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Study Guide 3 with Answers

by: Brenna McCormick

Study Guide 3 with Answers 414

Marketplace > Northern Illinois University > ANTH > 414 > Study Guide 3 with Answers
Brenna McCormick
Archaeology of Mesoamerica
Dr. Davis or Dr. Sagebiel

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Archaeology of Mesoamerica
Dr. Davis or Dr. Sagebiel
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brenna McCormick on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 414 at Northern Illinois University taught by Dr. Davis or Dr. Sagebiel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Archaeology of Mesoamerica in ANTH at Northern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
ANTH 414 Archaeologv of Mesoamerica Studv Guide 3 Lectures 8 11 and associated readings DUE Thursdav March 5th Lecture 8 Tuesday February 17 Intro to the Vgllev of Oaxaca and the lanotecs 1 What is the orientation of San J os Mogote What is the importance of that orientation What other important site has the same orientation 8 west of north northsouth orientation of the Milky Way on the second zenith of the sun day of creation August 13 3114 bc La Venta 2 Describe the men s house or community at San J os Mogote What evidence is there that it was an important ritual structure Large plastered oor and walls altar central pit with lime probably used with ritual plantsdrugs Dr S skeptical as these are not knowncommon later in time 3 What are chiefs good at Why do we think San J os Mogote was the chief s village in the EarlyMiddle Formative in the Valley of Oaxaca raiding trading feasting marriage alliances firstcomers with good agricultural land healthy sons marriageable daughters associations with natural and supernatural forces Different size houses meeting hall neighborhoods ceramics from both ethnic groups 4 Describe the two pottery motifs found in the Valley of Oaxaca in the EarlyMiddle Formative What were they Where did they originate What might they represent Where were they found What is important about their distribution in the Valley Featheredfire serpent and werejaguar Olmecs likely represent two lineagesethnic groups differential distribution except with overlap at SJ M 5 What changes were beginning to take place in Oaxaca at the beginning of the Middle Formative 3tiered settlement growth of other centers besides SJM with their own ceremonial architecture and pottery styles 6 What kinds of changes were taking place in the Olmec and Oaxaca areas at the end of the Middle Formative La Venta is waning SJM is waning rulers are depicted on stelea warriors in art regalritual centers in sites with pyramids and ritual orientations borderline true cities 7 What is the evidence for culturalpolitical fragmentation and con ict in the Valley of Oaxaca during the MiddleLate Formative transition Rosario Phase Different pottery styles more temples six mile noman sland in center burned temples SJM Monument 8 What is Monument 3 at San J os Mogote What does it depict Where is it located What was it likely commemorating A sacri ced man with name glyph positioned on a threshold so that he was stepped on likely a defeated enemy chief 9 What is important about the location of Monte Alban In former noman sland in the center of the Valley on a high ridge that overlooks all three sub valleysarms 10 What happened to the population in the Valley of Oaxaca after Monte Alban was established Half the Valley s population moved to Monte Alban and most villages were abandoned or greatly reduced in size 11 Why is it thought that Monte Alban might have resulted from an alliance between communities in the Valley of Oaxaca Three barrios representing people from each arm 12 What economic changes occurred with the founding of Monte Alban Massproduced pottery permanent irrigation systems agriculture in the piedmont use of tortillas as convenience food 13 What are danzantes What do they depictrepresent Monuments at Monte Alban of sacrificed people with names of the chiefs or towns defeated 14 What evidence do we have that Monte Alban was Mesoamerica s first true city 5000 people heterogeneous primate center permanent housing true markets 15 What is the downside of tortillas and reliance on maize in general Inhibits iron absorption which can lead to porotic hyerostosis more cavities more work for women 16 How are tamales and tortillas made What makes them nutritious Corn soaked in lime frees up protein niacin and calcium 17 What makes tortillas a good convenience food Why would convenience foods have been important for the people of Monte Alban Dry lightweight good if stale can use as a utensil Good for farmers workmen soldierswarriors traders to carry 18 What is a market What functions do marketplace administrators provide Where regular exchange of goods can take place Admin allocate space keep market clean arbitrate disputes collect taxes Lecture 9 Thursday February 19 The Ritual Calendar Models and Chocol 19 Why is the hexagon important to Central Place Models It is good for maximizing the use of space 20 What are some of the basic assumptions of Central Place Models A limitless homogeneous at landscape Evenly distributed resources Perfect competition in the marketplace People will minimize the distance they need to travel to get goods etc However people will travel greater distances for more durable andor valuable goods This in turn will lead to several tiers of settlement delivering different types of goods and services 21 What is the mercantile model Maximize farmland Minimize distance from farm villages to market towns Settlements are as widely spaced as possible Each farm village gets access to 3 markets Each market town gets 13 of 6 villages produce and hinterland total of 3 22 What is the administrative model Hinterland