Study Guide 2 with Answers
Study Guide 2 with Answers 414
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brenna McCormick on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 414 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Davis or Dr. Sagebiel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Archaeology of Mesoamerica in ANTH at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
ANTH 414514 Archaeology of Mesoamerica Study Guide 2 Lectures 5 8 and associated readings NAME Instructions 40 Questions worth 1 point each for a total of 40 points Answers do not have to be in complete sentences but all information needed to answer the question should be included in the answer All information should be available from the slides lectures and the textbook DO NOT use online or other sources You may work with a partner but turn in your own assignment Assignments that are exactly the same wordfor wordverbatim will earn zeros for all parties involved Electronic emailed to Dr Sagebiel ksagebielniuedu as a Word document is preferred or hard copy versions are acceptable Study Guide 2 is due Tuesday February 10 at class time Late assignments will lose 2 pointsday beginning at 1045 am on February 101 Lecture 5 The Olmecs in the Early Formative Tuesday January 27 1 How was maize likely used by the Mokaya during the Initial Formative What evidence do we have of this use Large jars possibly used to make store serve maize beer 2 What evidence is there that the Mokaya developed into chiefdoms during the Initial Formative 2tiered settlement differential access to mirrors and figurines large scale architecture each chiefdom was trading with a different source area for obsidian 3 Paso de la Amada is a Mokaya site that has evidence of a chiefdom what is that evidence Elite housepalace ball court child s burial with fancy grave goods as evidence of ascribed ranking 4 What is pot irrigation Where was it used Shallow wells in fields water moved from well to plants using ceramic pots Oaxaca valley 5 Describe the basic method of farming in prehistoric Mesoamerica what were the plants how were they planted why did the triumvirate plants work together so well Coa or digging stick to place seeds in damp underlying soil Corn beans squash Each hill of corn would have beans twined around the corn stalk Squash below would conserve soil moisture Beans also fix nitrogen in the soil increasing productivity Corns beans complete protein squash adds vitamins 6 What has to happen in order for people to decide to switch from a wild crop like mesquite beans to a farmed crop like maize Yield has to be high enough to make labor energy time investment worth it ie clearing fields of wild resources like mesquite trees and replacing them with domesticated crops 7 List the major plants and animals domesticated in Mesoamerica Maize beans squash chili peppers amaranth turkeys and dogs avocado cacao tomatoes 8 What are figurines indicative of How were they likely used Ancestor worship to justify ownership of land and fertility used in household rituals and public rituals 9 What does the Early Formative for the Olmecs date to 1200800 bc 10 Where is the Olmec heartland What is the environment like Southern Gulf Lowlands and Isthmian zone mountains and tropical climate swampy with many rivers including Rio Coatzacoalcos 11 Why was the ball court at Paso de la Amada likely abandoned Chief lost power 12 Where was the first wave of sedentism and why El Ni o or La Ni a made it cooler drier New populations moved in Olmec in uence was growing 13 Where was the second wave of sedentism and why Maya Lowlands and the West Mexican Highlands Guerrero Michoacan and West Mexico maize agriculture 14 What is slashandburn agriculture How is it practiced Cutting down plants and trees and burning them to enrich the soil Highly productive for 2 3 years then have to let the land lie fallow for 3 5 years practiced in the Maya lowlands where the soil is thin 15 What are the hypotheses as to why the Southern Gulf Lowlands were so precocious socially Stable climate rich soils replenished by the rivers improved tropicaladapted hard kernel corn manioc 16 Why are the Olmecs often considered to be the Cultura Madre The first appearance of many traits that are often repeated in Mesoamerican complex societies from then on occurred in the Olmec area monumental architecture focused on plazas art that served ritual and dynastic purposes iconographic motifs on ceramics and gurines use of jadegreenstone ritual importance of caves mountains and water 17 Why is green sacred in Mesoamerica It is the color of milpas agricultural fields mountains and water 18 What green things are precious in Mesoamerica Jade bird feathers quetzals also plants and water 19 What is the importance of caves in Mesoamerica Entrances to the underworld supernatural realm realm of the dead 20 Why are mountains sacred in Mesoamerica Associated with caves and many are volcanoes 21 Why is water sacred in Mesoamerica Important for agriculture and ritual purification 22 How does Evans define civilization A set of primarily elite features that accompany complex societies especially highly developed chiefdoms and states These elite features include a welldeveloped and sophisticated art style writing and astronomy monumental architecture 23 What traits of complex society and civilization