands who hold a territory in common Macrobands came together periodically when abundant resources were available Sexual Division of Labor women not as mobile because they are tied to children hunting also dangerous 49 What kind of seasonal round did Mesoamericans tend to follow Dry season microbands hunting maguey Wet season macrobands foraging 50 Why was agavemaguey important What resources does it provide see class notes and Evans food liquid and string for nets snares and baskets Easily transplanted Sap vitamin B minerals Agave syrup pulque 51 Why were bottle gourds important Light hold water seeds etc first domesticate 52 Where is Guila Naquitz Cave What kinds of information have we gained from it Valley of Oaxaca Mexico Huntergatherer microbands were living there Learned what foods eaten gendered use of space seasonal round 53 What are the dates for the Archaic period What are the dates for the Early Archaic period 80002000 bc and 8000 to 5500 bc Lecture 4 The Middle and Late Archaic to the Initllll Formative Thursday January 22 54 What is the environment of the Tehuacan Valley like Drier than Valley of Oaxaca No rain November April Springs caves microenvironments 55 What is important about the Early Archaic burial found in the Tehuacan Valley Possible evidence of human sacrifice andor cannibalism 56 What plants begin to be domesticated during the Middle Archaic maize chile avocado beans squash amaranth 57 How did maize and other plants become domesticated Through tending and selecting good plants gardeninghorticulture 58 Why would people bother with domesticating plants What benefits are there Led to more harvestable and storable plants Greater productivity and reliability led to incentive to invest more time and labor in crops 59 What plant is ancestral to maize and where did it likely originate Teosinte Balsas Drainage of Mexico 60 In What forms was early maize consumed Early maize was eaten raw kernels and stalks as gruel atole or as a fermented drink chicha balche 61 Why is the site of GheoShih Oaxaca important Early beads that may indicate status differences earliest community structure dance oor ball court meeting structure 62 What does the earliest known Mesoamerican community structure date to 50004000 bc 63 Where was the earliest ceramic figurine in Mesoamerica found what does it date to what does it depict and why Zohapilco Mexico 3000 bc pregnant womanfertility 64 Why are the Chantuto sites in the Soconusco Region important Shells used to build platforms capped with dirt Used as drying areas for fish and shell sh clams and shrimp Early economic specialization Possible chiefdom with 2tiered settlement hierarchy 65 What kinds of foods were being consumed along the Gulf Coast during the Palo Hueco Phase Permanent settlements supported by fish shellfish and possibly manioc Manioc production inferred through remains of obsidian graters 66 Why are ceramic pots used by farmers and not by hunterforagers Heavy and fragile so not used by hunterforagers although they occasionally lined baskets with clay to make them waterproof Used by sedentary farmers for storage water seeds soaking maize and beans cooking and fermentation 67 Where and when is the earliest New World pottery found Puerto Hormiga Columbia 3000 bc 68 Where and when is the earliest Middle American pottery found Monagrillo Panama 2500 bc 69 Where and when is the earliest Mesoamerican pottery found Puerto Marques Guerrero 1900 bc near Acapulco Mexico 70 What changes occur from the Early to the Late Archaic In the Late Archaic there are more permanent residents more farming larger tribes status differentiation pottery ascribed status personal property and craft specialization 71 What are the advantages of a sedentary farming lifestyle Less costly than moving around accumulation of goods weak can be taken care of investments made agriculture pay off secure food supply and better food storage 72 What are the disadvantages of a sedentary farming lifestyle Less nutritious diet more disease more inequality hard to resolve con ict have to defend land and resources and more children and population 73 Describe pox pottery What other pottery does it seem to be related to Pox pottery is slipped red and has ber temper It is similar to other Pacific coast pottery as far south as Ecuador 74 According to Evans why were there so few communicable diseases in the New World prior to European contact Cold filter of the crossing of Beringia small group size few domesticated animals 75 When do true Mesoamerican culture and behavior patterns originate Initial Formative 20001200 bc 76 What were the important changes between the beginning and the end of the Formative period Tribal villages vs chiefdoms and states equality between villages vs social complexity developing farming with mixed subsistence farming and huntinggathering vs farming full time achieved vs ascribed inherited status egalitarian vs hereditary elite parttime vs fulltime craft specialization few wealth differences vs more extreme wealth differences no ascribed classes vs class differentiation no tribute or taxes vs taxes and tribute 77 How do settlement patterns change with the development of chiefdoms Trend from villages of equal size to a twotiered settlement pattern with one larger village containing a civic andor ceremonial structure indicative of centralized authority 78 In what ways is social inequality manifested in chiefdoms Artifacts graves house size and elaboration differences between households and lineages 79 How does craft specialization change with the rise of chiefdoms artisans had more time to hone skills and perfect their craft slow change from individual parttime production to fulltime household production 80 Describe a chiefdom How do tribes become chiefdoms What sorts of changes occur Chiefdom An aggregation of villages under a permanent alliance with a single large chief s village two tiered settlement pattern Villages lose their autonomy How This is usually the result of some sort of coercion by the chief village Chiefs become hereditary and families are ranked according to their relatedness to the chief Surplus production is controlled by the chief BONUS QUESTIONS 81 What are chiefs good at Raiding trading feasting marriage alliances 82 What is meant by the term political economy A political economy is the whole set of materials and practices comprising production distribution and consumption of goods as these are controlled or in uenced by the decisions of a society s rulers The political economy is supported by the surplus produced by farmers ie subsistence goods support the rulers and artisans who then can focus on the nonsubsistence arenas of the economy EX elite luxury goods The subsistence economy still operates at the local level 83 What are key characteristics of luxury goods Elite goods Nonutilitarian ie not subsistence or necessary items Made of fine materials Sophisticated craftsmanship by master artisans High labor input Limited availability expensive In a high stylehigh art 84 What social functions do luxury goods have Ideologically powerful symbolism Links to kin lineages living and dead or other social institutions Restricted through sumptuary rules or laws Special or restricted use 85 Describe Mesoamerican mirrors What were they made of How were they worn Why are they important Made of ground stone iron ore pyrite and obsidian They were believed to be worn around elite s necks They were used to re ect light causing fire or smoke and they were believed to be portals to the gods and ancestors 86 What was the Initial Formative like to the East of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec Mixed economy large loosely clustered villages highdense population limited trade social ranking elite goods elite residences ball courts 87 What was the Initial Formative like to the West of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec Maize agriculture small dispersed villages low population lots of trade minimal social ranking
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