borders are closed between competing market towns Each farm village is restricted to trading with 1 market town down from 2 Each market town has exclusive rights to the produce and hinterlands of 7 villages up from 4 23 What are some of the problems in applying Central Place Models to reallife situations Hostilities and noman slands Landscape features get like mountains rivers lakes etc impede movement Empires will coopt farm villages and market towns or redirect their goodstribute Differential distribution of natural resources like farmland building stone minerals etc Specialization competition incentives etc 24 Describe the 260Day Calendar What natural phenomena might the 260Day Ritual Calendar be based upon 13 numbers x 20 day names 260 Pregnancy time between planting and harvesting or just 13 X base 20 25 How did Mesoamericans avor and consume chocolate Honey chilis vanilla achiote ear ower mostly as a beverage mole sauce or in porridge Lecture 10 Tuesdav February24 The zapotecs and Monte Alszn Continued 26 What is meant by the term institutionalized What things are institutionalized in state societies What does institutionalization guarantee Permanence classes and of ces guarantees that the upper classes will have access to resources wealth and political power 27 How are laws and physical force used in states Both the law and physical force are used by the ruling class to enforce their position visavis the lower classes courts the military religious sanctions 28 What aspects of economics are important in states Economic interdependence and regulation of economic and social relations 29 What symbolic systems are used by states Writing Calendars Numerical system Iconography of religion and rulership 30 What is the Long Count Count of years months days since the beginning of the current creation on August 13 3114 bc 31 What is an Interaction Sphere How do they develop How does it coincide with a Ceramic Sphere What else do Interaction Spheres share Interaction Spheres are made up of multiple polities that are interacting more with one another than they are with other interaction spheres a series of repeated contacts and alliances expressed through active imitation movement of potters through intermarriage giftgiving and trade or some combination of these factors Ceramic Spheres are assumed to be re ections of Interaction Spheres Elite ceramics usually the more highly decorated pots are traded within Interaction Spheres as gifts and displayed at feasts in order to advertise a ruler s contacts and in uence Interaction Spheres usually also share other artistic modes architectural styles and layouts burial traditions and artifact types 32 How do settlement patterns change in Monte Alban Ib Population in Late Formative up to 17000 Monte Alban and the Valley of Oaxaca has a three or four tiered settlement hierarchy Sites in the Oaxaca Valley are on defensible hilltops Lecture 11 Thursdav February 26 Monte Alb2 1n 11111 33 What is portrayed on Building J at Monte Alban How do they differ from the earlier danzantes Why What else is unique about Building J Has more than 40 placename hieroglyphs Often include depictions of upsidedown heads indicating defeat Change from the personal portraits of likely defeated rulerschiefs of the earlier danzantes to hieroglyphs standing for a political entity May indicate military defeat occupation andor tributary towns Odd orientation is associated with astronomical events 34 What does population loss in the Valley of Oaxaca during the Late and Terminal Formative period likely represent Population loss of about 10000 likely due to relocationcolonization of Oaxaca Valley people elsewhere 35 Why is it thought that there might be con ict between Monte Alban and Teotihuacan during the Classic period Population is more concentrated in the south Valle GrandeZaachila with site of J alieza and east Tlacolula Valley with site of Dainzu than in the north Etla Valley with San Jose Mogot Oaxacan towns are on hilltops with forti ed walls and ditches A lot of the construction appears to be defensive in nature 36 Describe Stela 1 Who does it depict What does it indicate about him 12 Jaguar is on front sitting on a huge throne with a jaguar cushion Wearing a jaguar costume Holding the staff of office The throne has two heads of lightning Zapotec rulers were said to be partially descended from the lightning god Cociyo Divine descent of 12 Jaguar Pilgrimages made by 12 Jaguar Divination statements Offerings made by 12 Jaguar 37 Describe the Estela Lisa What does it represent Does this contradict what we think we know about the relationship between Monte Alban and Teotihuacan Why or why not On the hidden lower edge is a scene of people from Teotihuacan can tell by their headdresses carrying incense pouches They are being met by 12 Jaguar who is wearing a lightning headdress In front of him is likely the Zapotec name for Monte Alban Hill of 1 Jaguar It was common in Mesoamerica for foreign dignitaries to witness inaugurations Shows them getting along rather than at war as settlement pattern and defenses indicate 38 Describe the Lapida de Bazan Who does it depict and what are they likely doing What does this say about Monte Alban s and Teotihuacan s changing relationship Two human figures and two columns of text Left ambassador from Teotihuacan holds an incense pouch stands on the name glyph 8 Turquoise Right Zapotec lord dressed as a jaguar wearing a headdress stands on the name glyph 3 Turquoise Text has not been translated but it is thought that the people Travelled Met Spoke Consulted diviners Burned incense to establish the sacred nature of their agreement Interpreted as a summit meeting between Teotihuacan and Monte Alban perhaps to come to a peace agreement allowing each to expand without interference from one another 39 