began appearing in the Initial Formative Food surpluses tributetaxes differential access to key resources endogamous social classes long distance trade for luxury elite goods monumental public architecture a sophisticated art style 24 What traits of complex society and civilization appear in the Formative Three levels of settlement cities towns villages along with three levels of administration Cities more than 5000 people with different functions than towns and villages complex division of labor Permanent institutions of rulership and power that maintain internal order and external relations State religion and public ceremonies with a focus on the role of the ruler and priests theocracy Writingrecord keeping arithmetic astronomy and calendrics 25 What traits of a complex societycivilization did the Olmecs have Food surplus Tribute Differential access to resources Longdistance trade for luxury elite goods Monumental architecture Sophisticated art style 26 What traits of a complex societycivilization did the Olmecs lack True cities twotiered settlement elaborate Occupational specialization No real state administration welldeveloped Writing arithmetic astronomy and calendrics unknown if they had chiefs or kings unknown if they had a state religion Lecture 6 The Olmecs in the Early Formative San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan and Guerro ThursdayL lIanuary 29m 27 What is important about the massive platform at San Lorenzo How was it built Who lived there What does it say about San Lorenzo s elite Massive platform built on a natural hill Irregular in shape possibly an effigy or ramplike areas to facilitate construction made of cartedin soil The elites lived on top indicating their importance to society and their prominent role and power 28 How were the colossal stone heads made and moved What did they represent How were they desecrated or ritually desanctified How were they disposed of Made of basalt brought by raft down rivers up from mountains up to 30 miles away many people would have been involved in production and movement portraits of individual rulers wearing ball game helmets and gear and ear spools remade from their old thrones once they died Pockmarks and gouges on many of them may be desecration desanctification or a method taking sacred mementos many were buried 29 What are some of the interesting architectural features at San Lorenzo Colossal heads Stonelined artificial ponds with stonelined drains palaces with red or white floors stone columns 30 Why would E1 Azuzul have been a good place for the rulers of San Lorenzo to place the twin sets of jaguar and human statues that they did see Evans as well It would have been a control point for river traffic and a good place to regulate and tax it The setting and monuments would have announced to all who approached San Lorenzo from the highlands that they were entering a realm ruled by humans who could command the labor of master artisans and whose supernatural alter egos possessed great power Evans p 145 31 Why was E1 Manati a sacred place What kinds of rituals were carried out there A hill with freshwater springs at its base Combined two sacred things mountains and water Rituals were carried out using carved stone items carved wood statues rubber balls and the bones of children Children were likely sacri ced as children s tears may have been tied to other sources of water through sympathetic magic 32 What are the characteristics of Olmec art What are some of the common themes and types of art that they made What media did they use Often intheround Curvilinear style is distinctive Spatial tableaus are common eX between sculptures or sculptures and buildings Humans and composite beings are common themes Composite figures likely represent shamanic transformation from this world to the supernatural world via a supernatural alter ego twins werejaguars fetuses babies rainmaize deity celtsaxes ball players earth monsters acrobats masks bloodletter Autosacrifice and human sacrifice especially of children stone jade ceramics wood 33 What are some of the characteristics of the werej aguarbabyfetus figurines and statues Pudgy cleft heads almondshaped eyes snarling fanged mouths ame eyebrows 34 What evidence do we have in Olmec art that shamanism and transformation were important to them Twins acrobats werejaguars jaguarbabies masks other composite beings 35 Where is Guerrero What is important about it geographically WestPacific coast of Mexico a rugged area so it was difficult to conquer or integrate 36 What evidence is there at Teopantecuanitlan that people there were in contact with the Olmecs Miniature ball court with four Olmecstyle sculptures in basrelief one small colossal head 37 What are some of the interesting architectural and sculptural features of Teopantecuanitlan Agricultural terraces Sunken patio surrounded by rooms and platforms The patio has a miniature ball court with four Olmecstyle sculptures in basrelief and at the spring equinox two of the sculptures cast shadows at sunrise and sunset through the center of the Enclosure There is a fullsize Ishaped ball court with an attached sweat bath one of the earliest sweat baths Buried drains for agriculture or a possible sewer system One sculpture has a possible 10 Flower day sign One of earliest hieroglyphs known one small colossal head