In general what kinds of themes actions etc are depicted on 12 J aguar s various monuments 12 Jaguar also has other monuments that show his inauguration his captives his ancestors and his support from Teotihuacan 40 Describe the tombs of Monte Alban Why were they important to people Tombs formed the foundations of the buildings with the rooms above them serving as ancestral shrines with funerary urns to hold the ancestral life force Tombs in general during Monte Alban III were elaborate with niches for ceramic vessels and other offerings and usually murals covered the walls BONUS Lecture 8 1 What are the three major regions in the Southern Highlands Tehuacan Mixteca Oaxaca 2 What contributed to early population growth in the Valley of Oaxaca good plentiful agricultural land semiarid and warm Two new irrigation techniques pot irrigation small wells in fields and irrigation ditches from small streams 3 Why is the Valley of Oaxaca a good place for agriculture Frost is rare semiarid warm high water table plentiful good land 4 What are the three subregions of the Mixteca Region Alta Baja de la Costa 5 Why are Fabrica San J os and Huitzo important 3tiered settlement growth of other centers besides SJM with their own ceremonial architecture and pottery styles Fabrica San Jose produced salt and building stone elite female burials elite hypergamy Huitzo had its own temple and was in a contact area with TehuacanPuebla Valley and Mixteca Alta 6 What is elite hypergamy What evidence do we have of it at Fabrica San J os Marrying into a higher class than your own Richest burials are women who probably married in from SJ M 7 What is important about the architecture of Structures 1 and 2 at San J os Mogote ritual structures imported stone from 3 miles away and new technology of adobe bricks 8 What is the name of the culture of the people of the Valley of Oaxaca Zapotec 9 Describe an early Oaxacan house Wattleanddaub pine posts thatch roof storage pits could hold 1 ton of maize outdoor activity areas burials ovens middens 10 What are roller stamps What were they used for What new crop might they be tied to Round ceramic items used to decorate skin and cotton cloth Lecture 9 11 What is a primate center A center city or town that is twice as large as the nextlargest center 12 What kinds of items were used as standardized currencies in Mesoamerica Cacao beans cotton cloth copper sheets jade copal incense 13 Why do markets and calendars often go handinhand Help regulate timing of markets so that traders know where to be when 14 What are some of the predictions of Central Place Models Hexagonal patterns in settlement will form because they provide the most efficient pattern without any overlap in area Settlements will be equidistant with larger settlements farther apart than smaller settlements 15 What is the transport model Villages are mostly located where they can facilitate contact restrefuel points between market towns Each farm village has access to only 2 markets down from 3 Each market town gets 12 of 6 villages produce and hinterland total of 4 up from 3 16 Why was chocolate not eaten as candy in Mesoamerica No mechanical mills sugar or milk 17 What archaeological evidence do we have of cacao consumption Hieroglyphic writing residue in pots illustrations on pottery etc Lecture 10 18 What is the basic description of the Mesoamerican number system Dot 1 Bar 5 Base 20 system Zero 19 What is the Solar Calendar 18 months x 20 days per month 360 days 5 unlucky extra days 20 What is the Calendar Round The Ritual Calendar of 260 days the Solar Calendar of 365 days 18980 days recurring every 52 years 21 What is at Pottery Style Zone or Ceramic Sphere What characteristics of pottery do they share A region having pottery with similar characteristics or attributes Including technology form repertoire surface treatmentdecoration 22 What are the five major Pottery Style ZonesW ares in Late Formative Mesoamerica What groups do they correspond with Hint See the maps in this lecture too Chupicuaro Wares Basin of Mexico West Mexico and north to the US Southwest Gray Wares Valley of Oaxaca and surrounding region Mira ores Wares Guatemalan Highlands Chicanel Wares Maya lowlands Usulutan Wares Southeastern Mesoamerica 23 Describe Monte Negro Why is it important In the Mixteca Alta On a defensible hilltop Has Oaxacanstyle architecture and pottery Likely an intentionally settled Oaxacan outpost 24 What sorts of things do the new LateTerminal Formative administrative centers share with Monte Alban What can be inferred from the fact that they look so similar Building J arrowshaped buildings Ishaped ball courts Colonnaded porticoes Tworoom temples 25 How does the Valley of Oaxaca change in the Terminal Classic and Postclassic periods The elites moved from the center to other sites in the Valley of Oaxaca and only returned to bury the dead More centers rise to prominence More Mixtec move into this Zapotec stronghold Lecture 11 26 What kinds of defensive construction are seen at Monte Alban and elsewhere in the Valley during the LateTerminal Formative and Classic periods 12mile long defensive wall along the northwestern side of the hill Oaxacan towns are on hilltops with forti ed walls and ditches 27 What sorts of things do the new LateTerminal Formative administrative centers share with Monte Alban What can be inferred from the fact that they look so similar Building J arrowshaped buildings Ishaped ball courts Colonnaded porticoes Tworoom temples 28 How does the Valley of Oaxaca change in the Terminal Classic and Postclassic periods The elites moved from the center to other sites in the Valley of Oaxaca and only returned to bury the dead More centers rise to prominence More Mixtec move into this Zapotec stronghold


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