earliest examples of corbelled vaults 38 How did the images of rulers change from the Early to the Middle Formative What is significant about that Images became more standardized with individuals holding the regalia of office headdresses masks sacred bundles holding bars or staffs standing or sitting on a throne with a sky dragon motif early hieroglyphs These emphasize the regalia and signs of office vs the Olmec heads which emphasized the individual 39 What deityculture hero makes its appearance in the Middle Formative the Feathered or Plumed Serpent avian snake Known to the Aztecs as Quetzalcoatl and to the Postclassic Maya as Kukulcan 40 What drugs were controlled by the elite by the Middle Formative How do we know Why did the elite control them Elites controlled hallucinogens like peyote mushrooms toad skin and tobacco used for rituals to contact the gods and ancestors differential distribution of pipes with more associated with elite areas of sites BONUS QUESTIONS Lectures 78 The Olmecs in the Middle Formative at La Ventaand The Middle Formative Guerrero Chalcatzingo and Chalchuapa and the Olmecs in the Late Formative at Tres ngotes TuesdayL February 3E 41 What important orientation did the Site of La Venta have 8 west of true north Which is the northsouth orientation of the Milky Way at the second zenith of the sun This occurred on August 13th the date of the current creation in 3114 bc 42 What are the theories about the exterior appearance of Pyramid Cl at La Venta It either represents a volcano or it is just highly eroded 43 What is Special about the Tomb of the Monolithic Columns It contained the burial of 2 or 3 young people with Carved jade objects A headdress made of stingray spines blood letters with these items likely bundled in cloth and covered with cinnabar 44 What are some of the buried offerings found at La Venta Olmec colossal heads stone mosaics like the jaguar maskstreeoflife cosmograms ceramics celtsaxes mirrors offerings of figurines like Offering 4 45 What does Offering 4 at La Venta look like What might it represent 15 greenstone and one sandstone figurines of men with cranial deformation probably wore perishable headdresses and costumes 12 of them form a circle around four who appear to be parading in front of the sandstone figure The sandstone figure stands with his back to six greenstone celts that are incised possibly representing stela some kind of ritual possibly a real one carried out on the plazas 46 What major cultural changes are in place by the end of the Middle Formative Regalritual precincts with pyramids and ritual orientations were established There were regalritual centers bordering on true cities There was a new artistic canon for the depiction of rulers with the advent of stelae Rulers were beginning to assume the accouterment of kingship First portrayals in art of possible warriors 47 Why is Chalcatzingo considered to be a gateway community Because it is at a trading crossroads between Guerrero the Basin of Mexico Oaxaca and the Gulf lowlands 48 How were the rich burials at Chalcatzingo different than those of the commoners Richer burials had people who had eaten more meat than poorer people 49 What kinds of raw materials were being worked and traded out from Chalcatzingo obsidian hematite serpentine kaolin clay cotton lime 50 Why would excavator David Grove believe that Chalcatzingo might actually have had actual Olmec residents or even rulers Because it has the only carved Olmec basreliefs in the Highlands There is also an Olmecstyle tabletop altarthrone made of 18 stone blocks Olmecstyle petroglyphs and pictographs of rulers a monument depicting possible Olmec warriors 51 What kinds of evidence are there at Chalcatzingo of female rulers Monument 1 or El Rey shows a likely female ruler as do other carved stelae and monuments 52 What is the evidence for Olmec warriors at Chalcatzingo Chalcatzingo Monument 2 depicts warriors in Olmec art style and wearing Olmecstyle clothing and masks wielding battle axes 53 Why were the Olmecs so interested in Southeast Mesoamerica and Chalchuapa in particular They wanted obsidian cacao hematite and greenstonejade 54 What are some of the theories about Olmec in uence at Chalchuapa Could these same ideas hold for Chalcatzingo It may have been conquered established as a trading colony or arose through intermarriage of local and Olmec elites Yes 56 Why is Tres Zapotes considered to be the third Olmec capital It became the most important site after the rest of the Olmec area was largely abandoned 57 What region and site appears to have in uenced Tres Zapotes art The Soconuscoarea site Izapa 58 What is the La Moj arra Stela Why is it important It was found in a river and might have been lost while being rafted from one site to another It is an epi Olmec stelae dating to the ad 100s it has a very long text of undeciphered glyphs in an early style 59 What seems to be the nature of Olmec in uence in Mesoamerica What makes it the first complex cultural horizon The exact nature of Olmec in uence is still not clear but is likely some mix of Artistic Ideologicalreligious Economic and Military in uence depending on the site or area impacted The Olmecs were the first Mesoamerican culture to have a strong impact over a wide region creating a cultural horizon
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